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toRapidSocialChange: Responses in the Populist Religion Philippines
Christl Kessler andJurgen Ruland*
tides such as "Christianity with Re-Born: TheGlobal publications in of the Twentieth "TheNext Expansion Evangelicalism Century,"1 Christendom. TheComing ofGlobal and "Charismatic Christianity"2 3 reflect inits as a Global Culture" thefact that EvanChristianity Christianity version is and worldwide. Pentecostal/Charismatic gaining gelical ground tothe Christian these strands ofChristianity World According Encyclopedia, in themid-1970s for4.5 percent of all Christians and for11.8 accounted in in 1995. The increase Pentecostals/Charismatics and,to greatest percent in a lesser has taken Africa and Latin In America. extent, Evangelicals place ofPentecostals/Charismatics rosefrom 4.8percent Africa thepercentage of in the mid-1970s in 1995. The shareof to 15.9 percent the population increased 4.6 percent to 8.8 duringthe same periodfrom Evangelicals for Latin America are The Pentecostals/ equally impressive: percent. figures from 4.4 percent in mid-1970 in Charismatics to 27.1 percent multiplied 3.4 to 7.6 percent. In Asiathesuccess 1995and Evangelicals doubledfrom is one ofPentecostal/ Charismatic as itssharerosefrom Christianity, story in 1995, in themid-1970s to 3.6 percent while theEvangelicals 0.5 percent at 0.5 and 0.8 remained virtually unchanged percent, respectively.4
* The authors thanktheWorking of the CatholicBishops Groupon Global ChurchAffairs on whichthisarticle is based. Theyalso wishto of Germany forfunding theresearch Conference their to theInstitute ofPhilippine Culture for (IPC) , Ateneode ManilaUniversity gratitude express and conducting theempirical from this article theauthors and preparing which draws. survey hosting In particular, thedirector ofIPC, Dr.Filemon and Dr.Milagros Tolentino we thank and Aguilar,Jr., Dr.Katharine L. Wiegeleand three herassistants. Wewouldalso liketo thank reviewers anonymous on this article. forhelpful comments 1 Donald Lewis, Re-Born: TheGlobal in the Twentieth ed., Christianity of Expansion Evangelicalism MI: Eerdman's, (GrandRapids, 2004). Century 2 Philip The The Global Oxford Next Christendom: (Oxford: Coming of Christianity Jenkins, University Press, 2002). 3 KarlaPoewe,ed., Charismatic as a Global Culture of South (Columbia:University Christianity Carolina Press, 1994). 4 DavidB. Barrett, Christian eds., World GeorgeT. Kurianand Todd M.Johnson, Encyclopedia Oxford Press, 2001),pp. 13-15. (Oxford: University
and culture: Christian 139. and Charismatic Taiwan: Pentecostal 1988). AlanAnderson. pp. Menzies. Tu Weiming. "Religions in China. 1997)." inWonsuk Ma and Robert P.5 force as countries ofEvangelical KoreaandChinahavegained academic attention and Pentecostal church growth. Berger. ed.8 theenormous ofthesegroups is due to their success populist in The discussion the draws on a study of religious change Philippines in 2003.Pentecostalism (Sheffield: Essays ofWilliam Pentecostalism Press. (GrandRapids. The People'sRepublic Religion of Resurgent and World Politics and (GrandRapids..Ulff. 1999). populist Philippines qualitative the discusses and topicsto thereligious thearticle styles sphere. Pentecostal Catholics. claim three registered together all overthe globe and their bothmaintain overseas members.GraemeLang. experience in Donald Lewis. in the ramifications of the Charismatic Renewal potentialpolitical Philippines. Sociology (Westport. (Cambridge: University Cambridge 6 Boo-Woong amMain:Peter Pentecostalism.1998)." in Peter L. Rubinstein. TheNext inAsia. in Honor W Menzies Sheffield Academic eds. From the tothe Present ed.Religion Regimes Comparative CT. Desecularization the World. Evangelicals America Press. in theUnited an analysis of the Second Awakening provides 74 .show .6 asidefrom Thefollowing inthePhilippines.2006 Volume 79. wearguethat character. Finally.the"Pentecostal themost Catholic Catholics"7 Charismatic groups El Charismatic The two Catholic layorganizations.forexample. East Timor theonly Christian Although predominantly country here as well.the Pentecostal and Evangelical churches haveflourished . McGuire. chapters In thearticle missions foster thegrowth ofAsianChristianity. ItsHistory andTheology Yoo.. inChina. andPolitics Christendom. present methodology in the Charismatic movement data on the of the quantitative survey scope of elaborate on the transfer and. Studies in ed. London: Praeger. It draws on a nationalsurvey on religious change Philippines 5 Jenkins. Li Yue Hong. article examines thesituation intheregion. 2004). 91-94. 1.Spring Pacific Affairs: conservative as religiously hasdescribed these churches Jenkins growing inwhich haveemerged andFreston hasshedlight on thediverse they ways In Asia.. Century I Meredith B.. 1982).Africa. Press. ResearchMethodology in the Our analysis restson more thansevenmonths of fieldwork in 2003."Conversion.using data." in MadeleineCousineau. Christianity Re-Born: TheGlobal in the 1849-1999. 2001).We start outlineof the conducted witha brief by the authors and terminology The mainsections usedinthestudy. NathanHatch.Philip commitment. in a Changing World.Korean (Frankfurt Lang. Charisma and Order in a Religious Movement Power.ed.No. "The Decline of (Gottingen: Confucianism and theProclamation oftheGospelin China. (Philadelphia: TempleUniversity 8 The conceptof political has been applied to the study of religious populism phenomena before.South as a political in many countries oftheglobalSouth. in the A." inDanielH." Expansion ofEvangelicalism Twentieth MI: Eerdman's. Charismatisch-pfingstliches Christentum Vandenhoek & Ruprecht.MI: Eerdman's. 132(Cambrige: Cambridge University in China. Murray Christianity "HolySpirit ofChina.. 2004). Christianity Republic Eighteenth Century CA: Stanford "The QuestforMeaning:Religion in the (Stanford. in Context. WalterHollenweger. biggest million Shaddaiand CouplesforChrist. andLatin Paul Freston. Press. 1996). 1997). ofChina. p. University. pp. Bays. striking growth. Yuen-Sang Leung.
9 Manyofthesurvey havebeen developed questions byTheodorHanf. study changein CostaRica (Jean-Pierre Fanger. from themainsample.200respondents wasselected ranbya nationwide sample multi-stage dom sampling Additional of 200 non-Catholic Christians design. The dataofthis selected sites mainsample isweighted for rural distribution on thesub-regional leveland for age. questions SocialWeather thedatafileand questionnaire institute which Stations. and Mindanao). Hatch. The main groups of1. Metro Manila sample for13 percent ofthesample. Only 12 percenthave not completed education. covering religious practice. with starting respondents ofthemainsample included four of design Multi-stage sample provinces thefour ofthePhilippines Luzon. residents account thebiggest 43 proportion. 1989).The Democratization American States as religious (NewHaven. are as follows: of 23 percent arebetween 18and24years between 25 and34 old. Freiburg. kindly provided bythesurvey One additional in thequestionnaire is taken from ofthe1991and 1998panelson religion. It consists of125questions beliefs. Wehr.However. retired.9 in cooperation and adaptedto Philippine circumstances with theIPC.Fifty-nine percent inrural inurban main live areasand41 percent areas. samples and 200 Catholic Charismatics werechosenusingthesnowball technique. Evangelische as Charismatic/non-Charismatic. churches 75 . religious and socioeconomic attitudes.About two-thirds of the respondents elementary actively in are the labour one-third force. participate housekeeping To assessthesocioeconomic ofrespondents. Weltanschauungsfragen. inthe inMindanao. As the Philippines Grunewald-Verlag. Wewould Stations Christians thesurvey and Dr. largeas wellas moregeneral sociopolitical The questionnaire waspresented tothree ofrespondents. Ingrid Nikolaus Werz. or unemployed. religious religious theroleofreligion in politics and society at attitudes. tolerance. One-third oftherespondents havecompleted their years elementary from 39percent havegraduated school and 16percent hold education. (National major regions Capital Region. wasdeveloped bytheArnold-Bergstraesser-Institute Germany. inLuzon. several from theISSP on religion.The questionnaire August inFreiburg.ReligidserWandelin CostaRica. The ISSPs are conducted we integrated (ISSP) surveys. and24percent live 20percent Visayas.26percent respondents are aged 35 to 49 years and 22 percent are morethan50 28 percent years. alsoliketothank Father Herbert Schneider for hishelpinidentifying andPulseAsia. Christianity CT: Yale University Press.in the Populist Religion Philippines conducted ofPhilippine Culture (IPC) of theAteneode bytheInstitute ManilaUniversity and November between 2003. background Nathan O.sexand urban/ distribution between themajor nationwide to regions population according inthe thenational census datafrom ofrespondents 2000. The age groups Gender is equally distributed. Eine sozialwissenschaftliche [Mainz: MatthiasInterpretation takepartin the International Social Science Panel 2000]). question from The questionnaire alsobenefited discussions with staff oftheSocialWeather theEurobarometer. percent. old. appliedin on religious Ulrich an earlier Bastian. high a college or university degree. of populism.Reinhard ofCharismatic within from the characteristics Hempelmann for hisadvice inclassifying Zentralstelle fur non-Catholic Berlin. due to security somerandomly reasons. studying. Arnold-Bergstraesserofthequestionnaire and constitute a slightly revised version Institute. Visayas had tobe replaced. Germany.
reveals an inconsistency areevenusedas synonyms.Spring Pacific Affairs: an indexof household incomewith we combined thedata on monetary with both of whichcorrelate and educational attainments. in theBibleand theworks charismatic mentioned oftheHolySpirit. 1. gifts to the establisheddenominations reacted ratherhostilely However.No. Fire in Heaven.10 Pentecostal churches around theworld grew enormously secondhalfof the twentieth In addition the to thisexpansion. this ofthesedifferent ofChristianity strands willhelpto clarify seemingly arbitrary labelling. is rootedin the US-American Charismatic Christianity Historically. Holiness Movementand its successor. was observation) ConceptualClarifications in the movement The subject ofourstudy is theriseoftheCharismatic to be in context needs term this The use of the Charismatic Philippines. the on the individual concentrating spiritual experienceof believers. Philippines. Twenty-First Century (Reading. of religious in thecontext of rule. The data into translated English.2006 Volume 79. A short on theorigins subsumed excursion under theterm fundamentalists. possessions of status of17percent income. itsown Pentecostal movement formed therenewal practices. the Pentecostal churches. Basedon these thesocioeconomic variables. Cox. the MA:Addison-Wesley 1995). The authors themselves interviewed from 22 leading byinterviewers All interviews were members and clergy of thesegroupsand churches. Consequently inthe churches. inthe ofthetwentieth Pentecostalism United States atthe beginning emerged Protestant churches Itsaimwastorenew theexisting "mainline" by century. IPC. and Pentecostal in how the labelsEvangelical. Charismatic areemployed. andthesocioeconomic respondents is classified as high.which wouldbe misleading sociology movements on religious movements The literature and denominations. sometimes theterms are sometimes To further confuse all oftheseChristian traditions readers. 10 Harvey G. TheRise ofPentecostal and the from Reshaping ofReligion Spirituality 76 . of of7 percent status isclassified as low. qualitative expert restricted to Metro Manila. coveredall majorregions Whereasthe survey and participant interviews data (interviews. respondents The data gainedfromthissurvey was complemented by qualitative and ofPentecostal interviews with 22 members usinginterview guidelines in Catholic Charismatic theseinterviews wereconducted Tagalog groups. Publishing Company. to Max Weber's Charismatic as socialscientists relatethe term clarified. transcribed and theTagaloginterviews were interviews and derived from standardized questionnaires in-depth invarious observation religious supplemented bydatagained byparticipant in talks with and seminars and background information services acquired of the academicexperts. century.
Ammermann. emerged early century. meant thesame being Evangelical virtually intheUS.Ammermann. and laughing out loud during were services. 13 Marsden. 37.p. Despitetheir agreedon suchas a literal in theBibleand opposition most ofdoctrine. (1910-28) und iranischeSchiiten(1961-79) im Vergleich (Tubingen: J.who defines as follow Christianity 11 MartinRiesebrodt. crying weeping. Marsden. Despite theFundamentalist excluded from movement. and American Culture Brace (San Diego. practices..153 ff. After World WarII.Pentecostal In thePhilippines havecomecloser toeachother. someFundamentalists optedfor cooperation souls for Christ. London:University ofChicagoPress. pp. With their Pentecostals emphasis spiritual experience. an Episcopal in 1959. p. somecommon someevenas satanic Pentecostals ground. and socialorder." Ammermann. belief points ButPentecostal intrance.C.11 old religious Pentecostals and Fundamentalists differences. 77 . Mohr.182 ff. from distanced themselves eventually Evangelicals.Appleby. offered a religious while Fundamentalists to restore strove the innovation. Religionand American American Protestant Culture.12 weretherefore strictly Up orFundamentalist tothe1950s. In our of to Pentecostal use the term Christians we belonging Charismatic the suggestion of Poewe. Marty and Scott R. thenameEvangelical for thesakeofwinning They adopted intheir effort with mainline andcooperated denominations that missionary Fundamentalists Fundamentalists regardedas apostate. 217-18. Nancy T. North Fundamentalism. NewYork:Harcourt Religion American Protestant North Fundamentalism. Charismatisch-pfingstliches pp. (Chicago. after thePentecostal movement.B. 1990). Council of Fundamentalist Philippine The term Charismatic issometimes usedina narrow sensetodistinguish Christians within non-Pentecostal denominations from the Charismatic churches. speaking in tongues. Hollenweger. Today'sEvangelicalscan trace theirrootsback to the Protestant a movement that in thetwentieth Fundamentalists.and to the priest.Fundamentalismus alspatriarchalische Amerikanische Protestanten Protestbewegung.13 on theological Giventhe broad agreement and issues. 1990). churches this Evangelical that Pentecostal churches are members is demonstrated ofthe bythefact . 12 GeorgM. behaviour andby regarded byFundamentalists activities.a council Council ofChurches calledthe formerly Evangelical Philippine Churches. p. toliberal likefalling theology. inMartin American Protestant E.Consequently. Christentum.in the Populist Religion Philippines on theHoly Pentecostal andon individual emphasis Spirit spirituality spread as a Charismatic to mainline movement Protestant denominations under theleadership ofDennisBennet. inPennsylvania Roman Catholic andMichigan Church. as improper inGod'shouse. Observed eds. 217-218. Jovanovich.Fundamentalisms 1991). beginning University circles. Pentecostals and Fundamentalists slightly can be seenas twodifferent reactions to therapidsocialchange religious in North induced and urbanization America after the byindustrialization onindividual Civil War. "North Fundamentalism.
16 with an estimated ofnearly one million. Evangelical and Charismatic Roman-Catholic Christians.available propaganda. at <http://www. 15 "So muchmoreto do! Evaluating DAWN2000 Philippines. registered followers. 1.originated the in the early1970s. old_home/phil_eval. movement. El Shaddai tobe thelargest Charismatic claims oftheCatholic Today with two million million members andan estimated seven groups. 16 JoseA.2003. for and Protestant Charismatic origins at a in a an 19 of non-Catholics.7 percent members of respondents 78 . they they As Pentecostal oftheir movement. Although the often mention that adhereto Catholic beliefs and practices. Charismatic as a GlobalCulture. 1.reachedthe mentioned above.Spring Pacific Affairs: and allChristian that spiritual experience "encompassing groups emphasize the activities of the Holy Spirit. 17 According to ourdata. actors The acknowledgement ofsimilarities bythePhilippine expressed as part ofthe themselves alsolegitimizes ofthedifferent ouranalysis groups same arekeentoclarify Catholic Charismatic leaders phenomenon.No."14 Whenwe speakof the Charismatic movement in thePhilippines includePentecostal we therefore churches. 29 March2004. RomanCatholicism is a legacy oftheSpanish past andmainline American colonizers Protestantism first entered theislands with in 1899. survey astonishing percent thedelegates Council the above-mentioned Philippine missionary congress organized by ofEvangelical Charismatics as saved Churches Catholic optedfor counting soulsin theEvangelical sense. preachers in the UnitedStatesin 1967. is Lord.manilatimes." (30 March2004).8 percent in themainsampleare members ofEl Shaddaicompared to 3. Evangelical II. "Aprimer on political at ManilaTimes. in1983.one of thebiggest Protestant Charismatic Jesus groups.CouplesforChrist of exceedsEl Shaddaiin membership: 0. businessman.net>. Protestant Charismatic aswell as Charismatic mainline Christians.html>.15 The Charismatic in thePhilippines Movement in Pentecostal and Charismatic area relatively newphenomenon groups colonial thePhilippines. <http:www.4 million unregistered registered CouplesforChrist reports membersin 2001. 14 Poewe. War of US-American did not start before World predominantly origin. 2. andFilipino Pentecostal andEvangelical churches soon"Filipinized.17Othergroupsreport in the tensof memberships thousands." article availableon the Dawn Ministries Website.dawnministries. Christianity p. wasfounded byEddie membership in 1978. The Catholic Charismatic which. Carillo." were as tookthelead.Mike Villanueva El Shaddai a former started Velarde. But substantial also and Pentecostal missions.org/ June20.One of our interview traces Philippines partners contact Catholic toa Filipino hadcomeinto Renewal movement couplethat theCatholic in theUnitedStates.2006 Volume 79. Mostof the with Charismatic Renewal in thelate1970sorearly studied groups byus wereestablished byFilipinos 1980s.
4.7 percent forCouples of Christ and 0.in the Religion Populist Philippines In contrast to the"explosion ofProtestantism in Latin which America. Statistics ofthePhilippines. Department ofthePhilippines. Thereare no data on religion available forthe1970and 1980census. "CensusofthePhilippines 1960Population Republic " vol. Sources: A review conducted members.p.TheExplosion Protestantism in Latin America (Oxford."18 a Catholic colonial shares with thePhilippines.Tongues Fire. II. 17." (Manila:2003). 79 . No. Summary Report(Manila:1963) table19. 3: Socioeconomic and Demographic Report Population Characteristics.5 percent El Shaddai of 2001. SWS Survey vol.whichgivesthe figures (Manila. Republic and Housing. of of MA: Blackwell. 1990: National "1990Censusof Office. Ownsurvey 2003: Thisfinding confirms theresults oftheSocialWeather Stations National Survey CouplesforChrist. II. Republic and Housing. 2: Demographic and Housing Population Report Characteristics. NationalStatistics ofthePhilippines. RomanCatholic of 83 percent and a non-Catholic Christian population 1 Figure toRapidSocialChange: in the Responses Religion Populist Philippines ofCommerce and Industry. of 2. no. 1948/1960:BureauofCensusand Statistics.p. 3 Stations. Cambridge. No. ofsurveys bySocial Weather Snapshots. 1990).2002). 18 David Martin. 2000: "2000Censusof Office. therecent of legacy growth in thePhilippines and Pentecostal did notresult in a Evangelical groups in theProtestant substantial increase In our survey. and Housing. we finda population." (Manila:1992).
A of2001reports for4 percent ofthepopulation that Muslims account (SWSSurvey Survey Snapshots. 2000: "2000Censusof Office. 80 . ofCommerce 1948/1960:BureauofCensusand Statistics. Republic and Housing.p. between Censusdata of 1948and 1960differentiates Protestants.Spring Affairs: Pacific 2 Figure Protestants Philippine and Industry. ofthePhilippines. thesurvey. II. only here The figure forNCCP churches and Iglesiani Cristo. 4) . Thisexplains A SocialWeather Stations theunderrepresentation ofMuslims (1 percent). and Housing. ofsurveys bySocial Weather p. "1990Censusof 1990: NationalStatistics Office." grew expense 19 Asmentioned ofsecurity Muslim areasin for reasons wehad toreplacepredominantly above. NationalStatistics ofthePhilippines. and Housing No. Department 1960Population ofthePhilippines. Evangelical at the of Protestant mainline denominations." (Manila:2003). review conducted Stations.2006 Volume 79." (Manila:1992). "CensusofthePhilippines Republic " vol. Summary Report(Manila:1963) table19. given Aglipayans is thefigure for Aglipayans. Report Characteristics.19 infigures Thedatashown population in decades. 1. of the Catholic has been stable recent percentage quite population and Pentecostal under"other Protestant subsumed churches. Ownsurvey 2003: Sources: 1 and2 suggest that the of16percent. 3: Socioeconomic Population Housing. Republic and Demographic and No. 17.No. 2: Demographic Population Report Characteristics. churches.
although Philippine Protestantism has a strongCharismatic wing.The Charismatic 3 Figure Charismatic Engagement Source: 2003. Catholics Thus. Own survey. 81 . Philippine this assessment is misleading insofar as ittakes thelossof However.in the Populist Religion Philippines Data on church is ofonly limited valuewhenit comesto membership Charismatic as theyare foundin virtually all Christians. theriseof theCharismatic be evenmoreaffected. The most result ofthesurvey theCatholic is striking 15percent ofCatholic Charismatics: ofall interviewed thehigh percentage intheCharismatic areactive movement. landscape Protestantism. The Catholic Church isas muchaffected church members by as theProtestant In the movement churches. identifying askedall Christian denominations. groupthathas adoptedCharismatic census on church that therise ofPentecostal membership. on active Charismatics The resulting showthe"pentecostalization" figures More than one-third of all non-Catholic of PhilippineProtestantism. We therefore in themain respondents in Charismatic forCharismatic and membership practices sample groups. only intoaccount. in thePhilippines ofa Pentecostal Christians are members church or a lay These results buttress the practices.the bulk of Philippine Charismatics belong to the RomanCatholicChurch. indicating figures churches and Evangelical between changednot so muchthe relations and non-Catholic but the religious Catholic within Christians. as Catholics are simultaneously longrunit might and members oftheCharismatic movement and therefore Catholic affect Church from within.
Christianity Pentecostalism. Thisassumption our data. ofLatinAmerican in DonaldLewis. percentage to our the Charismatic is smallest in MetroManila. poor by any consequently. Catholics thus do nothavetodismiss thefaith were they brought Philippine tolivetheir theCharismatic wish up in. 227-229. the Philippines of otherstudies.pp. buta subgroup Charismatic is notequivalent tojoininga socialminority. residence evenworks Metropolitan members of to the other the of active Compared major regions. Pentecostal/Protestant percent in the Philippines is therefore the Catholic successful current religious Charismatic movement. the becominga probably Philippines. it seemslesssuccessful from toPentecostalism.Spring Pacific Affairs: in thesurvey and only 30 Christians of70 percent Catholics arecomprised In terms ofnumbers. Thismight contribute ofCharismatic all one hasto attractiveness for social strata.20 Thereis a Catholic Charismatic in America as wellbut. Re-Born: in the Twentieth (GrandRapids. direction. phenomenon depicting oftheuneducated urban Thisimpression stems from mediacoverage poor. Renewal. respondents The same holds true for but much less than women. population supported by churches inAfrica is notborneoutby and Latin America. conversions Catholicism preventing Theroots ofthis "Catholization" ofthePentecostal/Charismatic religiosity can be traced in which dealtwith backto theway thePhilippine hierarchy thebeginnings ofCatholic initial and suspicion. The genderdifference is not significant. After reluctance The the RomanCatholicChurchwelcomed Charismatics. themost Christians. thenumber of success ofPentecostal churches has substantially increased in Latin Protestant Renewal Christians. represented. the Catholic into the Church structure themovement hierarchy successfully integrated and ensured that doctrine theCharismatic stuck to Catholic while groups a Pentecostal of and simultaneously adapting style worship religious practice. Poor respondents in the Charismatic are not over-represented in theopposite movement.ifthey religiosity way.attendedby the poorersegments in Metro studies on Pentecostal and is Manila.No. This difference betweenthe is Charismatic movement and Charismatic Christians elsewhere Philippine In due to Catholic dominance. expected.2006 Volume 79." TheGlobal MI: Eerdman's. 82 . Most tend for theCharismatic movement observers toaccept that support isstrongest the strata of it as a lower among society. to the within theCatholic culture of themajority. Expansion of Evangelicalism Century 2004). 1 . majority in Christians arepoor. the Thisresult incomparison isalsoremarkable toLatin where America.Contrary movement education are slightly overwithtertiary expectations. which does not contradict thefindings 20 Paul Freston.unlikein thePhilippines. groups in in are mind that the the vast of the keep majority population Philippines of Charismatic the vast standards. of El Shaddai prayer of the rallies. thesuccess oftheCharismatic movement Therefore. However. "Contours ed..
participating beingbaptized in religious etc. respondents as to of the Protestant Catholic of respondents. in Charismatic seminars.one has to go beyondmembership churches and laygroupsand ask about religious and beliefs. likely but in otherregionsthe urban/rural matics. sociopolitical Charismatic is clearly relatedto active Not surprisingly. in an unexpected as respondents orwork with direction.The reverse character of the mainsample is at the otherend of the scale: 24 percent picture on Charismatic butonly score one or none 3 percent religiosity. respondents. but findings byshowing religion for them. religiosity intheCharismatic . to Brotherhood Contrary Manila residents are less to CharisMetro be conventional wisdom. in thePhilippines is obvious ofProtestantism here.Theseresults changes. in the movement's weaknesses to survive organization. ofall respondents in themainsample). opposed 27 percent are either Socioeconomic factors irrelevant for Charismatic respondents. that thehigh analysis component in theCharismatic rates movement alsoreflect a specific participation type Charismatic includes and beliefs that ofreligiosity. El of Shaddai nor the elite members of the middle-class constituency of Christian Businessmen and Professionals. aremore than others tobe Charismatic. leadership possible ofthecausesofthis success. suchas tithing.6**) involvement (Cramer's in thePhilippines movement is based on a indicate thattheCharismatic a set of and beliefs that has thepotential of certain practices type religiosity.in the Populist Religion Philippines Charismatic tothelower strata ofsociety.covering religious religious practice. Itqualifies connect these religion that Charismatic is attractive for thepoor. one'sfaith services. are religiosity practices inreligious inthePhilippines. practices A principal ofourdatareveals attitudes. Thesefigures movement V 0. 83 . buteducation Catholic women likely are more than attitudes decisive and certain gender.81). notexclusively To evaluatereligious of change. tertiary religiosity are education slightly over-represented among thosescoringhigh on andMetro Manila dwellers areunder-represented in Charismatic religiosity no correlation between this There is socioeconomic status significant group. stillalmostone-fifth The Pentecostal of respondents. Charismatic (26 percent religiosity this share theProtestant Within respondents jumpsup to64percent. experiences Pentecostal beliefs. raisethequestion etc. splitdoes not segregate thanexpected. Our qualitative data suggest or incomeand Charismatic that religiosity. Among in 19percent wefind a high Charismatic theCatholic religiosity respondents of all Catholics. tendto cater tospecific Charismatic communities socioeconomic different isrestricted toneither thepoorandlowerbutCharismatic religiosity groups.Some groupsof Genderis less important Charismatics. Weclassify thetopquartile of or Charismatic/ religious as showing a high whoagreeto at leastsevenoftheseitems. new comparatively expression in theHolySpirit. testifying publicly The Charismatic factor consists of16items (Cronbach's religiosity alpha intense Charismatic 0.
21 Populists in a sharedmoral fora society strive and a statethatis firmly grounded institutions.No. mobilization draws on charismatic (in the leadership Populist political methods Weberian sense oftheconcept) skills andunconventional . Instead ofcomplicated representative procedures face-to-face democracy. Democracies andthe Puhle. "Populismand the Pathology in Meny and Surel. presumably The Charismatic Movement as PopulistReligion and populist We proposethethesis thatthetransfer of populist styles of Charismatic into the accounts for the success topics religious sphere in the It is of Charismatic the religion style preachers Philippines."22 do notsimply thisequationfailsto recognize thatpopulists However. and Surel. Hans-Jiirgen Populist in Nikolaus "Zwischen Protest und Politikstil: und Demokratie. in whichgrass-roots can interaction and smallcommunities democracy flourish andleaders arepersonally accountable totheir followers. premodern bureaucracies andarrogant elites. Right-Wing Populism Europe (Basingstoke: Torcuato S. "Populism Century." Representative Challenge. Populists protest classthesystem from that this elitesupports. "TheConstitutive ofPopulism. p. 1." Political "Trust thePeople!Populism and theTwoFacesofDemocracy.Populismus. 187-200.2-16. modernization. populistspropagatepersonal relationships.XLVII(1999). 22." Yves andYves Studies.2006 Volume 79.Democracies 2002). pp.Democracies of and the Paul Taggart. 22:46 (1996). 22 Betz.pp. Politics." Canovan. urbanization. Populismas a politicalphenomenoncombinesa certainstyleof of a certain and a specific standon theeffects setoftopics. "Populism.. and pluralism insecurity a "revolt has been considered modernization. premodern populists that societiesand get rid of the complexity. populist that renders and thepopulist character ofCharismatic and belief practice this in of so successful the type religiosity Philippines. therefore accompany Populism against modernity. mobilization. society. Meny Challenge (Basingstoke: Palgrave.. stick toa backward vision ofa lesscomplex.understood as complex." Question. 1994). Populisten undEuropa (Opladen:Leske+Budrich. eds. 84 . Papadopoulos. Meny Ambiguity inYves andYves andthe Surel. Populists fight against corrupt anonymous on behalf man. Populist Challenge. intotheTwenty-first Government andOpposition. Margaret vol. in call for a reduction (institutional) complexity They in a mass idealize thepast. Populist inMeny Yannis theDemocratic and Contemporary Governance.Spring Pacific Affairs: so attractive WhatmakesCharismatic comparedto other. traditional." Werz. Betz.Radical in Western Right-Wing Populism Europe. 2003). that aswell aspolitical andeconomic system encompasses private In other of to the sacred cosmos want reinstate words.Theylegitimize their actions with oftheordinary experts 21 Hans-Georg Radical inWestern Macmillan. while refraining propagating and basedinterests. Di Telia. religiosity forms ofreligiosity in thePhilippines? older. interrelatedprocesses of industrialization and individualization. Populismus. Neo-Populismus in Ubersee ed.rhetorical theeliteand toattract articulate against publicattention. Surel.
pp. 77. in politics washighlighted strategies bythepresidential populist campaign in1998.suchas a hyphenated wearenotdealing with version ofpolitical populism . style political sphere. Democratization and theConsolidation ofDemocracy Sincethe "Philippine Trends in FelipeB.no. Estrada Itwasnocoincidence that ofhissupporters ofjoseph many El also followers of the Charismatic Shaddai were movement. 83-126 and pp.in the Populist Religion Philippines reference totherights ofordinary this people.butwith orleft-wing thetransfer ofa certain right-wing populism populism to the religious As a result of external influences. and populist ofelectioneering. ofthePhilippines Democratization: Press.25 24 GraceGorospejamon.that to defend and that rulers legitimization ordinary people have rights . fruitfully theconcept of"religious inhisseminal oftheSecond applied populism" study intheUnited States 1780and1830. byhomegrown populist techniques inPhilippine entrenched culture andready tobe picked deeply political up and usedbyreligious movements.p." Journal. ample spacefor populism. Hatch. usuallyoperatewithsimplistic party which address ofordinary keyconcerns platforms peoplewithout solving them: shelter and publicsafety.is based on quite modernconceptsof areaccountableto the ruled and democracy. The Philippines inherited from theUS a political that system provides Presidentialism andplurality for instance. An Overview oftheMainIssues. E.The assumption underlying . Philippine 25 JoseV. 43 (1999).Abueva." 1986Revolution: ed. prosperity. The above-mentioned Nathan forinstance.23 between Weprefer tospeak Awakening ofpopulist instead ofreligious inorder toemphasize that religion populism . have neither a rapidly sustained economic They produced changing nor a modicumof socialjustice. 1997). political Filipinos a elite and are of the of hijacked by corrupt incapable mastering challenges world.20. institutions and towards is generalcynicism Philippine political politics El Shaddai members.24 This coincides with the results of among widespread inwhich institutions rank other whereas churches low. 85 . 116-117. voting. The enormous success of jobs. Not surprisingly. In theabsenceof favour personalism styles candidates election programmes.. "TheEl ShaddaiPrayer Movement: Political Socialization ina Religious Science vol. polls political opinion score well. exacerbated institutional are factors. TheDemocratization ofAmerican Christianity. Miranda. Political tothedeepdistrust andcynical attitudes ofmany responds populism ordinary in their their towards which view havebeen institutions. distrust of growth. thepolitical ofpopulism tothereligious field isnot Transferring concept a novelidea. and Prospects. therefore reacts to modern societal citizenship Populism andplurality themodern notion ofcitizens' complexity bycombining rights withthe imagined societies based on personal qualitiesof premodern relations and sharedethicsinsteadof procedural governed bymorality agreements. (Quezon City: University Philippine Perspectives 23 Hatch. Political Context.
The Next Christendom. Wiegele. 80. 1 . people country.p. 28 LeonardoN. thus and central element ofPhilippine Tuggy Toliver religion. in the ofHawai'iPress. your Youareinfor Spirit. Shaddai.28 prayer rallies.No. nearly JoeyFaller. Mike Velarde successful While reputation on CatholicCharismatic chairman of the NationalServiceCommittee all in thisrespect. power One favoured domainformiracles is healing.Leadersoftenhave a ofEl Shaddaiand the as healers.theinternal attention. "Healings entry in thelives ofthose whoexperienced and miracles havebeen manifested life will never theBaptism intheHoly a surprise . 2001). are to to this must have a healings strong Adding appeal affinities appeal. power tothegreat cited as testimony oftheir closeness toGod. (Manila:LogosPublications. began as a radio apostolate. Father are outstanding Renewal. 1972). 73.El Shaddai. Tuggy in the and Ralph Toliver. pre-Christian in tongues notedthathealingis moreimportant thanspeaking among Pentecostals. The persuasiveness oftheir appealincreases from a derived of their toinduce an aura extraordinary ability power. Seminar. (Honolulu:University 2005). gives presence El 's over the Radio and TV cover Shaddai with rallies. A Study SVD. Shaddai become oneofthemost stations popular all 14hours channels ofTV time it a on several which weekly. inwhich benefits for themajority be thesameagain. and has hours a Velarde's radio station broadcasts DWXI 24 meantime.Spring Pacific Affairs: that has shown movement The enormous attraction oftheCharismatic the from be transferred can successfully of mobilization styles populist this transfer sections describe tothereligious Thefollowing political sphere. ingreater miracles as unconventional features: detail for thecentral populist of the structure methods of gaining massmedia. Investing in Miracles: El Shaddai and theTransformation of PopularCatholicism 86 .p. andreduction movement andthetopics ofanti-system protest Miracles Supernatural powers: on powerful Likepolitical Charismatic leadersrely language populists. of the Charismatic and Pentecostal experiences groups highlight healing of a kind their The invitation to a "Lifein theSpirit followers. Philippines 29 KatherineL.29 tolive onthe toorattending broadcasts even while listening way prayer 26 Jenkins. 10. p. with rhetorical andjoyful rites.Miracles areoften oftheHolySpirit. 43 ff.27 Filipino are ofthepreachers Testimonies ofmiraculous andthemessages healings El In and broadcast toa wideaudience radio televangelism.M. Seeing Philippines Publishers. Mercado. by In the the largest Charismatic movement..F. ofcomplexity. 27 LeonhardA.fact." states: seminar intotheCatholic Charismatic movement.p. theChurch (Manila: O." In a country healthcare the prospect of miraculous of the population are virtually nonexistent.26 was sickness and traditional Involvement with healing a religious practices.2006 Volume 19. day El also has in Metro Manila..
p. 109. El Shaddai. percent everything their if occur within thecongregation. 31 Mercado. system government. people are as and these which and to blame elites.in the Religion Populist Philippines Charismatic hasitsownradioprogramme and virtually every group Today. ofthegroup orchurch. oforganization. Velarde. they rely patterns andPentecostal Most Charismatic interviewed neither groups byuspractice recruitment nordemocratic decision democratic Often leadership making. effect is supplemented mobilizing by othermedia such as newsletters."30 to those alsocater whohavenot Their joined a parish-based prayer group. against of a particular business bureaucracies. videocassettes distributes pamphlets. theauthority ofleaders isbasedon theBible.31 and churches stress WhiletheCharismatic and. Electronic mass media have created "virtual Christian which communities. Velarde's sermons. disagreements says. outweigh Anti-elitism and anti-system protest and authoritarian structures Strong leadership anti-elitism isanti-system Itmay The populist be directed protest.TheEl Shaddai Prayer Movement. The factthat conglomerates are unable to the institutions interests of existing represent ordinary people thekey the ofthe arethe leaders delegitimizes system. Their poweris viewedas and functional thus have no chance toprotect their interests Ordinary overwhelming. against perceived arrogant corrupt 30 Gorospe-Jamon. although targets protest elites of these institutions. inpractice onhierarchical oforganization. althoughone could sense inourinterviews. or even established churchorganizations. reacha substantial of thepopulation.32 endin schism. record Elders persons in an informal and nominated and top-down whoareproposed process by thegroup's leaders. Christian programmes proportion in themainsample oftherespondents reveal that Thirty-one percent they on radioorTVweekly listen toreligious services and 8 percent do so daily. Ultimately.000 monthly copiesofits BagongLiwanagmagazine. conflicts between different Charismatic underlying groups cause of and Charismatic thecommon renewal revival seemsto spiritual internal differences andfractions. p. p. Nevertheless. free which contains 300. 87 . 11. is one reason for thespread ofvarious often which new they communities and organizations.El Shaddai. political parties. theleaderisthefounder supported byan oligarchy are usually with a longtrack in thegroup ofelders.TheEl Shaddai Prayer Movement. 32 Gorospe-Jamon. foundin a survey Not surprisingly. of 200 El Shaddai Gorospe-Jamon in that 70. 100. and books. usually groups equality inkeeping with theidealsofearly choosecongregational forms Christianity.5 believed that members Mike leader. forinstance. However.
." Shaddai". populism targets political elitismof the Charismatic movement challengesestablishedchurch hierarchies.September group. oneself from the Catholic recognizable way distancing ofCharismatic What then iswrong Catholicism from theperspective with a hint she El Shaddai leader Velarde as when groups? Wiegele gives quotes of that he to free from the because wants saying bondage religion. dominant Charismatic the Catholic numerically including groups. 34 In-person interview with theleaderofa Charismatic 2003. 88 .Spring Pacific Affairs: for interests of thus actas advocates ofthesuppressed hardships. people Thisis echoedbyone blocks therelationship with theHolySpirit. "My religion respondents.Volume 2006 79. 50. butalsoin quality. one's "Catholicness" as different from notonly fellow Catholics. TheCatholic Charismatic hierarchies movement even challenges from within.With appeal to thepeople they and to transcend socialclasses. In thePhilippines. religion ofourCatholic can't Charismatic when she says. sample of200 Catholic Charismatics observation that12 we madetheinteresting themselves not simply as "Catholic" but as "Charismatic percent identify some even "El none of the members of nonas Catholic. Manila.only faith . criticism of theCatholic Church varies Charismatics and Pentecostal are morevocalin their Evangelical groups criticism of theCatholic Mostof the Church thanCatholic Charismatics. liberal to task fortheir cold.No. Whilepolitical theantiauthorities.33 Spirituality in stand the of a direct and who relationship through way personal priests God. experience. preoccupation obviously referring is mediated with sacraments and itsneglect of evangelizing. unity Ifpopulism so is theCharismatic is an assault on established authority. Investing p. they interpret of Church as such. inMiracles.34 Catholics wentoverto "Born VelardeclaimsthatFilipino for these reasons." said the leader of anotherCharismatic group when interviewed. serado" devoted Charismatics arenotonly "Katoliko very but are Charismatic Catholics. can save What Velarde my through its to here is Catholic ritual and tradition. Again" groups precisely 33 Wiegele. This indicates that a Charismatic somehow religious being qualifies in scope. are me.cerebral. But apartfromthisstreamlining in doctrinal Charismatic matters. inthePhilippines isdirected their criticism mainly theCatholic Church.. Charismatic Catholic for their when asked were layorganizations specific affiliation. accentuate their and the doctrinal ofthe Catholic identity accept guidance Roman Catholic Church. Aselsewhere. Populists thecommon seekto create their people. Theyare also taken which hasno placefor emotion and spiritual theology. ButProtestant mainline churches arenotspared against from criticism. this as a subtle We Catholics. Catholics seemtomaintain In oursnowball a sense ofdistinctiveness. 1 . in intensity. "Weare theChurch and theChurch doesnotbelongtobishops with and cardinals. El Shaddai." she and saveme. movement.
pp. denying the equality of richand poor. 1. elections. pp. 2. Velarde adviser gave the trustworthy spiritual to Estrada as someone he to be that wassimply trying loyal seeking impression .El Shaddaihas repeatedly political in the political arena. led to another three based on charges Estrada later. Hisopponents hisspiritual maybe.in the Religion Populist Philippines of the churchfrom the faithful is a common Whilethe remoteness El Shaddai Velarde's went further denominator ofCharismatic discontent. toprotect anddemocratic hisopponents. Sin. inits from Church than most other Charismatic distance theCatholic groups. intheir Estrada were members ofEl Shaddai mobilized by majority supporters In ni their President Estrada wasa man Church. Cardinal C. 55. massmovements suchas El Shaddaiin particular Charismatic ofpopulism. 50-77."ThePoliticization ofthePhilippine Catholic Asian vol. social questforunity. political to seize as a veiled for was thus regarded thinly attempt power corruption to have but Estrada wasnotnecessarily oneself. 28January 2003. waswilling help of his Brother Mike Velarde. butan honest seeker. whoclaimed neither were political abstract democratic whereas Velarde morals.36 in a circle 35 EdgardoE. RamosandJoseph candidates vehemently ofManila. and 7 February 36 Mercado.then themost Jaime opposedbytheArchbishop in the Philippines. see also Today. The impeachment of corruption." Studies. Church.In the 1992 and 1998 withthe churchhierarchy El Shaddai supported forinstance. and the Catholic Bishops senior Churchofficial of President of the Philippines Conference (CBCP).p. which adhere for Christ strictly been at loggerheads church's agenda. 2003.35 Bothwere FidelV. Theyadvocated principles. 34. ofmany Charismatic issupplemented The anti-elitist outlook groups bya needsofordinary for the(religious) another central feature concern people.p. Unlikethemoremiddle-class-based groups Couples totheinstitutional andBukas Loob sa Diyos. the eventually forcing people's powermovement. Estrada. The El Shaddai issue (1998). strongly supported Estradaout of office. years El Shaddaiand theCatholic Church. Prayer p. Gorospe-Jamon. El Shaddai.The onenessof and stressing differences in prayer is symbolized likeholding followers hands meetings bypractices and hugging eachother. confrontation between While serious mainline Protestant the thelatter. theemotional andreligious needsofthemasses claim tomeet neglected by Thisincludes a strong theofficial church. centennial Movement. 89.a sinner. 89 . presidential presidential E. likemany churches. 8-9. President thought integrity. support In this of the as simply forpower. Dagdag. p. viewanymember wereviewed striving as other for elite was Blaming politicians regarded beingcorrupt. view and theIglesia Cristo but to do better with the who mayhavefailed. in times of ties demonstrated crisis. loyalty putting personal above personal abstract principles. suchas LovedFlock.
No. 53. it does so in a fragmented way. experiences and undermines viewssuch as "complexity onlyblursresponsibilities and attractive. CouplesforChrist bythe poorersegments suchas the audience. itworks!" andprayers inCharismatic andPentecostal hard. 90 . is a return to simple to thesegrievances The populist answer of are of common thus to the wisdom sense. have to with complexities growing They cope render These technicalities ofa modernizing populist society. accountability"37 acceptable solutions.Spring Pacific Affairs: that theCharismatic Asalready oursurvey datashow mentioned. populist claim oftranscending social classes isnotsimply However. norms ofinstitutions. This is an readsan advertisement on one ofthemajor of highways 37 Papadopoulos. explanation: provide challenges worldly The own the modernworldhas turnedawayfromGod and his ways. suspicious Populists appeal on the thrives If and hostile to deliberation. 38 Papadopoulos. modernization and why a Christian renewal thesinful are an of the institutions problem. Other toa middle-class organizations predominantly to restrict "Brotherhood of Businessmen and Professionals" membership is in Christ and oneness theupperclass.In reality. 51. p. hisBrotherhood ofBusinessmen Reductionofcomplexity istheresult Thiscomplexity isusually with Modernity equated complexity.In fact. Populism. in the Philippines reduction of complexity. caters dominated of society. worldly integral part to all The solution remedies correlate with Simple simple explanations. 1 . worldly why religious explain populist to rapid to respondadequately institutions are seemingly unprepared is so urgently needed. although ideology. to are forced to modernization andinterests. p. the Charismatic movement to this of behaviour. practiced peopleofone'sown breakfasts with rallies canrelate toherboss's Velarde's mass Saturday prayer as manifestations ofthesamespirituality. Populism. thepronounced unity maid but the social with attending background. in different classesconcentrate WhereasEl Shaddai is organizations. life. Question. ofongoing and differentiation diversification roles.38 political populism experts. meetings. message Correspondingly. as as as economic and well societal. temporal problems hardships.2006 Volume 19. "Pray Manila. With regardto the complex corresponds pattern a simple in the Charismatics domain. adaptto Peopleexposed rapid norms new inunfamiliar roles institutions andfind themselves new by shaped and the and interests. the Democratic and Contemporary Governance. for offers common theCharismatic movement peoplefrom definitely ground socioeconomic Different all socialstrata. issimply trust ofthesermons this is a recurring theme Spirit. personal inGodandreliance on thepower oftheHoly well as political. isthen tothis of movement seenas reaction Byinterpreting godless way inmoral leaders socialchange terms.
widespread is their audience. is suchan important ofthe world. and university applications thewidespread Thisidea ofan active God corresponds with belief that There is no place foran intellectual the Bible mustbe takenliterally. Fifty-five percent 50 of all share this as percent respondents Bible However. SocialWeather 39 Wiegele. centrality 40 The question in theBiblewastakenfrom literal belief thequestionnaire ofthe concerning in 1991and 1998. leaders future anda guarantee words. analysis provide bishops and callfor solutions. area source ofhopefor a better havea powerful must certainly appeal. forexample. doing. followers of Charismatic groupssuggest Unlikethe distancedGod of problems.Tithing . and wonders or demons and Satan. gift Speaking "this is to Charismatic Christians because the Satan only language Holy Spirit in seminars and as we learned Charismatic services.administered in thePhilippines SocialSciencePanelon religion International by Stations." be faultedforconcludingthatCharismatic Poewe can thushardly "reverses the thatwe have takenforgranted: the emphases Christianity the of calculated of articulate verbal of of rational. us aboutGod'sdeedsis true The Bibletells faith. 91 . scientific for ofsomebiblical wholookfor scholars. political forinstance. In a society itpaysto invest a most basicentrepreneurial premise: isbelow thepoverty suchprospects 40 percent ofthepopulation where line. Investing in Miracles. 17 ff.40 Active involvement not confined to to convince having in are and much active the modern Satan and demons God: present very in tongues. offerings preaches isthus little morethan a religious of The prosperity way. compared religiosity ina very that Godwill reward these material Velarde literal.ispracticed ofrespondents with Charismatic community by36percent high in ourmainsample. gospel. skills. leaders notonly maintains with relationship religious inworldly on behalf ofthefaithful intervenes affairs like visa he alsoactively examinations. canrelate toa pre-existing instead of Charismatic leaders belief.giving10 percentof one's income to one's religious tithe. is famous forhis "prosperity MikeVelarde. p.They In other for a placeinheaven.is entirely rejectedby phenomenareported supernatural in oursurvey ofactive Charismatics takethe Charismatics. explanations approach in the Bible. worldly to their thatthereis practical."He hisfollowers to makeprayer and loveofferings or to requests encourages . the God proclaimed bypopulist promises a personal hisfollowers. to 13 percent ofall respondents.Whatever the away signs interpreting andrequires notexegesis. cannot understand. literally.in the Religion Philippines Populist from the pastoral letters of the Catholic markedly approachthatdiffers a structural ormainline Protestant which churches. otherworldly help forworldly or unreliable candidates mainline churches presidential usingpopulist in theirelectioncampaigns.39 gospel equivalent in God. perception.
personal catedpeoplemay be attracted ofhopefor betterment and bythemessage as well as material assistance. PopulistReligionas a Recipe forSuccess the parallelsbetween Havingillustrated politicalpopulismand the Charismatic intheir movement of their anti-establishment. These rootslie in the responsiveness system aswell as failed successful modernization modernization. Pooranduneducircumstances. questions posedby modernization. only personal problems broader and economic political problems. Christianity p. processes migration modern education forsocialmobility. groups. mobilization. populist religion The religiously worldview and moraloutlookof Charismatic legitimated foreveryday decisions and general conduct of teachings giveorientation life. a socialnetwork and Membership provides thesense ofbelonging toa community. To put it very modernization erodes successful simply: and modernization erodes material emotional and failed cognitive security. enables inmodernization Populist religion peopletoparticipate processes and offers from their bothsuccessful and otherwise.Spiritual the emotional needed to cope experiences provide energy thestrains with ofeveryday life. drawbacks. 92 . thefragility of spiritual Peopleexperiencing 41 Poewe. Theseaspects render theCharismatic movement topeopleofdifferent attractive in socioeconomic backgrounds. Charismatic as a GlobalCulture."41 doctrines. a solution in a modernizing butalsofor for world. style and class-crossing solutions as wellas their anti-hierarchical. simple andbackward one vision ofa society shared morals and values. governed by remains: is so attractive? question Why populist religion someroots inthePhilippine Wecited ofpolitical system populism political above. protection of the interviews members of Charismatic with Summing up the results wecanstate that meets a range ofdifferent needs.2006 Volume 79. way life. offer systems People opportunities anddecisions Do I migrate toSingapore havechoices tomake: increasingly tooffer children traditional theopportunity ofbetter Do I trust my schooling? healers or try togetaccesstoWestern Do I stay medicine? with my partner or leave him for good? Where industrialization and processes of modernization have failed toimprove ofliving for the thestandard majority as is thecase in thePhilippinesmodernization of increases thenumber with existential material crises and extreme peopleconfronted poverty. different andfor different reasons. 12. people Institutions like churchesand families thatformerly providedmoral and lose their Economic foster guidelines monopoly.No. 1 . competing of become that there are alternatives to their aware systems. drive.Buttheattractiveness hasdeeperroots thanthe ofpopulist religion of thepolitical to populism. Masscommunication moral confronts individuals with security.Spring Pacific Affairs: isnot andofthings Thisre-enchantment oftheworld Western.
personal Conclusion inpejorative treats terms.42 above. ofRepresentative Pathology Taggart. access to God as well as the comfort of the (pre-modern) individual the political This combination resembles blend of populist community. aims to democratic intocomplex legitimize political procedures leadership on sharedmoral Atthesametime. Canovan and recent negative Taggart.Populismand the 93 . materialistic Therefore. Theyreject complexity by reducesthe "Gestaltungsmacht" becausethiscomplexity of differentiation. meaning living gives thancomfort. Political religion populism of stable social structures caused by criticize the breakdown They and try to protect traditional and pluralization social individualization the of modern institutions caused structures.in the Religion Philippines Populist be attracted socialtiesofthe networks their might bytheclose-knit family Middle-class andwell-educated be attracted communities.. todesperate but ofreligion that theaspect conditions. by disregarding specialization and in a modern. isoffered What religion. reliance and government. peoplemight by theCharismatic offers ina world andvalues that worldview theclearmorals full ofchoices. Politics. anti-democratic. Thiskindofcomfort there is moretoCharismatic religiosity Charismatic hastooffer aremeaning. more Muchoftheliterature However. Populist Challenge (Basingstoke: Palgrave.eds. alongthelinesof the"opiumof explanations thesuccess ofpopulist fall short ofexplaining Thereis themasses" religion. religion by any for their anda socialcohesion individuals whoretain and orientation ability thiscombination to choose." in Canovan. that is notnecessarily haveshown forinstance. individuals empoweredpersonsand simultaneously in a socialnetwork tobe embedded theneedofindividuals acknowledging to lifewhich renders orientation and meaning Charismatic thatprovides The Charismatic movement offers a (modern) religionso attractive. "Taking and the YvesMenyand YvesSurel.thepopulist support modern democratic is based on the of thecommon people concept equal theethics offace-to-face interaction for Reintroducing rights equalcitizens. populism's in a modern the plurality of valuesand lifestyles valuesdelegitimizes the need for and democracy. differentiated it deprives administration functionally society institutions oflegitimacy. It is exactly of acknowledging theirright as independent. populism of the people in representative but mayaddressinclusivist aspirations As outlined fortheinterests of democracies.Democracies 2002). and politics based on sharedvaluesand civilrights modernindividual relations. state andpopulist attack thedrawbacks ofmodernity. 42 Margaret Politics tothePeople:Populism as theIdeology ofDemocracy. populism research has broken with this view.
lacking legitimization institutions could be effectively improved.Martinhas made a similarpoint about contemporary Protestantism as a "creator offree socialspace"with to evangelical regard Latin America. 279. Populistreligionmayalso in other itsinfluence on political strengthen democracy ways. to his individual liberates (1989) According analysis. one's to God and own people dogmatic Finding way to circumstances relating spiritual experience personal requires independent a requisite usuallyattributed to democrats. limited than that ofPentecostal In theUS. authority questions . As the Catholic Charismatic is firmly Movement embeddedin the CatholicChurch's hierarchical itscapacity tocreate "free more socialspace"issurely structure.As religious thinking.p. and populist on the premodern qualities.again. 43 Martin. as these insocial structures. The effect of a that the democratizing theology emphasizes personal relationship toGodover thechurch's function hasbeenanalyzed intermediary byHatch in detail. important people to a pluralistsocial reality requisitesfor democracies. grounded gainsground within thepolitical thecurrently ofpolitical sphere. although culture and political attitudes is indirect. This very rights ofpopulism results in ambiguous societal itcanfoster ambiguity potential: withits reliance on individuals'rightsand it can foster democracy authoritarian with itsquestforsimplicity and intolerance towards regimes those whoareperceived as different. Theyreject impersonal procedural relationships basis ofsociety. itisquestionable whether conclusions drawn from Protestant predominantly Charismatics can be transferred to the Philippines.No.religious orEvangelical churches. it erodesthinking producesfrequent hierarchies andcentralized and accustoms organization. God). convoluted and ambiguous.Spring Pacific Affairs: their ownlives(and their with ordinary peopleto determine relationship advocate and solutions. retains this ambivalent character with todemocratization Populism regard iftransferred to thereligious in thePhilippines sphere. political the anti-elitist and anti-authoritarian thrust of Philippines religion populist is muchweaker thanin theUnitedStates theSecondAwakening. However.43 It is assumed thatthesereligious characteristics wouldsoon spillover intoother of not in the least the domain. They simple comprehensible bynon-experts as the applicable bylaity. 1 . Tongues ofFire. spirituality from subordination. political populism religion rely modernnotionof individual and freedom to choose. spheres life.Volume 2006 79. individualism in churchschisms. Populist religion has a pro-democratic in as as much it fosters an ethicofhonesty potential and accountability in If Christian this ethic values. during Given thepredominantly Catholic character ofthePhilippine Charismatics. deprive peopleofembeddedness in fighting the perceived ills of modernity and appealingto However. 94 .
especially 45 David Stoll.. democracy scope coincides with thefactthatmostCharismatic Suchan assessment groups in their So farnoneofthem work. do affect thatreligious attitudes we are convinced people's Although in if a social movement likethepopulist embedded behaviour. a Christian authoritarian foster abouttheLatinAmerican context: Stollhas askedsimilar "Is questions a step on the road to demystifying. The Charismatic Renewal therefore search might and theocratic vision ofsociety. Literaturstudie Bischofskonferenz.p. Christian ethics with a Enforcing family bylawin a society the democratic substantial Muslimminority contradicts principleof In a very minorities. Sektenund religiose Eine Bewegungen quoted in: Yves Bizeul.eds.that .One is the authoritarian hierarchic internal structure of mostCharismatic and layorganizations a traittheysharewithotherintermediary Pentecostal and churches. ZurProblematik und fundamentalistischer bei den urbanenAymarain La Paz (Bolovien) (Bonn: Holos Verlag. . secularizing. certainly little for social a that offers action.44 the elements of thenewreligiosity Moreover."Introduction..in the Populist Religion Philippines went handinhandwith andits assault Jeffersonian Republicanism populism Such a politicalmovement is missing in the on political authority. (Bonn:Deutsche 95 ." in Virginia Garrard-Burnett and David Stoll. suchas NGOs. hardly go beyond charity development topoverty alleviation andsocial unless a systematic change. (Philadelphia: TempleUniversity 46 Juliane Stroebele-Gregor. protecting of Charismatic Christians can be criticized as anti-democratic: worldview believesthathis or her politicalopinionsreflect divine whoever truly havedifficulties in a democratic discourse to revelation participating might forthebestarguments. Christliche 44 Hatch.p. 1995). 10. Dialektik derGegenaujkldrung. approach pursues and individual renewal as such an one regards spiritual evangelization approach. suitable fordemocratization must be weighed considered the up against and apoliticalelements of populistreligion. p. by society. Latin AmericanPentecostalism aspredicted andrationalizing Latin American Martin. basic themoral outlook andenchanted sense. Is LatinAmerican caudillistic. conservative democracy. 1993). ofpopulist On balance.. TheDemocratization ofAmerican Christianity. supposedly democratizing Another counterdemocratic element is thefundamentalist tendencies in theCharismatic aim to builda society inherent movement's rootedin Christian faith. 14. Rethinking America Protestantism inLatin Press.as argued ismagical andmystifying orisitinevitably thaumaturgical Protestantism or do . 1988). institutions in thecountry. Missionierung evangelikaler in der sudlichenHemisphdre. 143.the"anti-enlightened enlightenment" religion to but a highly inthePhilippines indeed contribute may democracy. contemporary Philippines. basically byBastian? to fragmentation itstendencies giveit moredemocratic implications?"45 has aptlycalled this ambiguity "anti-enlightened Strobele-Gregor "46 enlightenment.
1 .No.Spring Pacific Affairs: Charismatic All a caveat. Germany. Albert-Ludwigs-Universitdt. methodological considering in establishing difficulties tested causalrelations between religion populist andtheactual behaviour ofCharismatic. Our study thescopeand quality ofpopulist explored religion. itslasting and effects willbe thechallenging researching tangible political task offuture work. forsocio-cultural Freiburg. promising ArnoldBergstraesser Institute and research. Germany August 2005 .Volume 2006 79. religious in considerations thepotential effects ofthis movement regarding political thePhilippines aretheresult ofdeductive ofempirical rather than thinking Thisishardly theenormous analysis. Pentecostal andEvangelical political Christians. we concludethisarticle with renewal. surprising. Freiburg.
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