Insects

1. Odonata
Odonata is an order of carnivorous insects, encompassing dragonflies and damselflies. The word dragonfly is also sometimes used to refer to all Odonata, but odonate is a more correct English name for the group as a whole.

1.1.

Dragonflies

1.1.1. Physical Features

Immatures:
 Labial "mask" catching prey  Body robust adapted for

Adults:
 Antennae short and bristle-like  Compound eyes large, often covering most of the head  Four membranous wings with many veins and crossveins  Base of hind wing broader than forewing  One distinctively pigmented cell (stigma) on leading edge of wing  Abdomen: long and slender

1. adults are most often seen near bodies of water and are frequently described as aquatic insects. Male Odonata have complex genitalia. often covering most of the head  Four membraneous wings with many veins and crossveins  Base of wings narrow. many species range far from water. They are carnivorous throughout their life. They may also catch and eat honey bees -. different to those found in other . mostly feeding on smaller insects.3.1. However.2. Thus. stalk-like  One distinctively pigmented cell (stigma) on leading edge of wing  Abdomen: long and slender Most dragonflies and damselflies are regarded as beneficial insects because they feed on small flying insects such as mosquitoes. 1.1. Damselflies Immatures:  Labial "mask" adapted for catching prey  Three leaf-like gills at rear of abdomen  Body usually long and slender Adults:  Antennae short and bristle-like  Compound eyes large. Ecology and life cycle Odonates are aquatic or semi-aquatic as juveniles.then they are regarded as pests by the beekeepers.

and hatch to produce pronymphs which live off the nutrients that were in the egg. into the flying teneral immature adults. This is called the "wheel" position. Blattodea . including small fishes. Eggs are laid in water or on vegetation near water or wet places. Immatures  Structurally similar to adults  Developing wingpads often visible . the female bends her abdomen forward to touch the male organ and receive sperm. usually in dusk or dawn.Cockroaches 2. To mate. Male odonates have a copulatory organ on the ventral side of abdominal segment 2 in which they store spermatozoa. They then develop into instars with approximately 9 –14 molts that are (in most species) voracious predators on other aquatic organisms. Physical Features Adults  Antennae filiform  Mouthparts hypognathous mandibulate. These include grasping cerci for holding the female and a secondary set of copulatory organs on the abdomen in which the sperm are held after being produced by the primary genitals. 2. These insects later transform into reproductive adults. the male grasps the female by the thorax or head and bends her abdomen so that her own genitalia can be grasped by the copulatory organs holding the sperm. whose color is not yet developed.1.insects. they mate by holding the female's head (Anisoptera) or thorax (Zygoptera) with claspers located at the tip of the male abdomen. The nymphs grow and molt.

 Pronotum shield like.2. Asia. Cockroaches have flattened bodies that make it easy for them to crawl into small spaces. clothing. These insects feed on all types of plants and often cause serious economic damage. and North America and destroy crops over wide land areas. dark environments. Economic Importance on thorax Orthoptera is generally regarded as a dominant group in most terrestrial habitats. They are adapted to live in almost any environment and have been on earth longer than any other winged insect -. Mole crickets are major pests in lawns and golf courses in the southern United States.or 4-segmented  Cerci short. unsegmented 2.over 340 million years. hind wings fan-like  Hind legs usually adapted for jumping (hind femur enlarged)  Tarsi 3. Cockroaches like warm. covering much of thorax  Front wings narrow. . They usually feed at night. Cockroaches are scavengers that eat all kinds of materials including paper. Swarms of grasshoppers (locusts) regularly appear in parts of Africa. leathery (tegmina). humid. Several species of field crickets are reared commercially as fish bait. and dead animals and plants. Long antennae on the front of their heads help them feel their way around.

Mole crickets are major pests in lawns and golf courses in the southern United States. leathery (tegmina). Several species of field crickets are reared commercially as fish bait.1. Asia.1.1. unsegmented 3.2.1. These insects feed on all types of plants and often cause serious economic damage. Swarms of grasshoppers (locusts) regularly appear in parts of Africa. hypognathous  Pronotum shield like. covering much of thorax  Front wings narrow.or 4-segmented  Cerci short. hind wings fan-like  Hind legs usually adapted for jumping (hind femur enlarged)  Tarsi 3. ORTHOPTERA 3. Grasshopper 3. Immatures  Structurally similar to adults  Developing wingpads often visible on thorax .3. and North America and destroy crops over wide land areas. Economic Importance Orthoptera is generally regarded as a dominant group in most terrestrial habitats. Physical Features Adults  Antennae filiform  Mouthparts mandibulate.

2. Since they are cannibalistic and also feed on other beneficial insects.3. Economic Importance Generally considered to be highly beneficial insects because they feed on other insects. more slender than hind wings  Tarsi 5-segmented  Cerci short. . multi-segmented Immatures:  Structurally similar to adults  Developing wingpads often visible on thorax 3.2.1. Physical Features Adults:  Filiform antennae  Head triangular with well-developed compound eyes  Mouthparts mandibulate. spiny front legs adapted for catching prey  Front wings thickened. hypognathous  Prothorax elongate with large. Mantis 3.2. their value as biocontrol agents is probably rather limited.2.

3.1. only present as mouth hooks Adults:  Antennae filiform. Mosquito / Fly 3.or metathorax  One pair of wings (front). stylate. hind wings reduced (halteres)  Tarsi 5-segmented . or aristate  Mouthparts suctorial (haustellate)  Mesothorax larger than pro.3. Physical Features Immatures:  Culiciform  Head capsule present with chewing mouthparts  Legs absent  Vermiform (maggots)  Without legs or a distinct head capsule  Mouthparts reduced.3.

Economic Importance The Diptera probably have a greater economic impact on humans than any other group of insects. On the other hand.particularly those that pollinate flowering plants. others transmit diseases to humans and domestic animals.3. . Some flies are pests of agricultural plants.2. many flies are beneficial -. assist in the decomposition of organic matter.3. or serve as biocontrol agents of insect pests.

Hemiptera (True Bug) Physical Features Adults:  Antennae slender with 4-5 segments  Proboscis 3-4 segmented. arising from front of head and curving below body when not in use  Pronotum usually large. and they may also transmit plant pathogens.1. They may cause localized injury to plant tissues. forming an "X". 4. trapezoidal or rounded  Triangular scutellum present behind pronotum  Front wings with basal half leathery and apical half membranous (hemelytra).or 3-segmented Immatures:  Structurally similar to adults  Always lacking wings 4.1. they may weaken plants by removing sap. Predatory species of Heteroptera are generally regarded as beneficial insects. Wings lie flat on the back at rest.1. Economic Importance Plant feeding bugs are important pests of many crop plants.4. but those that feed on blood may .  Tarsi 2.

transmit human diseases. family Reduviidae). Chagas disease. . is transmitted to humans by conenose bugs (genus Triatoma. for example. Although bed bugs (family Cimicidae) can inflict annoying bites. there is little evidence that they regularly transmit any human or animal pathogen.

1. Lepidoptera 5. spindle- . Physical Features Immatures  Eruciform (caterpillar-like)  Head capsule well-developed. with chewing mouthparts  Abdomen with up to 5 pairs of prolegs Adults  Mouthparts form a coiled tube (proboscis) beneath the head  Antennal type:  Butterflies: knobbed or hooked at tip  Moths: thread-like.5.

.g. fan-shaped  Body and wings covered with small. the larvae of these insects are probably more destructive to agricultural crops and forest trees than any other group of insects. Economic Importance Although many Lepidoptera are valued for their beauty. overlapping scales 5.shaped. the silkworm. . or comb-like  Front wings large. and a few are useful in commerce (e. triangular. Bombyx mori).2. hind wings large.

small reptiles and the eggs and young of birds. invertebrates. They are fairly terrestrial. seeds. It is an agile forager. Larger groups are formed especially when drinking at waterholes in arid regions. Like many other corvids they are known to cache . Small numbers assemble on trees near waterholes before flying to the water's edge where they are able to suck up water like other members of the pigeon family. Laughing Doves eat the fallen seeds. clinging and clambering through the branches and sometimes joining mixed hunting parties along with species such as drongos and babblers. it has also been known to take flesh from recently killed carcasses. foraging on the ground in grasslands and cultivation. Rufous Treepie The Rufous Treepie is an arboreal omnivore feeding almost completely in trees on fruits. other vegetable matter and small ground insects such as termites and beetles. Their flight is quick and direct with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general 2.Birds 1. Laughing Dove The species is usually seen in pairs or small parties and only rarely in larger groups. mainly of grasses. It has been observed feeding on ecto-parasites of wild deer.

insects and reptiles.food. They have been considered to be beneficial to palm cultivation in southern India due to their foraging on the grubs of the destructive weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. . 3. The breeding season in India is April to June. They are known to feed on the fruits of Trichosanthes palmata which are toxic to mammals. wood rats. They are also known to eat birds. Spotted owls Spotted owls are primarily nocturnal hunters and eat flying squirrels. The nest is built in trees and bushes and is usually a shallow platform. mice and other small rodents. There are usually 3-5 eggs laid.

lined with hair The diet of the lapwing includes a range of insects. The usual nest is placed low in a bush and consists of leaves stitched together with webs. they eat some seeds 5. Ashy Prinia The Ashy Prinia builds its nest close to the ground in a shrub or tall grass and lays 3–5 eggs.4. snails and other invertebrates. They may sometimes make use of the legs to disturb insect prey. Occasionally. . They feed mainly during the day but they may also feed at night. mostly picked from the ground. They may also feed on some grains. White-browed Scrubwrens White-browed Scrubwrens feed mostly on insects and other small arthropods.

They may also feed on some grains. They may sometimes make use of the legs to disturb insect prey. . Red Watt led The diet of the lapwing includes a range of insects. They feed mainly during the day but they may also feed at night. snails and other invertebrates.6. mostly picked from the ground.

some foothill grasslands have been converted to forests through tree planting . decreasing the abundance and diversity of native plants. non-native species were historically seeded for livestock forage in some grasslands.Conservation Overview: the loss of grasslands has been have been impacted by conversion to agriculture. past grazing has impacted grasslands. However. In addition. affecting plant composition and structure. and invasive plant species. In some areas. development. Disruption of historical fire regimes has allowed for shrubs or trees to encroach. Also. grazing practices become more sustainable over time. replacing grasslands with forest. and carefully managed grazing can help maintain grassland structure where prescribed fire is not practical or desired.

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