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PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION: PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION By MELCON S.

LAPINA, MSCrim 4 th Place, Criminologists Licensure Board Examinations, October 1996, Manila Q1 : Q1 A system of identification which is done by drawing a figure on parts of body to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers. Bertillon System Branding and Maiming Cutting of Hand Tattooing Q2 : Q2 Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. Ancient Babylon Ancient China 14 th Century Persia Nova Scotia 24.07 Q3 : Q3 He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. John Evangelist Purkinje Sir William Herschel Dr. Henry Faulds Marcello Malpighi Q4 : Q4 The innermost layer of the epidermis where new cells are created. sebaceous layer subcutaneous layer generating layer papillae Q5 : Q5 An ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient degree from the horizontal plane; i.e., 45 or more. Recurve loop upthrust angle Q6: Q6 Following are the essential elements of a loop, EXCEPT core sufficient recurve delta ridge count across a looping ridge Q7: Q7 Consists of at least one recurving ridge, or an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow, with two deltas, between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, no recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. central pocket loop accidental plain whorl double loop

Q8: Q8 That point on a ridge at or in front of and nearest the center of the divergence of the type lines. focal point bifurcation delta core Q9: Q9 Rule in Blocking: Under the index fingers the appropriate capital letters should be placed for every pattern except the ulnar loop plain whorl radial loop double loop Q10: Q10 In the classification line, the order should be primary, secondary, subsecondary , final, key, major major, key, primary, secondary, subsecondary final key, major, primary, secondary, subsecondary , final primary, secondary, subsecondary , major, key, final Q11: Q11 The total possible primary classifications from 1 over 1 to 32 over 32. 2,024 1,500 1,024 3,000 Q12: Q12 Secondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \, 2 = R, 3 = \, 4 = \, 5 = \; LEFT HAND: 6 = a, 7 = /, 8 = /, 9 = /, 10 = /. R/ aU aR3r/rU2ra U/R W/W Q13: Q13 Subsecondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \; ridge count: 26 , 2 = R; ridge count: 12, 3 = W; ridge traced: O, 4 = \; ridge count: 17, 5 = \; ridge count: 12; LEFT HAND: 6 = W; ridge traced: I, 7 = W; ridge traced: M, 8 = /; ridge count: 18, 9 = W; ridge count: I, 10 = /; ridge count 15. MOI/OOO OOO/MOI IMO/IOI IOI/IMO Q14: Q14 This can be eliminated if a Small Letter Classification was possible. primary key final major Q15: Q15 When may whorl be ridge counted instead of ridge traced? final major primary key

Q16: Q16 It is obtained by counting the ridges of the first loop appearing on the fingerprint card (beginning with the right thumb), exclusive of the little fingers which are never considered for the key as they are reserved for the final. primary key final major 24.07.2012 answer Q17: Q17 A second classification system currently in use in the United States. National Crime Information Council National Center for Crime Information National Crime Information Center National Council for Information on Crime 24.07.2012 answer Q18: Q18 What is the classification of the finger that cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy as to the: General type of pattern Ridge tracing Ridge count general classification and subclassification is that of the corresponding finger of the other hand. primary value of the pattern of the corresponding finger and the subclassification value as indicated by the ridges of partially scarred impressions. ridge count or tracing value of the corresponding finger of the other hand, if the corresponding finger is of the same general type. whorls with meeting tracings. 24.07.2012 answer Q19: Q19 The approximate height of the inking area and cardholder from the floor. 39" 50" 30" 40" 24.07.2012 answer Q20: Q20 Found all over the body but higher density on friction ridge surfaces (palms & soles). Eccrine glands Sebaceous glands Apocrine glands Endocrine glands 24.07.2012 answer Q21: Q21 This technique should be used as a last process. Development takes place after exposing the treated material with strong light such as ultraviolet light. Iodine fuming Ninhydrin Physical developer Silver nitrate 24.07.2012 answer Q22: Q22 If a fingerprint is visible, an effort should be made to photograph it before any attempt is made to develop it. In every case a print developed with powder should be Lifted before photographing Photographed before lifting Lifted and placed in backing card before photograhing Wrapped in plastic before photographing 24.07.2012 answer Q23: Q23 A digital imaging system used to obtain, store and compare fingerprint data for law enforcement purposes. AFIS Biometrics IBIS Digital comparison 24.07.2012 answer Q24: Q24 In fingerprint comparison, the ridge characteristics of the questioned print will be compared with ridge characteristics of the standard print. A point of similarities must be properly established to obliterate some doubts. In the Philippines, the points of identity is 12 16 17 15 24.07.2012 answer Q25: Q25 The questioned prints and the standard print must be enlarged (photographed) in 8" x 8" 8" x 10" 10" x 10" 12" x 12" 24.07.2012 answer Q26: Q26 A forensic identification science that is associated with all of the ridges on the volar areas and not just on finger tips. Dactylography Dactyloscopy Poroscopy Ridgeology 24.07.2012 answer Q27: Q27 When two complementary strands of DNA are hybridized or bound together a ladder like structure is formed. Because of the three dimensional structure of the chemical components in the backbone, a spiral configuration results. This natural state of DNA is called Double helix Double strands Double spiral Double coil 24.07.2012 answer Q1 :

Q1 A system of identification which is done by drawing a figure on parts of body to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers. Bertillon System Branding and Maiming Cutting of Hand Tattooing 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: Topic: Past Systems of ID Branding and even maiming were used to mark the criminal; Cutting of hand of thief; Tattooing to identify and prevent desertion of mercenary soldiers; 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: Topic: Past Systems of ID Visual memories (camera eyes) to identify previously arrested offenders by sight; Photography Bertillon System: (1) photograph, (2) portrait parle , (3) anthropometry; proven inaccurate in Will and William West Case 24.07.2012 Next Question Q2 : Q2 Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. Ancient Babylon Ancient China 14 th Century Persia Nova Scotia 24.07.2012 Topic: Prehistoric Fingerprinting: Topic: Prehistoric Fingerprinting Nova Scotia - picture writing of hand with ridge patterns Babylon fingerprints were used on clay tablets for business transactions. Ancient China thumb prints were found on clay seals. 14th century Persia - various official government papers had fingerprints (impressions) 24.07.2012 Next Question Q3 : Q3 He discussed fingerprints as a means of personal identification, and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. He is also credited with the first fingerprint identification of a greasy fingerprint left on an alcohol bottle. John Evangelist Purkinje Sir William Herschel Dr. Henry Faulds Marcello Malpighi 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) described: Innumerable little ridges, of equal bigness on ends of first joints of fingers Sweat pores, epidermal ridges & their arrangements Govard Bidloo (1685) illustrated friction ridge & pore structure on underside of fingers; did not mention individuality of friction ridges Marcello Malpighi (1686) Treatise: ridges, spirals, & loops; Malpighi layer layer of skin approximately 1.88mm thick. 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities J.C.A. Mayer (1788) 1 st to state repetitiveness & similarity of friction ridge patterns, & non-duplication of ridges John Evangelist Purkinje (1823) Thesis: 9 fingerprint patterns; no mention about personal identification. Inez Whipple & Harris Hawthorne Wilder (1904) explained: Development and origin of friction ridges Ridge configuration on volar surfaces Harold Cummins & Charles Midloo (1943) described formation & development of volar pads on human fetus 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities Alfred Hale (1952) studied cross-sections of fetal skin; described formation of friction ridges during fetal development & differential growth of friction ridges. Sir William Herschel (1856) First used fingerprints on native contracts in Jungipoor , India; no thought toward personal identification; noted that no changes in his fingerprints recorded over period of 57 years. Henry Faulds (1880) Took up study of skin furrows; contribution: (1) fingerprint: means of identification, & (2) method of classification; 1st fingerprint identification of greasy fingerprint left on alcohol bottle. 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities Gilbert Thompson (1882) Used his thumb print on document to prevent forgery first known use of fingerprints in the U.S. Alphonse Bertillon (1882) Bertillon System: Anthropometry, Photography & Portrait Parle Mark Twain (Samuel L. Clemens) (1883) Recognized value of fingerprints to personal identification in his fiction books. 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities Sir Francis Galton (1888) Fingerprints as means of identification in 1880s; originated 1 in 64 billion chance of 2 fingerprints being same; ridge characteristics minutiae or Galtons details Juan Vucetich (1891) Began fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types; made first criminal fingerprint identification in 1892 (Francis Rojas case); devised his own system of classification. 24.07.2012

Topic: Fingerprint Personalities: Topic: Fingerprint Personalities Azizul Haque & Hem Chandra Bose (1897) 2 Indian fingerprint experts credited w/ primary development of Henry System of fingerprint classification (named for their supervisor, Edward Richard Henry). Sir Edward Richard Henry (1901) Widely known for his Henry System of Classification. Dr. Henry P. DeForrest (1902) Pioneers U.S. fingerprinting. Edmond Locard (1918) Originated 12 points in arriving at individualization; advanced poroscopy as a means of identification Salil Kumar (1905-1988) advanced edgeoscopy : using specific ridge-edge shapes to supplement fingerprint individualization. 24.07.2012 Next Question Q4 : Q4 The innermost layer of the epidermis where new cells are created. sebaceous layer subcutaneous layer generating layer papillae 24.07.2012 Topic: Scientific Basis of Friction Skin Identification: Topic: Scientific Basis of Friction Skin Identification FINGERPRINT defined impression of friction ridge of all or any part of finger 24.07.2012 Tenets of Friction Skin Identification: Tenets of Friction Skin Identification Unique all areas of friction skin: totally individual. Permanent location, appearance & relationships of features remain unchanged throughout persons lifetime. 24.07.2012 Nature of Skin: Nature of Skin Skin Largest organ of human body Approx. 15-20% of body weight; occupies 2 sq. m. of surface area Relatively smooth, except (1) palmar side of hands, & (2) plantar side of feet Volar skin: biologists; friction ridge skin: fingerprint examiners; fingerprint: public 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 Stratum Corneum : a.k.a. cornified layer or horny layer; outermost layer; flat, arranged in rows as dead cells. Stratum Lucidum : a.k.a. hyalin layer; flat & translucent dead cells; appears only on palms & soles Stratum Granulosum : a.k.a. granular layer; initiates process of keratinization (dying process of cells); last of living cells. Stratum Spinosum : a.k.a. spinous layer; pickle cells many sided cells w/ spines protruding from surface. Stratum Basale : a.k.a. stratum germinativum or generating layer; creates new cells; deepest layer; parallel to basement membrane. PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 Basement Membrane Summary of Formation of Ridges: Summary of Formation of Ridges General patterns on volar areas: determined by heredity & genetic master plan. Friction ridges: randomly formed because of biological variation. Biological variations: environmental influences occurring during fetal development. 24.07.2012 Summary of Formation of Ridges: Summary of Formation of Ridges Environmental influences: pressures, stresses, & other physical factors such as disease & nutrition. Thus, no two areas of friction skin will ever be same. Identical twins may have similar friction skin patterns but their individual ridge formations will not be same. Ridges: formed & become unique & permanent during approximately 4 th mo of fetal life. 24.07.2012 Next Question Q5 :

Q5 An ending ridge of any length rising at a sufficient degree from the horizontal plane, i.e., 45 or more. recurve loop upthrust angle 24.07.2012 Topic: Fingerprint Pattern Interpretation: Topic: Fingerprint Pattern Interpretation TYPES OF PATTERNS Arch (5%): a. Plain Arch b. Tented Arch Loop (60%): a. Radial Loop b. Ulnar Loop Whorl (35%): a. Plain Whorl b. Central Pocket Loop c. Double Loop d. Accidental Loop 24.07.2012 Next Question Q6: Q6 Following are the essential elements of a loop, EXCEPT core sufficient recurve delta ridge count across a looping ridge 24.07.2012 TOPIC: LOOPS Loop : Loop 24.07.2012 Description 1 or more ridges enter upon either side, recurve , touch/pass imaginary line between delta & core, & pass out/tend to pass out upon same side ridges entered. Basic Requirements of Loop Delta Ridge count across a looping ridge Sufficient recurve Ridge Counting: Rules to Remember: Ridge Counting: Rules to Remember 24.07.2012 15 Count Loop Delta: Bifurcation Core:Spike Draw line: delta & core 1 RC per touch/cut 1 ridge: looping ridge Delta & core: not counted Fragments & dots: thick (to be counted) Bifurcation: 1 RC per fork touched Line on point of bifurcation: 2 RC PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 Types of Loops: Types of Loops 24.07.2012 Ulnar Loop (Right Hand) Description Flow of ridges: flow toward the little finger Ulna bone. Indicated by diagonal line in direction loop flows Remember: RH & D is LS LH & D is RS Types of Loops: Types of Loops 24.07.2012 Description Flow of ridges: flow toward the thumb Radius bone. Indicated by R in fingers 2 & 7 & by r in all other fingers. Remember: RH & D is RS LH & D is LS Radial Loop Right Hand Next Question Q7: Q7 Consists of at least one recurving ridge, or an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow, with two deltas, between which, when an imaginary line is drawn, no recurving ridge within the inner pattern area is cut or touched. central pocket loop accidental plain whorl double loop 24.07.2012 TOPIC: WHORL WHORL: WHORL Used in deriving primary classification At least 2 deltas Recurve in front in each All whorl types: Whorl; Designation: W 24.07.2012 Plain Whorl: Plain Whorl 24.07.2012 Description 2 deltas at least 1 ridge making complete circuit or variant of circle Imaginary line: delta delta cut/touch at least 1 recurving ridge within inner pattern area. Simplest form of whorl Most common whorl W: general & extension classif Warning: Plain Whorl: Warning: Plain Whorl Recurving ridge with appendage in line of flow: not circuit Appendage: spoil recurve on that side Pattern: Not whorl but loop 24.07.2012 appendage Central Pocket Loop Whorl: Central Pocket Loop Whorl 24.07.2012 Description 2 deltas At least 1 ridge: complete circuit spiral, oval, circular, variant of circle Obstruction at right angle Imaginary line (delta & core): NOT cutting/touching recurving ridge within inner pattern area For extension purposes W: general classif ; C: extension No recurve in front of delta in inner pattern area: obstruction at right angles to line of flow suffices

Inner Line of Flow: Inner Line of Flow 24.07.2012 Inner line of flow: Imaginary line between inner delta & center of innermost recurve or looping ridge. Obstruction at Right Angle Rule: Obstruction at Right Angle Rule 24.07.2012 No recurve in front of delta in inner PA: A MUST obstruction @ right angles to line of flow (ORALOF) No ORALOF: Loop ORALOF: curved ORALOF: straight ORALOF: not dot Right angle rule: only in obstruction Recurve /obstruction: no appendage in line of flow Recurve /obstruction w/ appendage in line of flow Double Loop: Double Loop 24.07.2012 Description 2 separate loop formations, 2 separate and distinct sets of shoulders, 2 deltas No RC needed Appendage rule in loop applies S type whorls, interlocking loops, & 1 loop inside another: Plain whorl For extension purpose W: general classif ; D: extension Separat e: not unconnected; 2 loops may be connected by appendage (not at right angles between shoulders of recurve ) S Type: S Type 24.07.2012 Interlocking Type: Interlocking Type 24.07.2012 Accidental : Accidental 24.07.2012 Description Type 1 combination of 2 different types of pattern plain arch: not included 2 or more deltas Type 2 pattern: w/ some requirements for 2 or more different types Type 3 pattern: conforms to none of definitions Combinations: L + T; L + W; L + C; D + C, etc. Exceedingly unusual patterns not defined in any other classes Ridge Tracing: Ridge Tracing 24.07.2012 Trace: left delta to point opposite right delta Count intervening ridges: RT & right delta. Inner (I) = 3 or + ridges inside right delta Outer (O) = 3 or + ridges outside right delta Meeting = -3 ridges inside or outside right delta Ridge Tracing: Ridge Tracing 24.07.2012 Tracing always on left delta; not on type line. Exception: type line next lower ridge after RT breaks Delta: 1 st recurve continue toward right delta RT ends abruptly & definitely: next lower ridge Short breaks : not definite ridge endings Ridge Tracing: Ridge Tracing 24.07.2012 RT bifurcates: lower limb/branch followed 3 or + deltas: extreme deltas RT in d & X: stop tracing on nearest point to right delta on upward trend No upward trend: tracing to point opposite right delta/delta itself Next Question Q8: Q8 That point on a ridge at or in front of and nearest the center of the divergence of the type lines. focal point bifurcation delta core 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Rules In Selecting Typelines , Delta, & core Type Lines: Type Lines 24.07.2012 Type Lines 2 innermost ridges start parallel diverge surround/tend to surround pattern area (PA) Not always continuous Definite break continuation: immediate ridge outside May be very short 2 forks of bifurcation: not type lines Bifurcation forking/dividing of 1 line into 2/more branches Divergence spreading apart of 2 lines running parallel/nearly parallel Exception: forks run parallel after bifurcating & diverge Angular formation : not type line Pattern Area: Pattern Area 24.07.2012 Description Only part of finger impression for interpretation & classification Present in L s & W s Impossible to define: A s & T s Part of L/W: cores, deltas, & ridges for classification Enclosed by type lines Enclosed focal points: delta & core

Delta : Delta 24.07.2012 Description Point on ridge - (1) at or (2) in front of or (3) nearest center of: DIVERGENCE OF type lines Webster 4 th Letter of Greek Alphabet Phoenician name for corresponding letter Greek: alluvial deposit at mouth of Nile (Delta of the Nile) Bifurcation Abrupt ending ridge Dot Short ridge Meeting of 2 ridges Point on 1 st recurving ridge nearest to center & in front of divergence of type lines Types of Delta Rules: Choice of 2/+ Deltas Not @ bifur not opening toward core Bifur & another: bifur selected 2/+ possible deltas conforming to definition: nearest core chosen Not in mid of ridge between type lines toward core; nearer end only Delta : Delta 24.07.2012 Dot: delta Bifurcations: not delta; do not open toward core Dot: not delta; line D not type line Line D: not type line; not running parallel to type line AA Line E: not type line; not running parallel to type line A A End of ridge E: delta; nearest to center of divergence of type lines Core : Core Definition: approximate center of finger impression Rules in Selecting Core of Loop: Upon/within innermost sufficient recurve (ISR) ISR: no ending ridge/rod rising as high as shoulders of loop (RAHASOL) shoulder farther from delta: core 24.07.2012 Core : Core Rules in Selecting Core of Loop: ISR: uneven # of rods RAHAS end of center rod (touching looping ridge/not): core ISR: even # of rods RAHAS end of farther 1 of 2 center rods (2 center rods treated as recurving ridge): core 24.07.2012 Core: Rules in Interlocking Loops: Core: Rules in Interlocking Loops 24.07.2012 Shoulder line crossing exactly at point of intersection of 2 loops: 2 loops as 1 w/ 1 rod core @ rod Shoulder line above point of intersection of 2 loops: 2 loops as 1 w/ 2 rods core farther from delta Shoulder line below point of intersection of 2 loops: 2 loops as 1 w/ 2 rods core farther from delta 2 loops as 1 w/ 2 rods core farther from delta Next Question Q9: Q9 Rule in Blocking: Under the index fingers the appropriate capital letters should be placed for every pattern except the ulnar loop plain whorl radial loop double loop 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Classification Formula & Extension Classification Formula: Classification Formula Blocking out 1 st step in classifying; identifying pattern types of all 10 fingers Index Fingers (2 & 7): capital letter; ulnar loop diagonal line slanting in direction of loop Arch: A Tented Arch: T Radial Loop: R 24.07.2012 Classification Formula: Classification Formula Blocking out Other fingers: small letter; ulnar loops diagonal line slanting in direction of loop (arch a; tented arch t; radial loop r) All types of whorls: W 24.07.2012 Primary Classification: Primary Classification 24.07.2012 16 16 8 8 4 4 2 2 1 1 A.k.a. whorl division (appearance of whorl) Constants: (1) Numerical value; (2) +1 +1 +1 EveNumerator (M) _+ 1 OdDenominator (W) + 1 Possible Primary combinations: 1,024 No whorls in N = value: 1; no whorls in D = value: 1 See Example #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 Next Question Q10: Q10 In the classification line, the order should be primary, secondary, subsecondary , final, key, major major, key, primary, secondary, subsecondary final key, major, primary, secondary, subsecondary , final primary, secondary, subsecondary , major, key, final 24.07.2012 Classification Line: Classification Line 24.07.2012 Next Question Q11:

Q11 The total possible primary classifications from 1 over 1 to 32 over 32. 2,024 1,500 1,024 3,000 24.07.2012 Next Question Q12: Q12 Secondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \, 2 = R, 3 = \, 4 = \, 5 = \; LEFT HAND: 6 = a, 7 = /, 8 = /, 9 = /, 10 = /. R/ aU aR3r/rU2ra U/R W/W 24.07.2012 Secondary Classification: Secondary Classification 24.07.2012 Capital Letter Type of pattern on #s 2 & 7 25 possible combinations Right of Primary in classification formula Right hand over left hand See Example Secondary Classification: Small Letter Group: Secondary Classification: Small Letter Group Small letter patterns of ART: arches, radial loops, & tented arches on fingers No. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 Dash (-): absence of ART/between 2 small letters No dash (-) in thumbs if they are not ART If 2 or + small letter patterns exist consecutively, number used indicating series Important to classification system: infrequent occurrence (approx. 710% of all patterns) Presence: subsecondary classification & major division no longer taken 24.07.2012 See Example Next Question Q13: Q13 Subsecondary classification: RIGHT HAND: 1 = \; ridge count: 26 , 2 = R; ridge count: 12, 3 = W; ridge traced: O, 4 = \; ridge count: 17, 5 = \; ridge count: 12; LEFT HAND: 6 = W; ridge traced: I, 7 = W; ridge traced: M, 8 = /; ridge count: 18, 9 = W; ridge traced: I, 10 = /; ridge count 15. MOI/OOO OOO/MOI IMO/IOI IOI/IMO 24.07.2012 Subsecondary Classification: Subsecondary Classification a.k.a. grouping of loops & whorls Subdivision of secondary classif when no small-letters appear FBI system: use this division in cumbersome small-letter groups Concerned fingers: 2,3,4,7,8,&9 Loops = ridge counted Whorls = ridge traced 24.07.2012 Subsecondary Classification: Subsecondary Classification Symbol Index (2 & 7) Middle (3 & 8) Ring (4 & 9) I = Inner 1 9 1 10 1 13 O = Outer 10 or + 11 or + 14 or + 24.07.2012 Symbol Tracing I = Inner RT going inward right delta; 3 or + intervening ridges O = Outer RT going outward right delta; 3 or + intervening ridges M = Meeting RT going in & out r ight delta; 3 intervening ridges Table for Loop Table for Whorl Subsecondary Classification: Subsecondary Classification 24.07.2012 Right Hand = # 2 (RC:12= O ) # 3 (RT: O ) # 4 (RC:17= O ) Left Hand = # 7 (RT: M ) # 3 (RC: 18= O ) # 4 (RT: I ) OOO MOI Next Question Q14: Q14 This can be eliminated if a Small Letter Classification was possible. primary key final major 24.07.2012 This holds true with subsecondary classif Major Division: Major Division Concerns: thumbs, loops & whorls Whorls: RT=I, O, & M Loops: RC=S, M, & L Both thumbs loops = consider left thumb 1 st ; RC of left thumb determines table for right thumb. 24.07.2012 Major Division : Major Division 24.07.2012 Symbol Ridge Count S = Small 1 11 M = Medium 12 16 L = Large 17 or + Symbol Ridge Count S = Small 1 17 M = Medium 18 22 L = Large 23 or + Always for left thumb Right thumb: RC of Left Thumb 17 Right thumb: RC of Left 17 or + Table 1 Table 2 Major Division: Major Division 24.07.2012 Consider first left thumb: RC = 18 Refer to the table (1) or left thumb Symbol Ridge Count S = Small 1 11 M = Medium 12 16 L = Large 17 or + RC for Left Thumb: 17 or +, Table 2 for Right Thumb Symbol Ridge Count S = Small 1 17 M = Medium 18 22 L = Large 23 or + L L Next Question Q15:

Q15 When may whorl be ridge counted instead of ridge traced? final major primary key 24.07.2012 Topic: Final Classification Final Classification: Final Classification RC of loop of right little finger Things to remember: L/L = # 5 L/W= # 5 W/L = # 10 W/W= # 5; whorl treated as Ulnar Loop Use of whorl for final: only in large group or collection of prints = 32/32 primary No L or W = no final 24.07.2012 Final Classification: Final Classification Rules: Whorl Treated as Ulnar Loop RC: left delta to core (right hand) RC: right delta to core (left hand) RC (X): left delta (right hand) to core w/ least # of ridges distant from delta . RC (X): right delta (left hand) to core w/ least # of ridges distant from delta . RC (d): delta to core of upright loop . RC (d): horizontal loop; nearest core 24.07.2012 See Example Next Question Q16: Q16 It is obtained by counting the ridges of the first loop appearing on the fingerprint card (beginning with the right thumb), exclusive of the little fingers which are never considered for the key as they are reserved for the final. primary key final major 24.07.2012 Topic: Key Classification Key Classification: Key Classification First loop appearing from #1 except # 5 & # 10 Always placed to extreme left of numerator of classification formula 24.07.2012 Extensions: Extensions used only when filing systems become too large or Cumbersome WCDX Extension: Used for large Whorl Groups such as: 32/32 W,C,D,X (capital letters) whorl pattern on index fingers. w, c, d, x (lower case letters) whorl pattern on all other fingers. Placed above the sub-secondary (instead of using a second sub-secondary). 24.07.2012 Extensions : Extensions 2 nd Subsecondary : used when a group of fingerprints becomes too cumbersome and unwieldy. Placed directly above the Sub-Secondary. Use the following chart (based on ridge counts): Index 1-5=S, 6-12=M, 13 or +=L; Middle 1 8 = S, 914 = M, 15 or + = L; Ring 110=S, 1118=M, 19 or more=L 24.07.2012 Next Question Q17: Q17 A second classification system currently in use in the United States. National Crime Information Council National Center for Crime Information National Crime Information Center National Council for Information on Crime 24.07.2012 Topic: NCIC Classification NCIC Classification: NCIC Classification Eliminates person as suspected wanted person Less subject to error in transmission than Henry Classification Convertible to Henry Classification for searching fingerprint files Printed in straight line of 20 alphabetic & numeric characters (from #1 - #10) 2 characters each finger 24.07.2012 PowerPoint Presentation: 24.07.2012 Pattern Subgroup Code Arch Plain Arch AA Tented Arch TT Loop Radial Loop RC + 50 Ulnar Loop RC; if less than 10: precede w/ 0. Whorl Plain Whorl P + RT Central Pocket Loop C +RT Double Loop d + RT Accidental X + RT Missing or Amputated Finger XX Completely Scarred or Mutilated Pattern SR See Example next Q18: Q18 What is the classification of the finger that cannot be determined with reasonable accuracy as to the: General type of pattern Ridge tracing Ridge count general classification and subclassification is that of the corresponding finger of the other hand. primary value of the pattern of the corresponding finger and the subclassification value as indicated by the ridges of partially scarred impressions. ridge count or tracing value of the corresponding finger of the other hand, if the corresponding finger is of the same general type. whorls with meeting tracings. 24.07.2012 Topic: Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth:

Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth 24.07.2012 Classification of Scarred Patterns General Pattern Ridge Tracing Ridge Counting Not Determinable Not Determinable Not determinable Gen Type Subclassif Opposite finger Rule # 1 (So) Scarred Impression Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth: Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth 24.07.2012 Classification of Scarred Patterns Rule # 2 Partially Scarred General Type Not Determinable Large scar around core General Pattern not determinable RC or RT determinable Gen Type of Opposite Finger Subclassif of Partially Scarred Impressions Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth: Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth 24.07.2012 Classification of Scarred Patterns General Pattern Ridge Tracing Ridge Counting Determinable Not Determinable Not determinable RT/RC: Opp. finger if of same Gen Type Rule # 3 Partially Scarred General Type Determinable SR impression: given probable value if opp. finger not of same Gen Type Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth: Classification of Scarred PatternsAmputationsMissing at Birth 24.07.2012 Classification of Scarred Patterns General Pattern RT/RC Opp. Finger Similarly Scarred Not Determinable Not Determinable Not determinable Whorls Meeting Rule # 4 (So) Scarred Impression: Gen Type & RT/RC Not Determinable Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 The pattern is entirely obliterated. It could have been a small whorl, a small ulnar or radial loop, an arch, or a tented arch. 1. If the opposite finger were an arch, this impression would be classified as a. arch , b. tented arch , c. whorl (with the same tracing) d. ulnar loop , e. radial loop Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 2. If the opposite finger were a small-count loop, this would be classified as a. loop of fixed count , b. loop of same count , c. loop of different count , d. loop of opposite count Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 3. If the opposite finger were a large-count loop, this impression would be given the a. count of scarred finger , b. count of the next finger , c. count of the opposite finger , d. count of the preceding finger Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 4. If the opposite finger were scarred in the same fashion or were amputated or missing, both impressions would be classified as a. arches , b. ulnar loops with 10 ridge counts , c. radial loops with 10 ridge counts , d. whorls with meeting tracings Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 The general type of the pattern could have been loop (ulnar if in the right hand) or whorl. 5. If the opposite finger were a whorl this would be classified as a. whorl with meeting tracing , b. whorl with inner tracing , c. whorl with outer tracing , d. whorl with same tracing Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 6. If a radial loop were opposite, this would be classified as a. radial loop (if in the right hand) , b. radial loop (if in the left hand) , c. ulnar loop (if in the right hand) , d. ulnar loop (if in the left hand) Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 The ridge count can be obtained with a fair degree of accuracy. 7. If an arch or tented arch were opposite, this impression would be classified as a. arch , b. loop , c. whorl , d. SR Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 The ridge count can be obtained with a fair degree of accuracy. The ridge count cannot be determined accurately but it would be classified as a loop, no matter what the opposite finger might be. 8. If the opposite finger were a loop with a count of from 6 to 17, this impression would be given a. that count , b. different count , c. opposite count , d. no count Application of Rules:

Application of Rules 24.07.2012 9. If the count of the opposite loop were 9, the count for this finger would be given a. Inner (I) , b. Outer (O) , c. Small (S) , d. Medium (M) , e. Large (L) in the subsecondary classification. Application of Rules: Application of Rules 24.07.2012 10. What is the classification of the patterns? a. arches , b. loops , c. whorls , d. SR Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth Rule # 1: 1 or more amputations filed separately Rule # 2: Definite & unequivocal statement of amputations/missing at birth 24.07.2012 Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 AMP Rule # 3: 1 finger AMP, classif . of opp. finger Gen Pattern, RT/RC & referenced to every other possible classification Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 AMP Rule # 4: 2 or more fingers AMP, classifs . identical w/ fingers opp. no additional references AMP AMP Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 AMP Rule # 5: 2 AMP opp. each other, classifs of whorls meeting tracings. AMP Whorl, Meeting Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 AMP/ MAB Rule # 6: Missing at birth (MAB), same treatment with AMP. Rule # 7: 10 fingers MAB/AMP - AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 Rule # 8: Both hands AMP/MAB, FOOTPRINTS taken AMP/ MAB AMP/ MAB Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 Partially AMP Rule # 9: Partially AMP (1/2 or of Pattern Missing), classif of opp. finger. Filed in amputation group Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth: Classification of Amputations & Fingers Missing at Birth 24.07.2012 Partially AMP Rule # 10: Tip AMP or 1/2 of 1 st joint AMP, classif of opp. finger. Filed in nonamputation group. Classification of Bandaged or Imprinted Fingers: Classification of Bandaged or Imprinted Fingers Rule # 1: Temporary injury, if possible not taken until after healing Rule # 2: Injured fingers (inked impressions impossible to secure): classifs of opp. fingers Rule # 3: Only 1 finger lacking, reference searches conducted in every possible classif Rule # 4: one finger lacking, classifs of opp. fingers; no reference searches Rule # 5: 2 lacking opp. fingers, whorls with meeting tracings 24.07.2012 Next Question Q19: Q19 The approximate height of the inking area and cardholder from the floor. 39" 50" 30" 40" 24.07.2012 Topic: How To Take Inked Fingerprints Equipment Needed: Equipment Needed Inking plate (6 in wide x 14 in long) Cardholder Printers ink (heavy black paste) Roller (6 in long & 2 in diameter) Other Supplies FP Cardstock: 8 x 8 in 24.07.2012 Procedural Matters: Procedural Matters Rolled impressions upper 10 prints taken individually Rolling of fingers side-side to obtain all available ridge detail Plain/Fixed impressions smaller impressions at bottom of card; taken simultaneously w/out rolling Focal points clearly printed: accurate ridge counts & tracings 24.07.2012

Procedural Matters: Procedural Matters Subject stands in front of & at forearm's length from inking plate Inking of bulb: from tip to below first joint Ink & print each finger separately Rolling of thumbs: toward center of subjects body (rotated from awkward to easy position) Rolling of fingers: away from center of subjects body (rotated from awkward to easy posit ion) Subject: cautioned to relax & refrain to help operator 24.07.2012 Procedural Matters: Procedural Matters Operator: LEFT of subject when printing RIGHT HAND; RIGHT of subject when printing LEFT HAND 24.07.2012 Next Question Q20: Q20 Found all over the body but higher density on friction ridge surfaces (palms & soles). Eccrine glands Sebaceous glands Apocrine glands Endocrine glands 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Latent Prints Types of Prints: Types of Prints Patent Prints visible prints; due to paint, ink, mud, or dust 24.07.2012 Types of Prints: Types of Prints Latent Prints undetectable until brought out w/ physical or chemical process designed to enhance latent print residue. 24.07.2012 Types of Prints: Types of Prints Plastic Print created when substrate is pliable enough at time of contact to record 3D aspects of friction skin. Surfaces: clay, putty, soft wax, melted plastic, heavy grease, and tacky paint 24.07.2012 Deposition Factors: Deposition Factors Pre-Transfer Conditions affected by age, gender, stimuli, occupation, disease, & any substances touched prior to deposition. Transfer Conditions also dictate whether suitable impression will be left Post-Transfer Conditions a.k.a. environmental factors; forces that affect the quality of latent prints after deposition. 24.07.2012 Surface Types: Surface Types Porous Substrate absorbent Paper, cardboard, wood, & other forms of cellulose Fingerprints absorb into substrate & are durable Amino acids: stationary & not migrate; amino acid based developing techniques more useful 24.07.2012 Surface Types: Surface Types Nonporous surfaces not absorbent; repel moisture & appear polished Glass, metal, plastics, lacquered or painted wood, and rubber Susceptible to damage; FP residue on outermost surface Best developing techniques: Cyanoacrylate (CA), dye stains, powders, & vacuum metal deposition 24.07.2012 Surface Types: Surface Types Semiporous surfaces resist & absorb FP residue Glossy cardboard, glossy magazine covers, some finished wood, and some cellophane Treatment: processes intended for both nonporous & porous surfaces 24.07.2012 Surface Types: Surface Types Textured surfaces problem of incomplete contact between friction ridge skin & surface being touched. Fingerprints being discontinuous & lacking fine detail when developed Ex: pebbled plastic Treatment: very fine powder or flexible lifting media 24.07.2012 Production of Sweat: Production of Sweat Eccrine Apocrine Sebaceous 24.07.2012 Sudoriferous Glands Next Question Q21:

Q21 This technique should be used as a last process. Development takes place after exposing the treated material with strong light such as ultraviolet light. Iodine fuming Ninhydrin Physical developer Silver nitrate 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Developing Techniques Important Preliminaries: Important Preliminaries Elimination prints inked prints of all members of household, employees, and any police or other officials who may have touched objects on which the latent impressions were found Purpose of Development: to make it visible so that it may be preserved and compared 24.07.2012 Latent Print Powders: Latent Print Powders One of oldest & most common methods of latent print detection Dont Brush/Powder: dust, greasy prints, bloody prints & wet prints Powder used: contrast color of surface Gray: dark-colored surfaces; mirrors/metal surfaces Black: white/light-colored surfaces 24.07.2012 Latent Print Powders: Latent Print Powders Powder used: contrast color of surface Aluminum: same as gray Gold & red bronze: photograph dark; light colored-surfaces Dragons blood: light/dark-colored surface Chief faults of beginners: too much powder & too little brushing Prints lifted after photographing Prints lifted on rubber tape: reverse position Not recommended on paper, cardboard, and newly finished or unpainted wood 24.07.2012 Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions: Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions Handling specimens: tweezers/gloves Iodine Fuming : Slight heat vaporizes iodine crystals Violet fumes Fumes absorbed by fatty/oily matter Yellowish-brown Not permanent; fades when fuming stops Photograph prints immediately Iodine gun/fuming chamber 24.07.2012 Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions: Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions Ninhydrin : reacts with primary & secondary amines such as amino acids & proteins Dark purple product a.k.a. Ruhemanns Purple Has developed prints as old as 40 years Method: (1) spray, (2) soaking 24.07.2012 Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions: Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions Silver Nitrate For porous surfaces Reacts with silver chloride Reddish-brown against background Known to wash off traces of fat & oil; should be applied last Methods: (1) Dip specimen in solution, (2) blot & dry it, (3) expose to light, & (4) photograph latent prints when contrast is good 24.07.2012 Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions: Chemical Development of Latent Print Impressions Super glue fuming For nonporous surfaces A.k.a. cyanoacrylate fuming Fumes polymerizes latent prints forming white deposit Method: (1) fuming chamber, (2) fuming wand ( cyanowand ), (3) vacuum chamber 24.07.2012 Optical Methods: Optical Methods Alternate Light Sources Forensic Light Source (immediate emission) LASER Reflected Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS) 24.07.2012 Next Question Q22: Q22 If a fingerprint is visible, an effort should be made to photograph it before any attempt is made to develop it. In every case a print developed with powder should be Lifted before photographing Photographed before lifting Lifted and placed in backing card before photograhing Wrapped in plastic before photographing 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Preservation Techniques Preservation Techniques: Preservation Techniques Photographing Lifting Casting 24.07.2012 Next Question Q23: Q23 A digital imaging system used to obtain, store and compare fingerprint data for law enforcement purposes. AFIS Biometrics IBIS Digital comparison 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Comparing Fingerprints: Biometrics

Comparing Fingerprints: Biometrics : Comparing Fingerprints: Biometrics 24.07.2012 Biometrics Process & Components: Biometrics Process & Components 24.07.2012 AFIS: AFIS 24.07.2012 Next Question Q24: Q24 In fingerprint comparison, the ridge characteristics of the questioned print will be compared with ridge characteristics of the standard print. A point of similarities must be properly established to obliterate some doubts. In the Philippines, the points of identity is 12 16 17 15 24.07.2012 TOPIC: Fingerprint Comparison Fingerprint Comparison Traditional Method: Points Counting: Fingerprint Comparison Traditional Method: Points Counting Likeness of general types Q & S of same fingerprint pattern; Quantitative likeness of ridge characteristics; Quantitative likeness of points of identity; & Likeness of location of ridge characteristics Same relative position in both prints; Same relative directions from each other; Same relative distance apart; & Must have same number of ridges intervening between ridge of Q & S 24.07.2012 Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology: Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology 24.07.2012 Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology: Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology 24.07.2012 ANALYSIS whether sufficient information exists to proceed to next phase Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology: Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology 24.07.2012 COMPARISON known exemplar introduced to compare w/ LP; Another ANALYSIS: determine suitability for achieving conclusion 1. Determine general ridge flow & shape ( Level 1 Detail ) 2. Select key focal characteristics ( Level 2 Detail ); understand their: position, direction & relationship; compare this to known exemplar Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology: Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology 24.07.2012 EVALUATION a.k.a. making conclusion; result of comparison Formulation of conclusion based on A & C Guidelines: (1) agreement of only 1 st level details not sufficient for evaluation of individualization, (2) agreement of 1 st -2 nd or 1 st - 3 rd level details sufficient for evaluation of individualization Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology: Fingerprint Comparison ACE-V Methodology Verification independent application of ACE process by subsequent examiner. PURPOSE: Support or refute conclusions of original examiner NATURE: Blind verification (no expectation or knowledge of prior conclusion) 24.07.2012

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