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# Flexural Design and Material Properties

Outline
Material Properties

Reinforced concrete beams

Prestressed concrete beams

Reinforced concrete columns

Brittle failure of prestressed members

Material properties
Material properties
Concrete calculations use cylinder strength ~0.8
cube strength
Concrete specification uses both: C40/50 has 40
MPa cylinder strength (f
ck
) and 50 MPa cube strength
Covers concrete grades up to C70/85 for bridges and
C90/105 for buildings
Short term Youngs Modulus for concrete obtained
from:

3 . 0
ck
cm
10
8
22
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
f
E
Material properties
Design strengths
Element Characteristic strength Design strength
Reinforcement
yield
f
yk
f
yd
= f
yk
/
s

Prestressing yield
f
p0.1k
f
pd
= f
p0.1k
/
s

Concrete in direct
compression
f
ck
f
cd
=
cc
f
ck
/
c

o
cc
allows for long term effects, eccentricities and true shape of
concrete stress-strain block
Recommended value = 1.0 for buildings and 0.85 for bridges
UK National Annex for bridges and buildings gives 0.85 for bending and
axial force, 1.0 for shear
Other values are used in other situations e.g. varies in strut and tie
Reinforcement
Reinforcement specified to EN 10080
Plain round bars not covered by EN 1992
Bars can have ductility class A, B or C; A not permitted for
bridge design

Standard reinforcement yield strength is 500 MPa
Designation of reinforcement to EN 10080 is:
B500B
Class Characteristic strain at
maximum force,
uk

Minimum value of
k = (f
t
/f
y
)
k

A 2.5% 1.05
B 5% 1.08
C 7.5% 1.15, <1.35
Bar Yield stress, f
yk
Ductility class
Stress strain curves for reinforcement

ud
may be found in the National Annex and is recommended to
be taken as 0.9
uk

Benefit of using inclined branch compared to past UK practice
o
c
f
yd
/ E
s

c
uk

kf
yk

f
yd
= f
yk
/
s

0 c
ud

f
yk

kf
yk

B
A
k = (f
t
/ f
y
)
k

A Idealised
B Design
Reinforcement
Compressive stress blocks for bending and
axial force
Possible blocks are:
rectangular
bilinear
parabola-rectangle
All have same
maximum stress so
rectangular gives
greatest bending
resistance
No formulae for bending
resistance provided
see example
Strain limits differ for the
different blocks.
f
cd
f
cd
f
cd

Stress (for f
ck
50 MPa)
Strain
x
x
(=0.8)
Compressive stress blocks for bending and
axial force
o
c

c
c
c
c2
c
cu2

f
ck

f
cd

0
(a) Parabolic-rectangular distribution
o
c

c
c
c
c3

c
cu3

f
ck

f
cd

0
(b) Bilinear distribution
o
c

c
c
0.0035
f
cd

0 0.0020 0.0007 0.00175
(c) Alternative concrete design stress blocks for f
ck
50MPa
Pre-stressing steel
Pre-stressing specified to EN 10138
Part 1 gives general rules, Part 2 wire, Part 3 strand, Part
4 - bar
Pre-stressing steel can be relaxation class 1, 2 or 3

Designation of strand to EN 10138-3 is:
Y1860S7-15.7

Strand diameter (mm)
Tensile stress, f
pk
7 wire strand
Class Prestressing steel type
1000
, Relaxation loss
at 1000 hours at 20C
1 Ordinary prestressing tendons
(wire or strand)
8.0%
2 Low relaxation prestressing
tendons (wire or strand)
2.5%
3 Hot rolled and processed bars 4%

ud
may be found in the National Annex and is recommended to be taken
as 0.9
uk
Need to use inclined branch to get similar results to past UK practice
Design curves for prestressing
o
c
f
pd
/ E
p

c
uk

f
pk

f
pd
= f
p0.1k
/
s

0 c
ud

f
p0.1k

f
pk
/
s

B
A
A Idealised
B Design
Concrete creep and shrinkage
Treated more rigorously than previous UK practice
Creep strain calculated from:

Long term E value is thus E
cm
/ (1+|)
Creep factor, (,t
0
) , calculated from Annex B or from simple charts
Shrinkage split into:
Autogenous shrinkage - occurs on hydration and hardening without loss of moisture;
complete within a few months
Drying shrinkage - occurs through loss of moisture; complete in a number of years

Both creep and shrinkage parameters have to be calculated based on
concrete mix (also age at loading for creep)
c
c
cc
E
t t
o
c ) , ( ) , (
0 0
=
Beam bending resistance clause 6.1
Beam Bending Resistance
Assumptions to be made for bending resistance according to EC2:
Plane sections remain plane;
Strain in bonded reinforcement, whether in tension or compression, is
the same as the strain in the concrete at the same level;
Tensile strength of the concrete is ignored;
The stresses in the concrete, reinforcement and prestressing are
given by the design stress-strain relationships shown earlier;
The initial strain in prestressing is taken into account.

Strain Compatibility
Can be used to determine ultimate bending resistance
Determined either iteratively or algebraically
Must be used for non-uniform sections (in compression regions)
Needed if rebar stress-strain curve with rising branch used
Generally used for prestressed concrete members
Iterative approach:
Estimate location of N.A. and calculate strains in reinforcement
Calculate stresses based on strains
Calculate concrete stresses based on assumed N.A. depth
Calculate net tensile/compressive forces in section. If not equal
repeat calculations for modified N.A. position
Take moments about common point to determine moment resistance

Strain Distribution
Where there is equal compressive strains at both faces of a section, a reduced
strain limit of c
c2
is used because:
Peak stresses are reached at a strain of about c
c2

For pure compression, peak load occurs at about c
c2

For pure flexure, resistance increases beyond this point and limit of c
cu2
used
For intermediate cases where whole section or outstand part is wholly in
compression, intermediate limit is appropriate to correct idealised diagram - strain
diagram is rotated about intermediate pivot point to reduce strain limit
For flanged beams, mean strain under full compression under concentric loading
is limited to c
c2
(e.g. flanges in box girders where N.A. is in webs)
Concentric is defined as e/h < 0.1

Pivot point
Compressive strains in flange
Actual final
strain
limiting cases for strain
h
hc
c2
/c
cu2
c
c2

c
cu2

o
c

c
c
c
c2
c
cu2

f
cd

0
(a) Parabolic-rectangular distribution
idealised
real
Beam Bending Resistance
Parabolic stress block
Failure strain (c
cu2
) is only appropriate for parabolic stress blocks (c
cu3
is
used for bilinear and rectangular blocks)

f
av
and | are based on the geometry of the stress block they are
simplest for the rectangular stress block ..

cu2

s

x
d
b
A
s

x
z
F
c

F
s

f
cd

s
s
yk
s
A
f
F

= bx f F
av c
=
Beam Bending Resistance
Stress blocks
Parabolic rectangular:

Bilinear:

Simplified rectangular:

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
2
1
1
1
cu
c
cd av
n
f f
c
c
( )( )
1
2 1 2
1
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
+

+ +

=
n
n n
c cu
cu
c cu
c c
c
c c
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
3
5 0 1
cu
c
cd av
. f f
c
c
2
6 2
1
3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
c cu
cu
c cu
c c
c
c c
|

=
cd av
f f q =
2 / | =
Beam Bending Resistance
Rectangular stress block
RC resistance can be calculated using rectangular block (most
economic) and reinforcement diagram with plateau (simplest)
Simple formula can then be derived for bending resistance:

cu3

s

x
d
b
A
s

|x
z
F
c

F
s

f
cd

x
For f
ck
50 MPa,
recommended values
are:
= 0.8
= 1.0
2 / | =
cd av
f f q =
z f A M
yd s
= Rd
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
bd f
A f
d z
cd
s yd
q 2
1
cd
yd s
f b
f A
x
q
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
s
1
1
3 cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
with
which is OK provided where
assuming steel yields
Beam Bending Resistance
For design, rearrange these equations to:

Then:

Solve the equation; the lower root is the relevant one
The ratio of x/d is checked (for rebar yield) against:

The reinforcement area is now designed from:

where:
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
x
d
x
d
x
d
x
K
av
| |
0
2
= +
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
av
K
d
x
d
x
|
=>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
s
1
1
2 cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
z f
M
A
yk
s
s

>
x d z | =
C35/45 concrete
B500B reinforcement
Take:
o
cc
= 0.85

s
= 1.15

c
= 1.5
Determine bending
resistance (this is subject of
workshop)
Note there is no maximum
value for z

1500
mm
7 No. 20 diameter bars

1000 mm

50 mm
EN 1992-2: R.C. beam example
Calculation with reinforcement curve with
plateau at f
yd
gives M
Rd
= 1354 kNm

Calculation repeated with rectangular
block but reinforcement curve with rising
branch. This leads to M
Rd
= 1449 kNm

o
c 0
435
466
0.045
o
c 0
435
EN 1992-2: Bending resistance
BS5400
resistance
(kNm)
Eurocode 2
resistance
steel plateau
(kNm)
Eurocode 2
resistance
rising branch
(kNm)
1309 1354 1449
EN 1992-2: Bending resistance
Summary of bending resistances for simple
beam to BS5400 Part 4 and EN 1992-2
Generally, under-reinforced sections will benefit from
the increased calculation effort of using the stress-
strain curve with rising branch
Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams
In heavily reinforced tension zones, where tension steel doesnt
yield:
Add compression steel to reduce concrete compression zone
depth
Allows tension reinforcement to yield
Needed when is exceeded (yield criterion)

May be necessary to analyse sections with known compression
reinforcement for ultimate flexural resistance
EC2 uses same stress strain curve relationship for reinforcement
in tension and compression (unlike BS5400 Part 4)
Design approach as follows

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
s
1
1
2 cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams
For equilibrium assuming all reinforcement yields:

Used to determine required compression reinforcement so tension
reinforcement yields. x is first set in above so the tension rebar yields:

Moment determined from:
d
b
A
s

d
A
s

x
F
c

F
s

f
cd

F
s

cu2

s

x

s

s
s
yk
s
s
yk
av s s c
A
f
A
f
bx f F F F

= ' + = ' +
yk
s av
s s
f
bx f
A A

= '
=>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
s
1
1
2 cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
d F x F d F M
s c s Rd
' '
= |
Doubly Reinforced Rectangular beams

Also need to check compression reinforcement yields for formula to be
valid

If reinforcement does not yield, strain compatibility method is used.
d
b
A
s

d
A
s

x
F
c

F
s

f
cd

F
s

cu2

s

x

s

|
|
.
|

\
|

>
'
2
1
1
cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
Flanged Beams
If N.A. in compression flange at ULS, previous equations can be used
When rectangular stress block used, equations still OK for N.A. depth 1/
(~1.25) flange thickness where f
ck
<50 MPa)
Also OK if web in compression, flange in tension different b used
If flange and web in compression, section should be analysed using
strain compatibility method
Strictly, variable strain limits should be applied to flanged sections
h
d
c

b
b

cu3

s

x
d
b
A
s

0.5x
z
F
c

F
s

f
cd

x
z f A M
yd s
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
bd f
A f
d z
cd
s yd
q 2
1
cd
yd s
f b
f A
x
q
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
s
1
1
3 cu s s
yk
E
f d
x
c
with
provided where
Prestressed Concrete Beams
General assumptions same as for reinforced concrete
Initial strain of prestressing tendons considered for ultimate
resistance ( )
Strain compatibility can also be used; pre-strain to be added to
strain diagram calculated at failure (see example)
Unbonded tendons
Cannot be treated using same general rules
Strain in tendons does not increase at same rate as strain in
concrete at same level
( ) ( ) x P x P
t m P t d , ,
=

cu3

s

x
d
b
A
p

0.5x
z
F
c

F
s

f
cd

x

p

prestrain
Columns
Reinforced Concrete Columns
Same assumptions as used for bending design
Compression failure in flexure defined by strain limit c
cu2
- Strain is adjusted depending on position of N.A. and whether
section is in pure flexure or axial load (as beams)
c
cu2
= 0.0035 for class 50/60 concrete in flexure
- Modified strain c
c2
under combined bending and axial load is 0.0020
(assumes whole section in compression)

Calculated strengths are usually relatively insensitive for
variations in assumptions of ultimate concrete strain.
- Caution needed for heavily reinforced sections
Minimum applied moments to be considered in design
- Axial loads applied at minimum eccentricities (max [h/30, 20mm])
In slender columns, additional second order moments must be
allowed for
Reinforced Concrete Columns
Strain Compatibility
Assume reinforcement area and estimate N.A.
Set extreme fibre compressive strain to
cu2
(or
cu3
)
Calculate strains throughout section and stresses in reinforcement
Iterate for strain limit if whole section is in compression
Calculate axial load and moment section can resist.

Verification through further iteration
Determine moment resistance for given axial force; verify this moment
resistance exceeds coexistent moment, or
Applied moment and axial force increased pro-rata together; verify load
factor exceeds unity.
M M
max

N
N
bal

N
u
Calculates a point
on this graph
Reinforced Concrete Columns
Axial Load with Uniaxial Bending
Equations for flanged beam with N/A in flange apply
For equilibrium

=>

Taking moments about
Application of N:
N
M
h
b
d
d
A
s

A
s

x
0.0035

s

f
s

f
cd

- f
s
- F
s

F
s

F
c

x
s s c
F F F N + ' + =
s s s s av
A f A f bx f N + ' ' + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
' ' ' +
|
.
|

\
|
= d
h
A f d
h
A f x
h
bx f M
s s s s av
2 2 2
|
Reinforced Concrete Columns
Axial Load with Biaxial Bending
Through rigorous analysis interaction diagram can be
developed for N
Ed
, M
Edz
and M
Edy
Shape of diagram represented by

M
Rdi
are the moment resistances about each axis in the
absence of axial force
Not suited for design as a depends on reinforcement so
have to guess reinforcement, then check it
0 . 1 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
a
Rdy
Edy
a
Rdz
Edz
M
M
M
M
Brittle fracture of prestressed members
Brittle Failure of Members with prestress
Prestressed beams must not to fail in a brittle manner due to corrosion
or failure of individual tendons.
Potential problem if tendons corroding but the concrete remains
uncracked cant see signs of the damage.
For prestressed beams, new requirements to safeguard against this
Protection can be achieved by one of three ways:
a) Ensure remaining cables, after corrosion or failures has led to
cracking, are adequate to carry frequent combination design
moment at ULS
b) Minimum Reinforcement
c) Provide proven monitoring (inspection regime)