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McCarthy Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 39 (2002), pp. 173-195 Published by: American Research Center in Egypt Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40001154 . Accessed: 10/10/2012 13:09
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The Osiris Nefertari: A Case Study of Decorum, Gender, and Regeneration1
Heather Lee McCarthy
The funeraryart and literature of the ancient Egyptiansclearly demonstrate that they envisioned an afterlife existence that emulated two parallel,but interpenetrating,mythic paradigms-the "solar" and "Osirian" modes of regeneration. These two modes have temporal aspects that correspondwith, nhh respectively, (cyclical,repetitive) eternity and^ (linear, static) eternity.2 Like the solar deity, the deceased was cyclicallyreborn and renewed- a process that the Egyptians equated with the sun'scelestialjourney through the daytimesky and the darknessof the netherworld. The climax of this process was the re-emergence of the sun and the souls of the deceased from the netherworldinto the world of the living every morning.3 The cyclicaljourney that characterizedthe solar mode of regeneration also had a parallel sexual component wherein the sun god was reborn via intercourse with a goddess who had a tripartite,multigenerationalaspect.4This goddess was the solar deity'sdaughter.5She also acted as his consort and was impregnated by him in the west at sunset. The goddess then became his mother when she gave birth to the renewed and regeneratedversion of the same solar deity in the east at dawn.6This notion was expressed pictoriallyand textually in both anthropomorphicand topographical terms- the sun disk enters, gestates and leaves the body of the sky goddess or enters the western horizon and re-emergesfrom the eastern horizon7 (the cosmographiccorrelate of the goddess's vagina). The deceased was also associated with Osiris, the god of the Duat (the netherworld). Like Osiris, one aspect of the deceased- the physicalbody- dwelled in the Duat (correlatedto the burial chamber
1 This articleis an expandedversion of a paper presented at the 2001 AnnualMeetingof the AmericanResearchCenterin Egypt, held in Providence,Rhode Island. I would like to thank David O'Connor,Ann MacyRoth, and an anonymousreader for their comments. I would also like to thank Stephen Harveyfor acting as my proxy at the conference and readingthe original version of this paper in my absence. 1 EdwardF. Wente, Beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians," 24 (Winter 1982), 17-26, especiallypp. 22-24; "Funerary Expedition ErikHornung, "ZumagyptischenEwigkeitsbegriff ,"Fuf 39 (1965), 334-36; ErikHornung,trans,byJohn Baines, Conceptions of Godin AncientEgypt: TheOneand theMany(Ithaca,1990), 93-96, 183;Jan Assman,Zeitund Ewigkeit im altenAgypten (Heidelberg, 1975), 35-48. 5 Hornung, Conceptions of Godin Ancient Egypt,181. 4 Lana in Ancient Troy,Patterns of Queenship Egyptian Mythand History (Uppsala,1986), 25-30. 5 23-24. Troy,Patterns of Queenship, 6 in AncientEgypt(Cambridgeand London, 1993), 17, 41. Robins notes 27; Gay Robins, Women Troy,Patterns of Queenship, that Kamutef,the aspect of the king as the "bullof his mother,"is a manifestationof this mythicparadigm. 7 The anthropomorphic aspect of this notion is expressedby illustrationsfrom the Bookof theDayand the Bookof theNight, which appearon ceilings of Ramessideroyal tombs and depict the sun travelingthroughand emerging from the body of the The best-knownexample of this theme is on the painted sarcophaguschamberceiling of RamessesVI. See Erik sky-goddess. trans, Horizon (New York,1990), 89, pls. 54, 55, 68, 70. A vignette Hornung, by DavidWarburton, Valley of theKings: of Eternity depicting one pair of feminine arms (with a pair of attachedbreasts)holding the sun disk illustratesthe combinationof anthropomorphicand topographicalaspects of the westernhorizon, 59, 90; see also AlexanderPiankoff,"TheSkyGoddessNut and the NightJourney of the Sun," JEA 20 (1934), 57-61.
in Discussions Z1 Except for a few later burials where the deceased woman is identified with Hathor instead.13The PyramidTextsof Neith14and Wedjebten. 5. Scenes in the Tomb-chapel of Pepyankh(Heny the Black).Allen.TheAncientEgyptian Pyramid ErikHornung.However. verify that deceased royal women were also associated with the solar deity and Osiris and had the epithet "Osiris"prefixed to their names from as far back as the late Sixth Dynasty. especiallypp. 169-70. Jequier.the change from the northsouth orientationof Djoser'smortuarycomplex to the east-westorientationof the pyramidsfrom the beginning of the Fourth Dynastyonwards. 1969). "Societyand Individual KellySimpson.2000). "FatherEarth. Mother Sky:Ancient EgyptianBeliefs about Conception and Fertility. For examples of Hathor-identifiedwomen. which through the sun Osiriswas enabled to live again. RaymondO. in EarlyEgypt. and 225 for Spells 267. 10. 76-77.suggests that the associationwith the northern circumpolarstarsbecomes subordinateto the solar mode.2000). Jeqmer. TheCosmos (London. Legitimacy. 1999)." in Archaeology 21-35.21it has never been entirely clear whether the afterlife existence of women 8 in Hommages a Pyramid. 61-65. 162-65.5-28." in PeterDer Manuelian(ed.Egyptian of theOldKingdom u David O'Connor discusses the Sixth Dynastyelite tomb of Pepyankhat Meir in.15wives of PepyII. idem.Deathin Ancient Egypt(London. Fischer. 82-83. Texts. Sixth Dynastytomb at Saqqarais discussedin idem.1994). Fischer." in Janet Richardsand MaryVanBuren (eds. of Khnumhotep iy Henry G. The PyramidTexts provide unequivocal written evidence that. pls. This mode coexists with Osirianand solar modes of regenerationin the Pyramid Texts. 147-52. 173-75. however. 95."ZAS90 (1963). this event. Second Edition (New York. Reading the Body: Representationsand Remains in the ArchaeologicalRecord (Philadelphia. 1928).9The union between Osiris and the sun god was a temporarybut very important occurrence during which. Henry G. Faulkner.155-56. and In New Kingdomfunerarytexts. See AlanJ. 7-32. JamesP. 6-12. 1996). 1987). 2000). 469. 17. 3. Non-royal men and non-royal women are explicitly associated with Osiris and given the epithet "Osiris"from the Heracleopolitan Period onward. Mummies and Magic: TheFunerary Artsof AncientEgypt(Boston. 18 Janice Kamrinpresents a cosmologicalanalysisof the MiddleKingdomprovincialelite tomb of KhnumhotepII at Beni Hasan in. 98-99. "AStela of the Heracleopolitan Period at Saqqara:the Osiris Tti. Middle Egyptian: of Hieroglyphs (Cambridge. 140. 167-68. pp. 158-59. TheAncient Books 407. Pyramid of theAfterlife. 6. GayRobins. 88.2000). Faulkner. 156. 11See Texts (Oxford. "Reading y Hornung.Peter Lacovara. 61-72. 187-201 and especially. ^ Gustave desReinesNeit et Apouit(Cairo. Egyptian of theAfterlife 1 Texts Books 6. is the process by which women (either royal or elite) were regenerated. Spencer."10 occurs in the midst of the netherworld. especially 17. especiallypp. 1982).).1999).an event that recharged the battery of the regenerativemechanism." aJeanLeclant. Order. respectively. and pl. (Ithaca. 133. see Sue D'Auria.20 Less straightforward. 187-89. EgyptianWomen.LesPyramides lb Gustave (Cairo. especiallypp. . 3.). 46-48. and 570. Ancient EgyptianSexuality. Egyptian 6 There was also a third mode of afterlifeexistence in which the deceased king unites with the northern circumpolarstars. multigenerational role for the deceased male Egyptian that the tripartitegoddess played for the solar deity. Hornung. "Sexuality.174 JARCE XXXIX (2002) of the tomb8) and awaited nightly rebirth and renewal effected by a syncretic union with the solar deity. iU An Introduction to theLanguage and Culture James P.p. See Ann Macy Roth. female family members (mothers.Ancient Especially Pyramid spell 219.Allen. at least as far back as the Fifth Dynasty. especiallyp. 36ff. 24-25 and fig. 35-41. Although deceased women were explicitly associatedwith Osiris and the solar deity from the Old Kingdom onwards. 5-8. Rautman(ed. 142. 621-33. BdE 106 (Paris. 42-51. 154-56.CatherineRoehrig (eds. Studies in Honorof William Volume2 (Boston.16 David O'Connor's17 analysesof the programsof two late Old Kingdomelite tombs andJanice Kamrin's18study of a Middle Kingdom elite tomb persuasivelydemonstrate that the afterlife existence of non-royalmale Egyptianswas determined by the same mythic paradigmsthat structure the afterlife existence of kings. 139-40. wives. Statuaryand the Afterlife. "Erosin Egypt. "from Osiris the sun received the power of new life. in James Allen's words.) and Rita Freed (supervisor).was a criticalmoment in this process. zu in Egyptology 11 (1988). 76.La Pyramide D'Oudjebten 10 Women andHeracleopolitan Period. Pepyankh is discussedagainin idem. and daughters) depicted in the tomb programs of elite men could be envisioned playing the same sexual. 118-19. 199.19In addition. and Wealth in Ancient States(Cambridge.). Mereruka's Odyssey (September/October2001). 1933). 49-50. deceased pharaohs were automaticallyequated with both the sun god11and Osiris12by virtue of their kingly status and were believed to experience the correspondingmodes of regeneration and renewal. pls. 14-28. 6. Conceptions of Godin Ancient Egypt." in Alison E. especiallypp.
how this process was enacted. of Pepi II appearsin the tombs of his wives.TaSet line Necropole de Thebes-Ouest et SonHistoire (Cairo. like kings. for that matter) in the princes' tombs.30The logical inference of Roth's statement is that relative status alone did not determine whether a king was portrayedin the tombs of his relatives. "TheAbsent Spouse:Patternsand Taboosin EgyptianTombDecoration.the Valleyof the Queens in western Thebes. Zb and Ty-ti and TheirTombs Roth. because images and cartouches of RamessesII are prominentlydisplayedin the decorativeprogramof KV5.29 She argues that the "absent husband"phenomenon in this case was not directed by a proscriptionagainst depicting higher status individuals within the tombs of lower-statusdeceased family members. the figure of her husband.ed." JARCE 23In the late Third or early Fourth Dynastytomb of Atet at Meydum." Queens: Nefert-ari 's tomb. Hatshepsutand Tawosret. could be depicted in the tombs of royal sons28). 85. the Ramesside royalwomen's tombs in the Valleyof the Queens.For if status alone were the determinant. is shown trappingbirds. 60. namely. 25Roth.that in starkcontrast to the exclusion of RamessesII from his wife's tomb. The purpose of the present article is to offer a possible solution to the question of how royal women were regeneratedby using the Theban tomb (QV 66) of Nefertari.and neither Mereruka's name nor his image appearsthere.omitted the figure (and sometimes the name25)of the husband. as a rule. 45-49. either. a king'sdaughter. A section of the earlySixthDynastytomb of the vizierMereruka at Saqqara is devoted entirely Spouse. 69b. "Absent 49. Roth has observed that. 56. the "family mausoleum" which served as the burial place for a number of this king'ssons. 1909). This practice seems to be exclusive to the RamessidePeriod. 55-94. especiallyfigs. Brock.the most prominent of the 22Ann 36 (1999). . 37-53. it is not clear whether she needed a tripartite goddess figure to make her rebirth and regeneration possible. Campbellnotes the absence of RamessesII (in both text and image) from Nefertari 27 Hornung acknowledgesthis patternin Valley of theKings."49." 45. Watetkhethor. 28See ChristianLeblanc. 12.royal women of the Eighteenth and late Nineteenth Dynasty. 48-49. KV5: A Preliminary on the Report Excavation II in the Valley of theTomb of theSonsofRameses of theKings(Cairo.or the cult places reserved for women in jointly owned tombs.. she makes a keen observation. MacyRoth. but he offers no analysis.See Roth. and.then one would not expect to see representations of the king (or queens.respectively. completely omit the names or images of their royal male kin. completed his mother'stomb and inscribedhis cartoucheson thejambs of the doorwayleading from the antechamberto the sarcophaguschamber. for a scene showing Neferou: a royalwoman offeringto Osirisin the TwentiethDynastytomb of Prince Pareherwenemef(QV 42). The examplesRoth cites are the TwentiethDynastytombs of the sons of RamessesIII in the Valley of the Queens. very elaborately decorated tombs of their own. 62." in Kent Weeks. Isis'sson. "Absent Spouse. While Roth does not suggest an explanation for this particularomission. In her examination of this pattern. The single exception to this rule is found in the twentieth Dynastytomb of Queen Isis (QV 51). the king mediates between his sons and the gods just as RamessesIII does in the tombs of his sons.23the tomb chapels owned by royal24and non-royalwomen. Roth refers.27eventhough queens. New Kingdom pharaohs are frequently depicted in the tombs of their sons. Spouse. If a deceased woman needed such assistance. with some exceptions. "AbsentSpouse. The name."49." to his wife. Nefermaat. who played the role of the tripartite goddess? A phenomenon recently discussed by Ann MacyRoth22may provide a clue to understandingthis process. 7. if so. A deceased woman could be identified with Osiris and the solar deity. See Edwin C.should be regarded as special cases because they each assumedthe role and titles of a pharaohand were given kings'burialsin the Valleyof the Kings. In many scenes. 187. "Absent 47. pl. to the conspicuous absence of Ramesses II from the tomb of Nefertari26(in fact.p. 24 Royalwomen of the Old through MiddleKingdomstend to be buried in close proximityto (or within) the pyramidenclosure of the king.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 175 involved a sexual mode of regeneration. see also Colin Campbell. and while she might be represented in her husband'sor her father's tomb playing the role of the tripartite goddess for her deceased male relatives. "Absent Spouse. even when they have separatetombs and pyramids.TwoTheban (London. The figure of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep appearsin the late Eleventh Dynastytombs of Queen Neferu and in the chapels of the six royal women buried in Mentuhotep'smortuarytemple at Deir el-Bahari. "WallDecoration.2000). 61a-c. ^ Roth. Her observationis still applicable to the period discussed here. RamessesVI. 30Roth.and large.It is not until the beginning of the Nineteenth Dynasty that royal women have both a separatenecropolis. at one point. but not the image.1989).
"inJARCE31 (1994).Patterns of Queenship.176 JARCE XXXIX (2002) great royal wives of Ramesses II. Earth. Once the queen adopted a masculine aspect and achieved a state of gender fluidity. will be studied and used as a comparandum.the rules of subordinationand a queen in both temple/cultic and funerary in the ordination representationsof the royalcouple in the SmallTemplehelp explain employed super both the omission of Ramesses II from the tomb of Nefertari and the larger process of the queen's regeneration.and re-engenderedthemselveswith the help of their own tomb images in "Father 199-200." 33 The ideologicalroles of royalwomen vis-a-vis Troy. I will address Roth's observation.MotherSky. Earth."and "FatherEarth.this article will demonstrate how the mechanism of the queen's rebirth and regeneration-effected through her assumptionof masculine regenerativepotential and her assimilationwith both Osiris and the solar deity. thought-provokingarticles. among which is the aforementioned omission of Ramesses II. kingshipand within the overarchingcosmological frame of reference are two importantconcepts examined in this innovativeand original study of royalwomen in ancient Egypt.is an important work demonstrating of Queenship that ancient Egyptianqueenship can be envisioned as the feminine half of the androgynous totality 31For a discussionof the notion of gender-related compositionaldominanceand it canonicalemploymentin Egyptianart see Gay Robins. 33-40. but will also take this idea further and define the multiple factors.hierarchicaldecorum. Among the works cited in this discussion are Roth's two recent."35 latter examines the Egypin and the tomb "absent mentioned decoration. which usefully acknowledges the complexity of the "absentspouse" pattern. The main thesis of this study is that Nefertari'spostmortem regeneration required her to attain a temporarystate of gender fluidity in which she becomes both male and female. as a case study. "The Absent Spouse: Patterns and Taboos in Ancient Egyptian Tomb Decoration. Simbel.possibly interacting with her own feminine aspect in the process. An attempt will be made to show how Egyptiannotions of male and female fertility. To this end. and the ideological role of royal women within the conceptual frameworkof kingship33propelled specific choices made in the design and content of the decorative program.34where Nefertari and a local. 35Roth. spouse"pattern previously tian conception of fertilityand the role of ancient Egyptianwomen in death and rebirth.The rationale for comparing this temple with Nefertari'stomb is that both of these monuments have exceptionally well-preservedprograms and are dedicated to the same royal woman. 32Roth first proposed the hypothesisthat deceased women assumed a masculinepostmortemidentity in addition to their feminine identity. Furthermore.MotherSky. They thus provide an unusuallyrich source of data about modes of representationdeemed appropriatefor the portrayalof /cultic contexts.she could then assimilatewith both Osiris and the solar deity. 1968). "SomePrinciplesof CompositionalDominanceand Gender Hierarchyin EgyptianArt.2 (Cairo. LanaTroy's in AncientEgyptian book Patterns Mythand History. Nubian form of the goddess Hathor were the foci of cult. Moreover. the decorative program of the Small Temple at Abu Simbel. The former deals with the Mother Sky:Ancient Egyptian Beliefs about Conception and Fertility. 34A comprehensivepublicationof the decorativeprogramand architectureof this temple is providedby ChristineDesroches-Noblecourtand CharlesKuentz.32The attainment of this state necessitated the absence of Ramesses II from her tomb." .developed an associationwith Osiris.The decorativeprogramof the SmallTempleprovidesan instructivedemonstrationof the rules of hierarchicaldecorum that govern depictions of the royalcouple's dyadicrelationship. "Father 187-201.is conveyed by the art in her tomb.Le Petit Temple d'Abou volumes 1. This would allow her to assume the chthonic fertilityof Osiris and to be reborn via what is essentially a sexual mode of regeneration (like the solar deity).including hierarchicaldecorum31-that seem to have shaped the notion of how Nefertari embarkedupon her afterlife existence and how this phenomenon was expressed in visual terms.
especiallypp. 1996). A doorwayin the north (rear)wall of Chamber C.40On the eastern side of ChamberC.a descending staircaseleads to the square first room. 22747. Nefertari: Gemahlin Ramses' II. whereasthe east-westaxis (referredto as D-Gin the present article)is more solar in its orientation. SchmidtandJ." SAK22 (1995). which lies on a diagonal. its functions. in the cosmographyof the tomb. . Reading 40All letter designationsused in this article to distinguishspatial units in QV 66 follow those employed in John K. 237-70. idem.187. because I envision a greaterconceptualintegrationbetween the spacesratherthan drawinga sharpdistinctionbetween the "solarcomplex"of the east-west axis and the more chthonic. 38Heike C. connects both sections of the tomb. "Szenarium der TransfigurationKulissedes Mythos: Das Grabder Nefertari.ChamberC. a liminal zone that the deceased and the solar deity traversedin order to enter and exit the netherworld.The second section will examine the decorativeprogram of the SmallTempleof Abu Simbel in order to demonstratehow the rules governing the representations of Ramesses II and Nefertari in this temple help explain the absence of the king from Nefertari's tomb.as a thematically chthonicarea. Another work cited here. In addition. The first part of this article will describe the tomb of Nefertari and discuss its program. 39For Allen'sdefinition of the Akhetsee. (Mainz.and into the burialchamber. Four piers support the burial chamber. a Pyramid. Goedickenotes only that there is a thematicdistinction between the more "earth-connected" upper chambersand the "strictlysepulchralsphere"of the sarcophaguschamber 36 (with the descending corridoracting as the midpoint)in. gives access to a steeply downward-sloping corridor. Schmidt.2) lies on an approximatenorth-southaxis with its entrance in the south. throughthe corridor.She envisions the areason the (relative)north-southaxis that run in a relativelystraightline from ChamberC.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 177 of kingship. I envision ChamberC as an area that evokes the Akhet. Gay Robins' 1994JARCEarticle. and its cosmographicsignificance."Architecture et EvolutionChronologiquedes Tombesde la Valleedes Reines. Schmidtoffers an interpretivediscussionof Nefertari'stomb that suggeststhe juxtapositionof solar and chthonic modes of regeneration.41 and descends to the burial chamber (K). See Valley of theKings. 36Published version of the bent-axisroyaltomb plan Hornungbelieves that the slightlybent axis of QV 66's corridoris a "diminished" revivedby RamessesII for his own tomb.1994).37These two functions. Fromthe doorway. 1. a short passageway(F). 37ChristianLeblanc. Nofretari. is conceptuallyequivalentto the Akhetand its immediate environs. The final section will discuss how the art in QV 66 provides important clues to understanding the mechanism of the queen's regeneration. A descending corridor. acting as a conceptual and physicallink between the two realms. and a rectangularchamber(G). House of Eternity: The Tombof Nefertari (Los Angeles. WilTransfiguration leitner (eds. the tomb consists of two distinct components.39 The second part is a lower-lyingburial chamber that is the cosmographic equivalent of the Dual (the netherworldrealm of Osiris and the dead)."Die der Nefertari:Ein Leben im Glanzder Sonne. 26. a doorwayleads to a complex comprised of two shallowrecesses (D and E on this plan). are conveyed by the architectureand decoration of the tomb.axis. The Tombof Nefertari36 An examination of the cosmography of the architectureand decorative program of QV 66 illustrates the tomb's two primarypurposes: 1) to enable the deceased queen to enter the netherworld and 2) to revitalizeher and thus allow her to emerge from the tomb and return to the world of the living on a dailybasis. "Some Principles of Compositional Dominance and Gender Hierarchyin EgyptianArt.38The first is an upper level that. which are analogous to the two phases of the sun'sjourney through the netherworld and the daytime sky. and she does not."explores the relationship of gender to patterns of hierarchicaldecorum in two and three-dimensionalart. McDonald.). "Osirian" axis of the north-south spaces. 104-44. east-leaning.Her interpretationdiffers from mine. of Her Tomb 1971)." BIFAO 89 (1989). Moreover."in Heike C. and a rectangular depression (oriented east-west)in the center of the room intended for the placement of the queen's Documentation and Its Decoration by Hans Goedicke and Gertrud Thausing in Nofretari: (Graz. 245-47. the tomb of Nefertari(figs. Located on the northern flank of the Y-shaped"Valley of the Queens"in western Thebes.
1989).a cosmographicallyappropriatedesignation for a chamber that communicates with the entrance doorway and the world of the living. The &a-spirit. 4) perched atop the tomb (one described in the text) graphically in westof the transformations tomb 1. it literally spells out the word "Akhet" Moreover. toward the tomb entrance."244 and 246. O. who envisions the decorative program in the first chamber as a one-wayentry of the deceased into the realm of Osiris. Faulkner.It graphically placement is that Nefertari experiencing the mysteries of regeneration within the Akhet highlights the idea behind the mountains of the horizon as the sun god does. piction of the setting sun in Nofretari. The east wall of Chamber C is decorated with representations of Osiris-Wenneneferand Anubis standing in shrines and facing south. where Nefertari. Taylor. ChamberC is the conceptual and temporal correlate of the Akhetin this phase of the deceased queen'sjourney. highlights this notion. standing adjacent 42The notion that this tableaurepresentsboth the rising and setting of the sun and the inwardand outwardmovement of et Evolution.Deathand theAfterlife . the hidden space that is the Akhet. Plan 66) (QV of Nefertari's Fig.44A representation of Nefertari as a human-headedba-hird (fig. 7. which is particularly Bookof theDead(London. as does McDonaldin Houseof Eternity. ceased that can leave the tomb during the day and mingle This tableau places the action within the Akhet(and its with the living or travelwith the solar deity. transfiguration.178 JARCE XXXIX (2002) sarcophaguslies between these piers. 44.and re-emergencein Architecture et Evolution. 35. 38. of Nefertari)in R. fig. the position of this scene on the tomb's entrance doorway identifies Chamber C as the area hidden (from humans) behind the "mountain"or physical horizon.O. John H. 20-23. and Q) open up from the lateral and rear walls of the burial chamber.TheAncient Egyptian 44Leblanc endorses the notion that the upper chamber is an area of entry.the west wall of Chamber C is decorated with the text of Bookof theDeadchap-ter 17 and accompanying vignettes. Goedicke discusses the "inaugural" or exit of the transcharacterof the outer chamberin Nofretari. 43See the translationof relevantto the physicaltransformation Chapter17 (especiallythe beginning. fig. 3). Paul Getty Trust. but does not address the notion of the "re-emergence" formed deceased. 2001).42 In addition to graphically depicting the process of the sun's (and by association. which depicts the sun. 7. The most powerful evidence supporting this interpretation is the decoration on the soffit of the entrance doorway (fig. Goedicke interpretsthis scene as a dethe deceased is supportedby Leblanc. flanked by Isis and Nephthys in kite form."Architecture 57. Three small annexes (M. 45See in Ancient Egypt(Chicagoand London." 245 and 246.45 the reinforces further on this wall equation of ChamberC with the Akhet). which depict Nefertari undergoing transformations that will allow her to emerge from her tomb "as a living soul"43and thus re-enter the terrestrialzone outside of the tomb. Another point of view is held by Goedicke.the deceased's) emergence from the netherworld. ern Thebes(drawing © theJ. as described in New ) the mobile is aspect of the deKingdom funerary texts. Furthermore. rising (or setting) in the midst of the mountains of the horizon as though it were emerging from (or entering) the tomb.
The representationof the Akhet on the soffit of the entrance doorway (photograph© theJ. Axonometric drawings of QV 66 showing the west half of the tomb (top) and east half (bottom) (after Schmidt.b) Fig. 3. 2. 150 a.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 179 Fig. "Die Transfiguration der Nefertari." 108.) . Paul Getty Trust. Abb.
"The Cosmology of the PyramidTexts.46The form of Osiris shown is that of the revived and resurrectedgod who embodies the regenerativepotential that Nefertari will assume. reinforces the cosmographicequivalenceof the upper level of the tomb with the Akhetthe place where Nefertari will emerge like the sun from the Duat. ." of Eternity.TaSetNeferou. there appears to be a conceptual transition between spaces (E and G) where the synthesis of the solar and Osirian modes is expressed in increasinglyunequivocal terms.and the Akhet on pp.47In essence. Schmidt. Moreover.the route taken by the deceased (in both directions) is not a straightline.House 245. Ramesses resentaionof the "negative confessions" portionof chapter125 in the antechamber II'sdaughterby Nefertarior Isisnofret. The complex (Recesses D. flanking the passage from Chamber C depicts to the eastern complex. of the deceased"occurs during thejourney from Leblancenvisionsthe easterncomplex as the place where the "triumph et Evolution Chronologiquedes Tombes de la the Duat to the Akhet(although not the other way around) in "Architecture Vallee des Reines. pl. see Leblanc.I would suggest that the eastern complex might have been significantfor the deceased'sinwardand outwardmovement through the tomb.180 JARCE XXXIX (2002) to the doorway. fig.50 between journey Indeed. 75. Field of Offerings.the architectureof the tomb and. for example. 49McDonald. especiallyhis discussionof the location of the Field of Reeds. by association. west-facing figures of Ma'at. see Allen.49 an analogy that suggests this corridor represents a further point in the the Akhet and the Duat. 1-28. Son-of-Isis(on the south wall). 147 (B) for a repof the tomb (QV60) of Nebettawy. Thausing.offers to Osiris and the four sons of Horus. representativesof the Osirian mythos. as Chamber G explicitly depicts the intertwining of the solar and Osirian modes of regeneration that Nefertari 46Schmidtbelieves that this 241-42.a reference to the solar mode of regeneration and to Nefertari'semergence from the Akhet."DasGrabder Nefertari.vfurther suggesting the interconnection between Osiris and the sun god. Corridor F. Like the topography upper level of the tomb spatiallylinks it to the Akhet-evoking of the netherworld. The programof Recess E (directlybehind.of D) highlights the interpenetrationof the solar and Osirian modes of regeneration. The programof Recess D. It Selket on the north wall and Neith on the south wall.Nofretari. and Chamber G) that opens up from the east wall of ChamberC (fig.and to the east." Egyptological (New Haven. The associated texts indicate that each goddess welcomes Nefertari and have accorded her a place in the sacred land so that she may appear each day like Re." 47For a discussion of the non-linear topographyof the netherworldand its expression in Old Kingdom Pyramidarchiin Yale Studies3 24-28. who welcomes Nefertari and assures her a This recess can be equated with the judgment of the deceased in chapter 125 place within Iu-geret. While this supports the notion that the recess is a zone of transition. E. 6. idem. "Readinga Pyramid. The lateral walls of Corridor F (the narrow passage between Recess E and Chamber G) are each decorated with standing."246. the program of this complex suggests that this series of spaces is the cosmographiccorrelate of a zone in the netherworld that lies somewhere between the Akhetand the Duat. 1989). 17-18.but one that seems more closely linked to the Akhetthan to the depths of the Duat. leading Nefertari into the presence of Khepri and Re-Horakhty(the latter seated with Hathor of Thebes). 7 and 247. This is accomplished by depicting Isis (on the north wall) and Horus. 5) has a decorativeprogram that relates thematicallyto the intersection of the solar and Osirian modes of regeneration and stresses Nefertari'sinteraction with these two modes.48 of the Bookof the Dead. the eastern complex can be envisioned as the cosmographic representationof a transitionalarea between the two realms. The pilasters of Recess E (flankingthe doorway)are decorated with representationsof Osiris as a djed-pi\\a." tecture. two aspects of the solar deity who rise in the east and emerge from the netherworld. Its placement in the area of ChamberC. The scenes and inscriptions of the eastern complex also suggest a movement toward the Duat and away from the Akhetas one moves further into the complex from ChamberC. vignette is the illustrationof Bookof theDeadchapter173 in "DasGrabder Nefertari. 48Goedickeand 42-43.
) Fig. Complexof spaces that open upfrom the easternwall of ChamberC (photograph© the]. 5. Paul Getty Trust.) . Nefertari playing draughts and depicted as human-headedba-bird on the west half of the south wall of ChamberC (photograph© the]. Paul Getty Trust. 4.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 181 Fig.
The vignette here depicts the syncretistic.in the asso- 56In tomb (QV60) this scene is located on the north half of the west wall of the east lateralchamber. Paul Getty picts chapter 94. B.The program of ChamberG also includes scenes and texts from the Bookof the Dead that have a direct bearing on Nefertari's physicaljourney through the afterlife. 149 (A). this scene appears in a space that architecturally corresponds to QV 66's Chamber G (i.Reliefs. Book the Dead.. The pairing of the gods. ings: I. 6. life. Topographical Bibliographyof Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts.but in each case without QV 66's associated recesses). 1964). 195 (B). in which the deceased requests Trust. is a graphic visual statement of the coexistence and interaction of the two complementarymodes of regeneration. Furthermore. TaSetNeferou. Leblanc. The ThebanNecropolis.e.Part 2. a spell that provides both nourishment for the deceased and the magical steeringoars thatwill guide her on herjourney and her from her enemies. 140. and Paint(Oxford. Bertha Porter and Rosalind L. and to Atum. Moss. and 53 Duatentipet (QV 74). In both of these tombs.) writingequipmentfrom Thoth that will endow her with the scribal proficiency she needs to successfully complete herjourney. of . bZFaulkner. Syncretic form of Re-Osiris from the south half of the protect east wall of ChamberG (photograph © theJ. Royal Tombsand Smaller Cemeteries 51 Hornung. The rear (east) wall shows two back-to-back scenes of the deceased offering to Osiris-Wennenefer.and the Nebettawy's scene is on the east wall of the east lateralchamberof Duatentipet'stomb (QV 74). pls. providesher with protection. 7). The north wall deFig. like the representation of Re-Osirison the west wall.52 Versions of the Re-Osirisscene are included in the tombs of two other Ramessidequeens: Nebettawy (QV 60). 177. 768 (6). a daughter of Ramesses II. The west wall of ChamberG (on the south side of the door) is perhaps the most telling example of the intensification of the program's message. and stability. mummiform figure of Re-Osirisflanked by Isis and Nephthys (fig. 6)an illustrationof chapter 180 from the Bookof the in which the interaction of Re and Osiris Dead51 the process of regeneration and em"recharges" powers the deceased to move both into and out of the realm of the dead. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. in an eastern lateral chamber that opens up from the east wall of each tomb's antechamber. in turn.182 JARCE XXXIX (2002) would hope to undergo in her personal postmortem transformation. the resurrectedOsiris. The scenes on the south wall of the chamberillustrate chapter 148. The adjacentscene on the north half of the west wall (on the north side of the door) depicts the queen offeringbolts linen to Ptahwhile he. the solar/creatordeity of Heliopolis (fig. 761 (10).
and bread to two enthroned goddesses. lies beneath the floor level of the upper chambers. Thausing. pls. "DasGrab der Nefertari. Paul GettyTrust. 87.suggest Nefertari'sphysical movement to (and from) the netherworld and her transformationthrough this transitionalzone 54 Goedicke. The "underground"location of the lower half of the corridorthus intensifies the decorative of the lower half of the corriand Atum from the east wall of program'sequation Fig.Hathor and Selket on the east and Isis and Nephthys on the west (a figure of Ma'at kneels behind the second goddess in each group). . McDonald.." 121.) The thicknessesof the upper doorwayare decorated with the queen's cartouchesand symbolsof Upper and Lower Egypt57-direct evocations of the terrestrial(i.relate to the queen's afterlife existence. The side walls of the upper part of the corridor are decorated with two pendant offering scenes in which Nefertariconsecratesnemset-jars. pl. Osiris-Wennenefer dor with theDm^. Transfiguration 59Goedickeand 45-48. produce. 55Goedicke and 45. 42-45. Both lateralwalls of the lower section of the corridor are decorated with scenes that more directly evoke the netherworldthan do the scenes on the upper part." der Nefertari. the lower half of the corridor evokes the Duat through the funerary content of its texts and decoration and through the spatial arrangement of its architecture. Even the queen's epithets.Nofretari. ofNefertari. 169 and 122.though not chaptersfrom the Bookof theDead. Egyptian)realm.Tomb Nofretari. The lower half of the corridor.45.Nofretari. Goedicke envisions the corridor'sprogramas showing "twoaspects and stages in Thausing. Nofretari. Two recesses that separate the upper and lower zones of the corridor are decorated with anthropomorphizedDjed-pillars that appear to supthe port ceiling. while Isis (on the west side) and Nephthys (on the east side) kneel on a hieroglyphic sign for gold.appear in heaven like Re. "Die equates the vignettes (but not the text) with Bookof theDead 151 in. with a winged cobra protecting the cartouche of Nefertari above. Osiris and Atum explicitly endow Nefertari with the ability to access both regenerative modes. 58Schmidt 247. and rest on the throne of Osiris59-once again reflecting the interpenetration of Osirian and solar modes of regeneration.55 While the upper half of the corridor is decorated with scenes that are not explicitly funerary (and at times even evoke the terrestrialrealm). the funerarydevelopment. 57Goedickeand Thausinar. 39. and hold a shen sign. inscribed on the two doorwaysof the corridor. 36. the Anubis-jackal sits on a shrine. They express the wish that Nefertari have a place in the "sacredland" [7? dsr].56 ChamberG (photograph© the].e. unlike the upper half.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 183 ciated texts." 56Goedicke. Nofretari.58 The associatedinscriptions. On each side.54 The descending corridor not only serves as a point of departure that separates the mostly upper chambersfrom the explicitly Akhet-evoking burial chamber but also serves as a Duat-evoking transitional zone in which one realm abuts and then dissolves into the next. Abb. 7. idem.
Top of descending corridorviewedfrom ChamberC (note the queen's epithets on the doorjambs) (photograph© the].) in a way that echoes the message provided (pictorially)by scenes in the corridor and (architecturally) by the corridor's steep slope. 9). and the "rt-p(t" 60Goedickeand Thausing. In fact. Thausing.Nofretari.184 JARCE XXXIX (2002) Fig. 68. Paul Getty Trust. 51Goedickeand pls. 8.60Thejambs at the bottom of the corridorleading to the burial chamber(fig. 8) list the queen's titles and give primacyof place to those that relate to her earthly roles. the title "^^"(conventionally translated "hereditarynoblewoman")is listed first. at the top of each vertical column of text. record her title "Osiris" first.61 ever. . howtitle does not appear at all. 23. The jambs of the doorway at the top of the corridor (fig.Nofretari. pl. 8.
9. Paul Getty Trust.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 185 Fig.) . View of descendingcorridorand doorwayto burial chamber(note the queen's epithetson the doorjambs) (photograph© the].
"in EdwardBleiberg and Rita Freed (eds.). in which the deceased (shown on the south wall of the burialchamber. Paul Getty Trust. In addition. 7 fif. 133-38. 1952). .62 announcer.The west half of the chamberis decoratedwith images and texts that illustrate Bookof theDeadchapter 144.to the west of the doorway)addressesfive gates of the underworld(here condensed from the seven gates A group of three supernaturalbeings. 62-63.pl. see Hornung. 88. "RoyalPainters:Deir ample of the transferof the so-called"monochrome" El-Medinain DynastyXIX. Tombes thebaines de Deir el-Medineh a decoration monochrome (Cairo. 72. Cathleen Keller discusses the golden figures in this niche as an extomb style from privatetombs to royal tombs in. 89.a doorkeeper. for examples of paintings of "golden"statues of gods in the tomb of Sety II. 10. a canopic niche is carved into the (approximate) middle of the west wall and is decorated with figures of the winged Nut and mummiform funerary deities. pls. 1991).Nofretari. and for the definition of the "monochrome" tomb painting style see BernardBruyere. a painting of Nut similarto that found in Nefertari'scanopic niche is on the sarcophaguschamberceiling of the tomb (QV 38) of Sat-Re. especiallypp.63 62Goedicke and 49-50.186 JARCE XXXIX (2002) Fig. All of the figures and hieroglyphsin the niche are painted to resemble gold. TaSetNeferou. Valley of theKings. a guardian.) correThe decorativeprogramof the burialchamber(fig. 10) defines this space as the architectural late of the netherworld. View of burial chamberlooking north (photograph© theJ.guardseach gate (the fifth gate tableauat the northwestcorner is abbreviatedand has only one associated figure. 180-81. ThausingNofretari. 53See Goedicke and Thausing. as illustratedin Leblanc. pls. 50-86.and an described in the chapter).the wife of RamessesI and mother of Seti I. Fragments of a Shattered of theInterVisage: Proceedings nationalSymposium on Ramesses theGreat(Memphis. the doorkeeper).
Thausing.65The western lateral chamber (M) depicts a mummiform Nefertari (fig. 65Schmidt envisions the lateral chambersas evocations of locations. and the queen adoring Isis and Anubis (south wall).186. and Anubis.Nofretari.116. 66Goedicke and 53-54. "Readinga Pyramid. make this identification seem less definite. fig. "Readinga Pyramid.Nofretari. 54. the sarcophaguschamberin.Nofretari. Nefertari in her sarcophagus)is very revitalized.72 C.e. a goddess protecting Nefertari'scartouche. Valley of theKings.74 The identification of the deceased queen with Osiris is suggested by the decoration of 64Faulkner."254 and 246. Goedickeand Thausing."Architecture et EvolutionChronologiquedes Tombesde la Vallee des Reines." . 71Goedickeand 54. The Theban references in this chamber. On the east half of the north (rear) wall. 67Goedicke and 53.70A figure of Ma'atstates that Nefertarihas a place in the temple of Amun at Karnak. 7. The rear and lateral chambers also evoke the netherworld-with references to sacred places in real geographicallocations." 131-32. Nefertari adoring the Hathor cow as she emerges from the west69(north wall). (and. Hathor of the West. southeast corner further and Fig. Nefertari offers to three funerary deitiesOsiris.133-37.in "DasGrabder Nefertari.) the burial chamber. and a figure of Selket.the depression in which the sarcophaguswas placed. "Der Grab das Nefertari. Bookof theDead. the tomb of Osiris at Abydos. 68Schmidt identifies this lateral chamber as the "mythic"Chemmis in." 7 24-25." 254-56. Thausing. Paul GettyTrust. Schmidtenvisionsthis room as a conceptualextension of the "houseof gold"(i. This may refer to a statue of the queen in Karnaktemple.66One of the gods gives Nefertari "the The eastern lateral chamkingship of Atum. Leblanc identifies the burial chamber as the room in which the deceased Nefertari would lie inert like Osiris in the Duat before her rebirth and re-emergence.however. in Valley Hornung interpretsthis as an adaptationof the Bookof theCelestial of theKings. 72Goedickeand 55.73 One might take this notion a 11."67 ber68(O) is decorated with a large figure of Ma'at (on the east wall)..can be envisioned as the heart of the where Osiris netherworld. the west lateral chamber represents the "mythical" tomb of Osirisin Abydos."256-59. and funerary deities. Thausing. 73See Leblanc. Allen.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 187 The east half of the sarcophagus chamber is decorated with images and texts that illustrate Chapter 146 from the Book of the Dead in which the deceased recites spells for entering the House of Osirisin the Field of Reeds64(on the south and east walls). 69 Cowfor a queen'stomb. 25. "DieTransfiguration der Nefertari.Nofretari.71 The decoration of the rearchamber(Q) is fragmentary and consists of a figure of Isis. Thausing. 11). by association.Nofretari.Allen. Hornung. Mummiform Nefertari from of step suggest that the central area of Chamber M (photograph© the].
188 JARCE XXXIX (2002) the faces of the four piers surrounding the sara proteccophagus depression with djed-pi\\ars. 75 of theKings. "ZumDekorationsprogramm Nefertari-Grabes. especiallyp. 54. An examinationof the Small the and Kuentz. 2.76The equation of Nefertari and Osiris is further strengthened by the decoration of the inner sides of the piers along the central (i. Osirian representations of Nefertari herself. 120 with pls. 2ff. /y Horus and Seth crown the and Kuentz.Le Petit king on the south wall of the first chamber.e. 1997). 109) embedded in the rules of decorum governing the the that of the necessity of omitting the king from the decorative help explain royal coupleportrayal are: the tomb. ConvegnoInternazionale in Onore di Sergio Donadoni (Rome. Here.Nofretari. 87-93. 98-99 and the half of the east wall of vestibule on the south Nefertari Isis and Hathor crown vol.but who is. Troy argues that kingship can be envisioned as a male-femalecomposite on earth that corresponds to the androgynousform of the creatorin the divine realm. vol. and queenship is thus the feminine half of the androgynoustotality of kingship. Goedickeidentifiesa similarly the sarcophaguschamberas an image of Nefertariin the form of a djed-pi\\ar. Comparepl. pl.See also idem.differences that highlight why Fig.187. In her book on queenship. . The Small Temple The decorativeprogramof the SmallTemple of Abu Simbel exhibits significant differences from that of the tomb. nevertheless.75 tive Osirian symbol. 12. envisioned as his ideologically crucial feminine complement. These rules of the (1) ideology of kingship clearlydefines an unambiguously program feminine role for Nefertariwhen she is paired with the king. Brancoli. Valley decoratRamessesII's tomb as iconic representationsof the deceased assimilatedwith Osiris." in I. Troydiscusses and defines the role of royalwomen within the ideological frameworkof kingship. 41-42. 77 Troy. 106.77Further. 2ff. Patterns of Queenship.See Desroches-Noblecourt in pls. 78 Troy. Patterns of Queenship..78 Troy'snotion can be applied to the interpretationof the Small Temple'sprogram.. color plate C. The separate coronation scenes79for Ramesses II and Nefertari attest to the complementaryrelationshipof the masculine and feminine elements of kingship.she demonstrates that kingship necessarily provides the conceptual frame of reference for queenship.rsuggest that these djed-pi\\ars are iconic. pl. 100. pls. et al. The presence of the queen's cartouches and titles along the top and sides of each djed-pi\\a.).one whose place on the hierarchical scale is lower than that of the king. Le Petit Taweret(after Desroches-Noblecourt Abu of Simbel reveals two conceptsTemple Temple. Nefertari is shown as an unambiguouslyfeminine counterpartto the king. 93.and he believes that rf/^d-pillars des ing the piers in Nefertari'sburialchamberserve the queen in the same way. 2. 120. Temple. Drawing of a scenefrom the Small Templeat Abu the decorative program of Nefertari's tomb has Simbel showing Ramesses II and Nefertari offering to form that it does. 102. (eds. northsouth) axis with images of Osiris-Wennenefer standing and facing outward (toward the tomb entrance). in the east lateralannex of labeleddjed-pi\\ar Goedickeand Thausing. and (2) the rules of social hierarchyconsistently place the queen in a subordinateposition in relationshipto the king. 96. Hornung interpretsthe djedpillar images adoring columns in the burial chamberof Hornung. Llmperio Ramesside.
vol. some of the temple doorway lintels omit the king's name and are inscribed with only Nefertari'scartouche (fig. pls. 2. Here. pls. rigid rules of super ordination and subordination govern the relationship of the king and queen. Dominance. 82Robins. In these instances. in total. 14)83-just as some of the SCenes depict Nefertari without her husband. 2. 14. 13).Le Petit Temple. 2. the horizontal register inscribed with the cartouche of RamessesII is placed above that containing the cartouche of Nefertari. 116) An analysisof the Small Temple'sdecorative program reveals that. vol. there are fifty-onepictorial scenes from the entrance corridor to the sanctuary. 2. 93-96. 81Desroches-Noblecourt and Kuentz. parts of the temple that are reserved for Nefertari alone.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 189 Fig.In all of these scenes.Le PetitTemple. 12). whenever the king is shown in a scene with Nefertari. Drawing of doorway lintel from the Small Temple illustrating the rule of super ordination and subordination. the issues of super ordination and subordinationdo not come into play. 36-38. his name appearsin the dominant first (or uppermost) position.her "secondrule"of compositionalhierarchy." 33. . To wit. "Compositional Dominance. however. 115-118.81 There are. 94) Fig. The horizontal register with the king's cartouche is above the register upon which the queen's cartouche is inscribed and Kuentz. When the king's cartouche appears along with that of Nefertari. the king is alwaysdepicted in front of the queen (fig. Le Petit Temple. pl.but these are the only occasions in which Nefertari'sname is not in a subordinateposition. vol. 13. pl. Drawing of doorway lintel from the Small Temple with Nefertari's cartouche(after Desroches-Noblecourt and Kuentz. 36-37 for her discussionof the superiorfirst position of the male in twodimensionalart." "Compositional 8-9> See Desroches-Noblecourt and Kuentz. 8(1 See Robins. Le Petit Temple.82 For example.80An example of this comes from the lintel of one of the doorwaysleading from the columned hall into the vestibule (fig. (after Desroches-Noblecourt vol. This rule also applies to the arrangementof the names and epithets of Ramesses II and Nefertari.
Although the king and queen are of equal size. 35. (2) As Roth points out. in which the king's cartouches outnumber the queen's by a 3 to 1 ratio. there are twice as many figures of the king. but also outnumber them. i.86 In the tomb of Nefertari.MotherSky. 15) is a three-dimensionalcorrelate of this pattern. 59. not women. "Father 189 ff. . her associationwith the solar deity." 87For examplesof the former. pls.Nofretari. "Father 189. Wsirhmtnswtwrtnbt tlwy Nfrt iry mV hrwhr Wsir). in the Egyptianunderstandingof the process of conception.. Facade of the Small Templeof Nefertari and Hathor of Ibshekat Abu Simbel (photo by author) In some cases. the queen's identificationwith Osiris. 28. 88This term tends to which directlyprecedes the queen's name followthe cartouche. in contrast to the appellation "Osiris" or titles. 59-64. the pattern of compositional dominance in this temple's program dictates that the king's cartouchesare not only in a superior position to those of Nefertari.Nofretari. a 2 to 1 ratio. 72.g. pls. For examples. A woman's postmortem assumption of masculine sexual potential would have been deemed importantfor two key reasons:(1) The assimilationof the deceased with both Osiris and the solar deity was necessary for regeneration. see Goedicke and Thausing. pls. 2. and her gender fluidity are expressed directly and explicitly in the texts. FuneraryContext: Rebirth and Regeneration In sharp contrast to her role in the Small Temple.85She convincinglyargues that. see Goedickeand Thausing. This occurs on the architravesand soffits of the ceiling of the columned hall. 41. Earth.e.he Petit Temple. 30. Nefertari is represented in her tomb as a being with a capacityfor masculine regenerativepotential.190 JARCE XXXIX (2002) Fig. 36. Earth. the inscriptions emphasize the queen's Osirian aspect by employing special epithets and phrases such as "OsirisNefertari.. Throughout the tomb. were responsible for creating new life."88 The equation of Nefertari with Re is made through 84Desroches-Noblecourt and Kuentz.MotherSky. the role of women was to stimulate male sexual arousal and then to receive the child (already fully formed in the semen) into her body."87 or "Justified with Osiris. 34. 38.See pls. The term "justifiedwith Osiris"(m?(hrwhr Wsir)can occur without the "appellation" Osiris preceding Nefertari's name or titles. vol. 37. 53." 86Roth. 15. 85Roth. the Egyptiansappear to have believed that men. 69. and the ability to adopt a masculine identity may have been considered conducive to this process.84The arrangement of colossal statues on the facade (fig. It can also occur in a sentence in which "Osiris"precedes the queen's name and titles (e. 32.
Book of the Dead chapter 17. 85. Thausing. ranges from a creamy pink-brown(with painterly flourishes such as shading on cheeks and nose) to a deep (and monochromatic) orange-brownor red-browncolor. 92Goedicke and 47. Nefertari'sskin tone. ) QV (photograph the]. 48. 95See . 94-96."89They also express the wish that she "appearin the sky like Re"90 and enjoy "allprotection. 31. "the appearance of Re. 98.Nofretari.Nofretari. and Anubis the burial chamber Nefertari Fig. 80.when gods and goddesses addressNefertari directly. When. 59.34. The pictorial representations of the queen further reinforce the notion of her gender fluidity. A less plausibleexplanationis offeredby McDonald. . Thausing. whether fully anthropomorphicor animal-headed. 91Goedicke and 47. 123. 32.Nofretari. mVthrw). while the titles and epithets that she held in life reflect the female aspect of her identity."92Furthermore. 19-23. 35-39. 46-48. 108-9. 57. 112-16.e. 27-28.is depicted with yellow skin significantlylighter than that of the male deities. the canonical Egyptiancolor encodement for male and female figures is employed. . for example. second-person singular pronouns in "Osiris" death. For examples of the consistent omission of pronouns. 41." this epithet is always rendered with masculine grammaticalgender (mi'hrw) instead of feminine grammaticalgender (i. The grammatical gender of Nefertari's titles and pronouns suggest her fluid sexual state.This stands in contrastto the consistent employment of the feminine grammaticalgender in the titles that Nefertari assumed in life such as "hmt nswtwrt""rtp(t" and "nbt tlwy.. 52. 52-69.they use or omit the pronoun altogether. she is a male feminine. see McDonald. 50. 39. 39. however. Getty line pronouns. . 50. 78. she is neverrepresented with the yellow skin color used for the figures of 89Goedicke and Thausing. 46. all guarding. Everygoddess. n. 9JGoedickeand pls. 59. from of transformation." In the transitional corridor."91and that "Iu-geret be illuminated"92 with her rays. yuGoedicke and Thausing. 100-104. she is called "true-of-voice. 94Goedickenotes that the assimilationwith Osirisis responsiblefor the male grammatical gender. 119-21. 72-76. 41-42. like Re.Nofretari. which deals unequivocally with the notion that Nefertari is deceased and undergoing 16. the same shades employed for male deities (fig. 44.Nofretari.94In other inscriptions. 16). who are depicted with green skin).Nofretari. Anubis states the wish that Nefertari "appearin heaven like Re. see pls. Thausing. example of the use of feminine second-person singular pronoun (gods and goddesses speaking to Nefertari and bestowingblessings upon her) see Goedicke and Thausing. Except for one scene. n. 106. ".refers to the queen with mascu66 © Paul Trust.95Thus. Throughout the tomb. who give Nefertari. Everymale deity is shown with deep orange-brownor red-brownskin (with the exception of the golden canopic niche deities and the chthonic deities Osiris and Ptah. 2.who viewsthe use of masculinepronouns referringto the queen as the result of a circumstancein which "the copyist lost his concentrationfrom time to time.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 191 the speech of various gods and goddesses. pls. See Goedicke. 30. 53.Houseof Eternity.Nofretari.
the anomalous MetropolitianMuseum of Art) yellow-skinned representation of the queen appears to be an exception that clearlyunderscores the intentionalityof the "masculine" color encodement in the many orange-brownand red-brownrepresentationsof Nefertari.98 The yellow-skinned Nefertari also provides a clear contrast with the more color with skin (which might be envisioned as a "gender-fluid" pink-brown ambiguousrepresentations 96Goedicke and 49. because she has successfullycompleted her transformation(the period of gender fluidity being a temporaryphase in the cyclicalregenerative process).canonical. This aspect of the queen.195. 151. In other words.and having done so has regainedher unambiguouslyfeminine aspect. TheArtofAncient Egypt (Cambridge. she is shown with yellow skin. The "announcer" the west wall Nefertarifrom of reason to refrain from employing yellow in all of Fig. the burial chamber (photographby Harry Burton © The the other representations. confronts a typical darkerskinned representation of herself on the south Nefwall of the burial chamber." Nefertari-and is the tomb'sonly yellow-skinned representationof the queen. see Hornung. In all other tomb scenes. yellow-skinnedNefertari is the ideal form that the queen will become at the conclusion of the process. Goedicke does not recognize the "announcer"as Nefertari.In this vignette. The one exception to this rule (fig.The "announcer" ertariserves as a graphicguaranteeof the efficacy of the process of the queen's rebirthand regeneration. Valley of theKings. Robins suggests that a group of Deir el-Medinaostraca.decorated with images of women nursing their babies. 190. Thus.Nofretari. show the dangerousprocess of childbirthas a successful and were thus used to produce the desired outcome. pl.instead of the loose-fitting white gown worn by women of the period.from that of the female deities. along with the doorkeeper and guardian. Nefertari's skin color is usually significantly darker-and alwaysdifferent.with bright golden skin regardlessof gen- .97 The evidence that artisanswere not completely restricted from using yellow to represent Nefertari in the tomb suggests that there was a special 17.gods and goddesses and the king and queen. "announcer" For the opinion that this image represents figure of the first gate as a "womanwithout any special features.gendered color encodement. fait accompli 98 Althoughthe tomb clearlyemploystraditional. 17) occurs near the south corner of the west wall of the burial chamber.the "archaic" costume worn by every goddess. which she wears elsewhere in the tomb. where the queen is shown in the of the first gate in chaprole of the "announcer"96 ter 144 of the Bookof theDead. 1997). the divine. Nefertari as the "announcer" female wears a tight sheath dress. This particularrepresentation of Nefertari is made visually distinct from all of her other depictions by costume as well as skin color. He describes the Thausing. 9 A comparableuse of visualart to ensure a desired resultis discussedby GayRobins.192 JARCE XXXIX (2002) goddesses. at Abu Simbelthe SmallTemple's programrepresentsall of the figures.
and the Antechamberof the tomb (QV 40) of an anonymousqueen. As in the canopic niche. Other examples are from the sarcophaguschamberof the tomb (QV 73) of Henuttawy. TaSetNeferou. Earth. 74. 101 Leblanc. 18.MotherSky. and Isis were (QV 52) (QV 51) depicted throughout their tombs with pink-brown skin (without shading).a state that perhaps finds a conceptual correlate in the ithyphallic form of the 10° Mut-Pakhet that illustrates Book goddess (fig. however.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 193 because they employ neither the "masculine" color encodement nor the specifically "feminine"yelwhen Tyti low. 99A scene from the tomb of Merytamun(QV 68). Until the TwentiethDynasty.the queen into the male Osiris and solar god. she dess Mut-Pakhet(photograph© the British Museum) also preserves the feminine identity that defined her living aspect.pl. Roth suggests that the images of a female tomb owner retain an aspect of visible feminine identity in order to stimulateher male fertility and help her self-regeneration. 65-67 for vivid color photos of the decorative brown skin throughprogram of the anonymous queen in QV 40." The variation in Nefertari's skin-color further Fig. 122. to apply this idea to Nefertari'stomb. See Leblanc. 175. employs the same color encodement scheme.TaSetNeferou. "Father 199. Nefertari e la VoiledelleRegina(Florence. 18) of theDead chapter 164. while death transforms 164 (BM 10253) showing the ithyphallicform of the god. 758 (20)-(21). and to envision her own feminine form stimulatingher male aspect and re-conceivingherself. Osirian/solaraspect) can be envisioned as being stimulatedand regeneratedthrough interaction with the goddesses represented on the walls of her tomb (of whom Isis and Hathor. a TwentiethDynastyroyal woman. which shows that the queen appears to have dark-orange out the tomb. who is shown in one scene wearing the typical dress and regalia of a Ramesside queen.namely that she (in her deceased." . Illustration from the Book of the Dead chapter supports the notion that. demonstration of female gender fluidity in funerary art comes from the tomb (QV 52) of Tyti. I would. 188. 1993). very graphic. is dedicated to ritualperformance and does not explain the significanceof the goddess'sphallicform. the consorts of Osiris and Re. 75 (A). 19) in an adjacent scene. see Christian Leblanc and Alberto Siliotti.are those most frequentlydepicted).160. Bookof theDead. 163. respectively. male. Another. either). This absence can be understood when one der. but is shown as the male Tyti/Iunmutef101 (fig. A scene on the north half of the west wall of Merytamun's antechambershows the queen standing between Isis and Horus. like to suggest another possibility. pl. This chapterprescribesthe use of an ithyphallic. both Merytamunand Horus have dark orange-brownskin.three-headedfigure of Mut-Pakhet while reciting wishes for the well being of the deceased in the afterlife. Conclusion RamessesIFs conspicuous absence from the tomb of Nefertariappearsto be an intentional and important part of the process of Nefertari'sregeneration.The chapter.102 It is possible then.however. a daughter of Nefertari and Ramesses II. part 2. 00Faulkner. PMI. Nefertari was the only queen known to be representedwith this ambiguous skin color. the intent seems to be to representfigures that have golden flesh. Son-of-Isis. pls. pl. while goddesses are clearly shown with light yellow skin. wz Roth.While Isis is depicted with light yellow skin. The golden color is comparableto that used for the figuresand hieroglyphsin the canopic niche of QV 66. All other surviving paintingsfrom Nineteenth Dynasty tombs the royal women with the orshow queens' ange-brownor red-brown"masculine"skin color that contrasts with images of yellow-skinnedgoddesses in those same tombs.
and the necessity of the queen's assumptionof masculineregenerative capacity (and her identification with Osiris and Re) in order to be reborn after death. and these featuresset it apartfrom the tombs of officialsand princes in Valley des Nefertari-Grabes. provides a model for the static and unchanging aspect of every Egyptian king in death. the in were the as the male ruler tomb. he. hierarchicaldecorum and the ideology of queenship. "ZumDekorationsprogramm 88-93. 19.e. Tomb inscriptions that frame Nefertari's power in terms of kingship (i. 103 Hornungsuggeststhat Nefertari'stomb directlyborrowsimageryfrom king'stombs. in his role as the deceased king of the netherworld. and her sexual fluidity is strongly suggested by the emFig. allowing Nefertari to sit on the throne of Osiris and endowing her with the rulership of Atum) bear this notion out by suggesting that Nefertari'srole in the funerarycontext must be equated with that of masculine rulership in order to facilitate her afterlife existence. 53-72.. If. however. of Queenship.104 2) The king's relationshipto the queen within the context of kingship "fixes"Nefertari'sunambiguously female role. Osiris. For this reason. 104 por j-j^asSociation of royalwomen with Hathor. (and as a higher-ranking depicted royal than the queen).just as the solar deity serves as a parallel paradigmatic model for the cyclical renewal of the living and the deceased king. who.103 Nefertari is equated frequently and directly with both Re and Osiris in QV 66's texts. the association of Ramesses II with Osiris and the solar deity is more appropriatethan that of a royalwoman with Osiris. is associated with the goddess Hathor.186-87 and idem. Queen Tyti (QV 52) as a woman (left) and as the ployment of masculine grammaticalgender in the male Tytillunmutef(right) (photo by author) inscriptions and by canonical masculine color encodement in the pictorial images." of theKings. she cannot attain the fluidity of gender identity that would assist her association with Osiris and Re or her assumption of the masculine regenerative potential that would allow her to experience rebirth and renewal.and Hathor'srole as the divine manifestationof the feminine prototype that royalwomen embody see Troy.Patterns 3.194 JARCE XXXIX (2002) considers three key issues: the king's relationship to both Osiris and Re. has a considerablycloser ideological relationship with both Osiris and Re than does the queen. king would be a more appropriate"Osiris" and "Re"for three important reasons: 1) The king. Both paradigms are "builtin" to the ideology of masculine kingship. as the feminine half of kingship. . as the masculine aspect of kingship. and if she is conceptually "lockedin" to a feminine role.
Furthermore. To wit.without her husband and with a fluid sexual identity. as a royal woman.a role that impedes her ability to assume both "kingly"status and gender fluidity. royal women (including mother. and daughter) can be envisioned as the multigenerationalfeminine half of kingship. so the manner in which the queen is representedin her tomb. consort. while Ramesses was omitted from Nefertari'stomb-just as all royal males were omitted from tomb of a Ramesside queen.Patterns of Queenship.THE OSIRIS NEFERTARI 195 3) In a related way. and a conceptual (perhaps "kingly")primacy of place. Nefertari is shown in a position of compositional (and conceptual) super ordination only when the name or image of RamessesII is omitted.New Kingdom pharaohsare depicted in the tombs of their (lower status) sons.the fact that the king was of a higher status also has an impact upon Nefertari's ability to regenerate. 105 YOT a discussionof the "father-son" opposition as an applicationof the dualisticmasculinegenerationalstructuresee as gods with well defined spheres of 27-28. into the specific subordinate position that reinforces her ideological role as the king's complementary (and female) opposite. queen. reference in whichAtum is associatedwith creation and Re-Horakhty .all of which would be impossible if the king were present. is associatedwith rebirth. Thus.the expression of these ideas in the pictorial art of the tomb is directly related to the tomb's function as a vehicle for the queen's regeneration. The king's presence would force her. an assuranceof the proper function of the tomb and the guarantee of Nefertari'safterlife existence. Thus the mechanism of regeneration that allows Nefertari to exist after death is contingent upon the queen's gender fluidity. As the decorative program of the Small Temple illustrates. complementaryopposition king.her ability to assume both masculine regenerativecapacityand Osirian/ solar identification.is. Troycites the juxtapositionof Atum and Re-Horakhty Troy. at its core. because the (as prince can be envisioned as one facet of the multigenerationalmasculine model of kingship105 Amun and The the of Osiris and Horus or Khonsu). in exemplified by mythic paradigm in to the is drawn contrast. This can be explained by the ideological every archaeologically-known construct of kingship itself.while the royal sons can be envisioned as part of the masculine half of kingship.Just as the conceptual balance of representationsof the king and queen in the Small Temple'sprogram are appropriate(and perhapsnecessary)for the cultic function of the temple. the king's presence in his son's tomb does not compromise the son's masculine regenerative capacity or his ability to become an Osiris. As mentioned previously.
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