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# ERT247 GEOMATICS ENGINEERING DISTANCE MEASUREMENT USING TAPING

1.0 OBJECTIVES i. ii. To gain proficiency in the use of tape for measuring horizontal and slope distances. To lessen the impact of errors in the measurement to provide an accurate and precise measurement.

2.0 FIELDWORK INSTRUCTION Measure the distance along the fence and main building of Agrotechnology Institute, UniMAP, Sungai Chuchuh. 3.0 QUESTIONS i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Name six methods of measuring distances and list advantages and disadvantages of each. State the advantages of taping over Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and Global Positioning System (GPS). How do random and systematic errors differ? Describe three surveying applications where measurements can be made with fiberglass tape. The slope measurement between two points is 25.333 m and the slope angle is 1o50 . Compute the horizontal distance. A distance of 177.50 m was measured along a 3 % slope. Compute the horizontal distance. The slope distance between two points is 29.705 m and the difference in elevation between the points is 3.658 m. Compute the horizontal distances. A 30 m steel tape, known to be 30.004 m (under standard conditions) were used to record a measurement of 202.020 m. What is the distance corrected for the erroneous tape length? A 50 m tape is used to measure between two points. The average weight of the tape per meter is 0.302 N. If the measured distance is 48.888 m, with the tape supported at the end only and with a tension of 100 N, find the corrected distance.

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1.0 OBJECTIVES:

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Understanding and setting up of equipment. Apply levelling techniques/procedures. Booking and adjustment techniques. Understanding and minimisation of errors in levelling. Adjustments in a level.

2.0 EQUIPMENTS

## 3.0 FIELDWORK INSTRUCTION

Each team will be assigned to determine the RL of the TBM near Agrotechnology Institute UniMAPs. So that each team will run a leveling works from the nearest BM. The RL for the BM is 46.406 m from MSL.
4.0 QUESTIONS

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What are benchmarks? Explain the different between a level line and horizontal line Why it is necessary to keep sight length as equal as possible when leveling? Why the line of sight of measurement should always higher than 0.5 m? Explain. What is an advantage of using digital level compared to an automatic level? List the different. vi. Explain how a stable set up of the level may be achieved on soft soil such as in a swamp.

## ERT247 GEOMATICS ENGINEERING ANGLE & MEASUREMENT

1.0 OBJECTIVES:

To gain proficiency in the use of surveying compass. To complete a closed traverse with surveying compass. To calculate latitude, departure, linear error of closure, precision ratio using Bowditch Rules.

## 2.0 FIELDWORK INSTRUCTION

Each team will be assigned to do a traversing around a building starting at Point A with coordinate (1000 mN ,1000 mE). Setup a station as minimum as possible so each line of sight can be see from each station. Take the backsight and foresight angle for each station and record the angles in field notes.
3.0 QUESTIONS

i. List the different reference meridians that can be used for the direction of a line and describe the advantages and disadvantages of each system. ii. Describe the relationship between forward and back azimuths iii. Geometrically show how the sum of the interior angles of a pentagon (five sides) can be computed using the formula (n-2)180? iv. Explain why the letters E and W on a compass are sometimes reversed from their normal positions. v. A zenith angle is measured as 284o 13 56 in the reversed position. What is the equivalent zenith angle in the direct position? vi. For a bearing AB = N 10 02 42 W and angles to the right, compute the bearing of CD if angle ABC= 8756 23 and BCD = 41 14 48

## ERT247 GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CLOSED TRAVERSE WITH TOTAL STATION

1.0 OBJECTIVES: i. ii. iii. Complete a closed traverse with a total station instrument. Record and calculate field data of traverse. Calculate misclosure and balance the angle of a closed traverse.

2.0 FIELDWORK INSTRUCTION Each team will be assigned to do a traversing around a building starting at Point A with coordinate (1000 mN ,1000 mE). Setup a station as minimum as possible so each line of sight can be see from each station. Take the backsight and foresight for each station and record the coordinate in datasheet. 3.0 QUESTIONS i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Compare the traverse work by using surveying compass and total station. Discuss the differences between an open and closed traverse. Name and briefly describe the three main components of a total station. Explain why the level bubble should be shaded when leveling an instrument in bright sun. Describe a systematic error that can be present in an angle and describe how it is removed by field procedure. Why is it important to remove any parallax from an optical plummet? Why are the bases of total station instruments designed to be interchanged with other accessories?

## ERT247 GEOMATICS ENGINEERING TACHEOMETRY & TOPOGRAPHIC MAP

1.0 OBJECTIVES

i. To determine the elevation, angles and position of points and features ii. To develop a contour map of the sites iii. To calculate cut and fill volume
2.0 FIELD INSTRUCTION

From tacheometry works around the sites, determine the elevation and coordinates of points. From the elevation around the sites, develop a countour map. If a site will developed, proposed the platform level and calculate cut and fill volume.
3.0 QUESTIONS

i. Discuss how a data collector with a total station instrument can be combined with satellite surveying methods to collect data for a topographic map. ii. What factors must be considered when selecting the contour interval to be used for a given topographic map. iii. Describe why are spot elevations placed on a map? iv. When should points be located for contours connected by straight lines and by smooth curves? v. Why must cut and fill volumes be totalled separately? vi. State two situations where prismoidal corrections are most significant.

## ERT247 GEOMATICS ENGINEERING GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEMS (GPS)

1.0 i. ii. 2.0 OBJECTIVES To determine coordinate and elevation of the points. To determine area enclosed within the loop. FIELD INSTRUCTION i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Each group given a GPSMap 76CSx Garmin. Turn on the GPS, ensure at least 4 satellite signal available. Press Find button WaypointsEnter and there are the points that you have to follow. Select the point and follow the direction from GPS to the point. At the point, find the picket/nail. Collect the elevation and coordinate data at each point in your GPS. Plot the coordinate data and determine the area enclosed in the loop of points.

3.0 i. ii.

QUESTIONS List at least five non-surveying uses for GPS. Why is a fully operational satellite positioning system designed to have at least four satellites visible at all time? What errors affect the accuracy of satellite positioning? Describe the three segments of GPS. Define PDOP, HDOP, and VDOP.

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