Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis

DRAFT Oregon Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

Contents 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 2 2. Oregon Petroleum Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions .......................................... 3 3. Oregon Ethanol Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions ............................................... 8 a) Ethanol produced in the Midwest from Midwest Grown Corn .................................... 9

b) Ethanol produced in the Northwest from Midwest Grown Corn ..................................... 9 c) Ethanol produced from Northwest Farmed Trees .......................................................... 10

d) Ethanol produced from Wheat Straw ............................................................................. 11 e) f) Ethanol produced from Forest Residue .......................................................................... 11 Ethanol produced from Mill Waste ................................................................................ 12

g) Sugarcane Ethanol .......................................................................................................... 12 4. Oregon Biodiesel Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions ........................................... 13 a) Midwest Soybean Biodiesel Pathway ............................................................................ 13

b) Northwest Canola Biodiesels Pathway .......................................................................... 14 c) Yellow Grease Biodiesel ................................................................................................ 14

d) Tallow Biodiesel ............................................................................................................ 14 e) Northwest Renewable Diesel produced from Midwest Soybeans ................................. 14

5. Oregon Electricity Pathway ............................................................................................ 15 6. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Pathway .................................................................... 15 7. Overview of Oregon Carbon Intensities ......................................................................... 16

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Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis

DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report

Introduction A Lifecycle Analysis of fuel is an evaluation of environmental impact associated with its production and combustion. indirect effects. The carbon intensity values are adjusted to reflect co-products. The Well-to-Tank portion of Lifecycle Analysis of a fuel pathway involves production. also known as a fuel pathway. storage and transportation of a fuel. transportation. Page 2 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . and energy economy ratios where applicable. and transport of fuel. and use. The carbon Intensity of a given fuel represents grams of carbon dioxide released per one megajoule of energy produced during all stages of fuel production. Well-To-Wheel is a combination of Well-to-Tank and Tank-To-Wheel. and Energy in Transportation) – a life cycle analysis model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory. storage. Figure 1 is a schematic representation of Lifecycle Analysis. The model version GREET 1. storage. Regulated Emissions. The Tank-To-Wheel portion of Lifecycle Analysis of a fuel pathway takes into account combustion of fuel in a motor vehicle. Well-To-Wheel Well-to-Tank Figure 1: Fuel Lifecycle Analysis chain of events Tank-To-Wheel We calculated energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using GREET (Green House gases.1.8c was modified by TIAX and DEQ to reflect Oregon specific conditions. and captures energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions that result from production. distribution. GREET is designed to calculate the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with production and use of fuels.

2. Figure 2: Oregon petroleum pathways chain of events In calculating the carbon intensities petroleum fuels used in Oregon. DEQ used a combination of GREET defaults and Oregon specific inputs and assumptions. For the purposes of this analysis. DEQ assumed that about 90% of Oregon’s petroleum is processed at Washington refineries and transported along the Olympic pipeline and by ocean tanker to Portland. Oregon Petroleum Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions Oregon petroleum pathways overview is shown in Figure 2. Page 3 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . Figure 3 is a map from ICF International showing the distribution of Oregon’s refined petroleum. Some of it is further transported by barge to Pasco. The remaining 10% of Oregon petroleum fuels is refined in Utah and transported along the Chevron pipeline.

2007 EIA Petroleum Imports by State Figure 4: Sources of crude oil used in Washington refineries Page 4 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . Washington Research Council. 2009.Figure 3: Oregon refined fuels Sources of crude oil in Washington and Utah refineries are shown in Figures 4 and 5 2007 Sources of Crude Refined in Washington (%) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Alaska Middle East Africa South America Canada Other "The Economic Contribution of Washington State's Petroleum Refining Industry in 2007".

We used GREET default consumption values for both conventional and oil sands energy. process fuel shares. The Canada National Energy Board Report 2009 (Exports to Southern PADD IV) estimates that 25% of Utah’s crude is conventional while 75% is extracted from oil sands. GREET default values are shown in Table 1. These inputs include process efficiency. out of the 17% of Canadian crude used at Washington refineries. Page 5 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . 62% of fuel consumed to recover crude is natural gas. Process fuel shares distribute the total energy consumed in the process among a variety of fuel types. Process efficiency is a function of crude recovery energy consumption and refining energy consumption related to the unit of fuel energy produced. e.Figure 5: Sources of crude oil used in Utah refineries Based on the Canada National Energy Board Report (2009 Exports to PADD V). 51% is conventionally extracted and 49% is extracted from oil sands. and flaring and venting volumes of natural gas in the recovery process.g.

Transportation distances and modes used in Oregon GREET reflect DEQ assumptions that 100% of the crude transported to Washington is by pipeline (646 miles). Page 6 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .000 deadweight ton limit entering port of Seattle and 80.3% Gasoline Blendstock Refining 87.000 deadweight ton limit for Panama Canal. is further transported from Portland to Pasco by barge (179 miles). Twenty five percent of the gasoline transported to Portland. For electricity consumption in Washington. Cargo ship crude oil payload values used are 25. for electricity consumption in Utah.8% Oil Sands In-Situ Recovery 84.7% 3% 1% 82% 17% 97% 3% 30% 4% 13% 50% DEQ has adjusted crude and refined fuel transport distances and modes. Saudi Arabia. the fuel mix from the 2007 WA Department of Commerce Fuel Mix Disclosure Reports were used. sixty five percent of gasoline blend stock is then transported to Portland by Olympic pipeline (217 miles) and 35% by ocean tanker (329 miles). Alaska. and Argentina is used for conventional crudes. Washington and Utah electricity source mixes are shown in Figure 6. and electricity mixes. Crude extraction electricity mixes for crude extraction from Oil Sands are as follows: Alberta mix used for oil sands recovery. Angola. cargo ship payload values.Table 1: Energy consumption GREET default inputs Conventional Crude Recovery Process Efficiency Process Fuel Shares: Crude Residual Oil Diesel Gasoline Natural gas Electricity Coal Refinery Gas 1% 1% 15% 2% 62% 19% 98% Oil Sands Mining Recovery 94. a weighted average of Alberta. the 2007 Utah Geological Survey fuel mix was used.

UT Oil Sands Figure 7: Oregon Gasoline blend stock carbon intensity Figure 8: Oregon Diesel blend stock carbon intensity Page 7 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .00 Recovery & Transport Ref ining & Transport Vehicle 102 90 91 103 90 104 92 GHGs. gCO2e/MJ 0 WA Conv. gCO2e/MJ GHGs.6% NG 16.5 g/MJ 102 100.Washington NG 10% Utah Renewable 1. WA Oil Sands UT Conv.00 Diesel CI 91.00 80. Environmental Protection Agency Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2) Regulatory Impact Analysis carbon intensity values for vehicle CH4 and N2O emissions were added to the final diesel and gasoline carbon intensities. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0.00 20.00 Gasoline CI 92.3 g/MJ 120.9% Figure 6: Electricity source mixes for WA and UT Vehicle combustion emissions are calculated based on the assumption that all CO will convert to CO2 in the atmosphere.00 40.00 60.4% Coal 17% Nuclear 5% Renewable 1% Hydro 67% Coal 81. WA Oil Sands UT Conv. Oregon gasoline and diesel carbon intensity are presented in Figures 7 and 8. UT Oil Sands WA Conv.

Farming and collection energy use assumptions are split by fuel type and by combustion devise. Oregon Ethanol Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions Oregon ethanol pathways overview is shown in Figure 9. and ethanol production assumptions such as process efficiency by fuel type and combustion devise. forest residue. farmed trees.product credits. Figure 9: Oregon ethanol pathways overview. Ethanol produced from wheat straw. pesticide. Crop yields. and fuel transport and distances are also taken into account. DEQ staff has calculated carbon intensities for seven ethanol pathways: Ethanol produced in the Midwest from Midwest grown corn. Fertilizer. Ethanol produced from forest residue. Page 8 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . production energy consumption.3. transport modes and distances and percentage of Nitrogen in fertilizer emitted as N2O. Inputs for ethanol pathways differ based on feedstock (corn. process yields. and Ethanol produced from Brazilian sugar cane. and herbicide applications differ by type. Ethanol produced from mill waste. co. feedstock transport and distances. Ethanol produced in the Northwest from Midwest grown corn. etc.). Ethanol produced in the Northwest from Northwest farmed trees.

Dry milling produces distiller’s grains and solubles (DGS). 20% coal. The dry mill process consumes 36. an average of 71 miles to fueling stations. and fertilizer and pesticide production and application rates. Oregon 2007 electricity source mix shown in Figure 11 was used in this pathway. and North Dakota to the Pacific Ethanol plant in Oregon was assumed to be 1350 rail miles. GREET default coproduct substitution values are used for energy and emissions credit.5% wet milling. Renewable Biomass 10% 1% US Average Residual Oil 1% NG 18% Nuclear 20% Coal 50% Figure 10: US average electricity mix b) Ethanol produced in the Northwest from Midwest Grown Corn GREET defaults were used for farming inputs. Ethanol production process was assumed 87.5% dry milling and 12. Page 9 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .62 gallons per bushels of corn.72 gallons per bushels of corn. Process fuel shares are 80% natural gas. 000 BTU energy per gallon of fuel produced. The ethanol yield from the dry milling process is 2. The ethanol yield from the wet milling process is 2.a) Ethanol produced in the Midwest from Midwest Grown Corn DEQ used GREET defaults for farming energy (12. An energy and emission credit is given to the ethanol pathway equal to the energy and emissions of the product that is being displaced or substituted (co-products). 950 BTU per gallon with a process fuel mix of 60% natural gas and 40% coal. and from the barge terminal. Pacific Ethanol information was used for ethanol production inputs. Ethanol transportation from the plant to Portland is 140 barge miles.635 BTU/bushel). Transportation distance is adjusted to 1850 rail miles to Portland and 71 truck miles to refueling stations. corn yield (158 bushels/acre). South Dakota. The wet mill process consumes 45. The process is a 100% dry mill with 100% natural gas as process fuel. The US Average electricity mix shown in figure 10 is used in this pathway. Corn is assumed to be transported to storage 50 miles by truck. wet milling produces corn gluten meal (CGM) and corn gluten feed (CGF). Corn transport from Minnesota.

This pathway is based on ZeaChem’s mature technology.000 gallon per year demonstration scale cellulosic biorefinery is currently under construction in Boardman. P2O5 fertilizer 453.34 gram/dry ton.5%. Ethanol production assumptions: Ethanol production process: fermentation.5%.86 gram/dry ton.1% Hydro 43.2% Figure 11: OR average electricity mix c) Ethanol produced from Northwest Farmed Trees ZeaChem's 250. Feedstock transportation: 30 miles. process fuels shares.3% Nuclear 3. Poplar farming assumptions: Farming energy consumption: 637.8% Biomass 0.59 gram/dry ton. Poplar trees will be used as a feedstock and will be supplied by the GreenWood Tree Farm nearby.17 gram/dry ton. Insecticides: 11. Fuel Distribution: 140 barge miles. Farming energy fuel shares: diesel 33. Nitrogen fertilizer: 1. and transportation distances and modes were utilized in GREET calculations for this pathway.633. Ethanol yield: 135 gal/bone dry tons (BDT). Page 10 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . ZeaChem specific ethanol production parameters such as chemical use.428 BTU/dry ton.2% Coal 37.5% NG 14. electricity 66.Oregon Wind & geo 1. Herbicides: 141. Oregon. ethanol yield.

Washington. 60% of biomass is assumed to be processed to ethanol and 40% used as process fuel. Ethanol transport is assumed 140 barge miles from Boardman to Portland. Kerstetter. 15 lb K2O/ton from a May 2007 report “Nutrient Value of Wheat Straw”. Food and Rural Affairs. assumed straw nutrient values are 11lb N/ton. We assumed that the ZeaChem process would be net zero. Farming assumptions: 5. Forest residue is assumed to be transported 75 truck miles to a hypothetical plant near Ellensburg. Technical and Economical Assessment. based on a 2001 Washington State University report Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production in Washington: A Resource. No electricity credit is given. the OR-GREET inputs reflects that no electricity will be imported or exported from the grid for ethanol production process needs. Gasification is assumed as the ethanol production process and GREET defaults for gasification are used for process fuel and ethanol yield. Wheat straw collections energy of 205. ethanol yield of 65 gal/dry ton. 657 BTU/dry ton of straw removed is based on hay swather. Increased fertilizer use is assumed to make up for straw removal.The default assumption in GREET is that electricity generated from combustion of biomass exceeds what is required for the cellulosic ethanol production process. and round bale mover diesel consumption of 1. Wheat straw transport of 120 truck miles is assumed based on a potential wheat growing area in Southeast Washington and either Pacific Ethanol or ZeaChem biorefinery. e) Ethanol produced from Forest Residue Forest residue collection energy GREET default of 590. Lyons. Ethanol production assumptions include fermentation as fuel production process. therefore. 3lb P2O5/ton. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture.62 gal/acre reported in June 2009 University of Minnesota paper “ Machinery Cost Estimates” by W. round baler.000 lb/acre left behind for erosion and nutrients. Washington State University 2001. feedstock handling energy of 180 BTU/gal (GREET default). Lazarus.400 lb/acre wheat with 3. Credit is assumed for avoided N2O emissions from straw.067 BTU/dry ton is used in this pathway. Page 11 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . d) Ethanol produced from Wheat Straw This pathway is based on the corn stover GREET pathway with values of many assumptions modified.

5 Processing & Transport Vehicle Figure 12: Oregon Ethanol carbon intensity values. Ethanol transport of 100 truck miles to blending terminals and from there.0 60 50 GHGs. Oregon Ethanol carbon intensity values are shown in Figure 12. Page 12 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .5 12.8 57. 50% pipeline).9 15. process fuels share and allocation to byproducts were used in this pathway. 9060 nautical miles from SE Brazil port to Portland and 71 truck miles to refueling stations. and ethanol production inputs are used for this pathway. GREET default feedstock handling energy of 180 BTU/gas. no collection energy was calculated for this pathway.f) Ethanol produced from Mill Waste Since mill waste is a by-product of the lumber industry. using an average transport distance of 75 miles from the mill to the fuel plant. feedstock transport. 70 Ethanol 64.3 20. g) Sugarcane Ethanol GREET default farming. an average of 71 miles to refueling stations is assumed. Ethanol transport is 500 miles to Marine terminals (50% rail.4 20. gCO2e/MJ 40 Farming & Transport 30 20 10 0 MW/MW MW/NW Farmed Trees Wheat Straw Forest Residue Mill Waste Sugarcane 26. ILUC emissions are not accounted for.

an average of 71 miles to refueling stations.4. Page 13 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . and GHGenius. and from there. and soybean transport assumptions are used in this pathway. a) Midwest Soybean Biodiesel Pathway Midwest average soybean production. Northwest Canola. Biodiesel transport is adjusted to 40 truck miles to rail terminals. Tallow. and Midwest Soybeans renewable diesel. a model for lifecycle assessment of transportation fuels.850 rail miles to Portland. Soy oil extraction and biodiesel production assumptions include data from EPA RFS2. Figure 13: Oregon biodiesel pathways overview We have calculated carbon intensities for five biodiesel pathways: Midwest soybeans biodiesel. with emphasis on Canada. GREET default farming. 1. Oregon Biodiesel Pathways Key Inputs and Assumptions Oregon biodiesel pathways overview is shown in Figure 13. Yellow grease.

GREET Renewable Diesel II (RDII) pathway is used and an operational plant in Arlington. 150 track miles to terminal and 71 truck miles to refueling stations.000 rail miles soy oil transport to Arlington. extraction energy is 1. The production process assumptions are based on the combination of GREET defaults and SeQuential provided information. Biodiesel transport is assumed to be 150 rail miles. process fuels share 87% NG. Energy basis allocation of process energy between glycerin (5%) and biodisel (95%) is assumed. 2. Renewable diesel production assumptions are based on a Page 14 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report . and SeQuential information are used in assumptions for this pathway. e) Northwest Renewable Diesel produced from Midwest Soybeans The main assumption of this pathway is the Midwest soy oil is processed to biodiesel at a Northwest refinery. electricity. c) Yellow Grease Biodiesel This pathway is based on CARB Used Cooking Oil pathway. d) Tallow Biodiesel Tallow is oil produced in meat rendering plants. Farming assumptions include energy consumption of 27. Mass basis allocation of energy between canola oil (37%) and meal (63%) is based on CARB’s approach. CARB data. Biodiesel yield is one pound of biodiesel per pound of canola oil based on EPA RFS2 and 0.1lb of glycerin per pound of biodiesel based on CARB. Washington is assumed based on the June 2008 Washington State University report “ Biofuel Development in Washington”. Energy consumption of 140 BTU/lb with fuel shares of 80% NG and 20 % electricity is assumed in this pathway. Fertilizer and pesticide use is based on 2005 GHGenius farm survey data. tallow is drained and screw pressed from the solids and filtered. There is no current tallow biodiesel production in Oregon. Biodiesel production assumptions: process fuel use is assumed to be 1840 BTU per pound which is an average of EPA RFS2 and GHGenius values for natural gas.053 BTU per gallon of oil. and methanol. Farming assumptions and soybean transport are GREET defaults. This process is based on CARB Tallow and Used Cooking Oil pathways.b) Northwest Canola Biodiesels Pathway The main assumption for this pathway is that canola is farmed and processed to biodiesel in Eastern Washington and transported to Portland. Oregon 2007 average electricity mix is used. oil yield is assumed to be 0.41 lb oil/lb seed. A combination of GREET defaults. 149 BTU/bu (GHGenius). SeQuential-Pacific Biodiesel plant in Salem. Oregon utilizes regionally sourced feedstock to produce over 17 million gallons of biodiesel per year. WA is assumed. The renewable diesel production process co-produces propane. meat is crushed and cooked to liquefy the fat. and 13% electricity. An 8 Mgal/year facility in Arlington is described as shifting its standard biodiesel operation to renewable diesel. Based on the GEGenius 2005 update. Oregon.

CARB method and values for transmission leakage and an assumption that all station compressors are electric drive are utilized. For a description of EERs please see “Calculating Carbon Intensities for Oregon’s Fuels” chapter in the report. GREET default recovery. 30 27.0 GHGs. CNG pathway’s carbon intensity amounts to 8. and transport.3 25 21.combination of CARB. Figure 14 represents OR biodiesel carbon intensities. processing.3 10 Processing & Transport Vehicle 5 0 MW Soybeans NW Canola Yellow Grease Tallow NW RD/ MW soy oil Figure 14: Oregon biodiesel carbon intensities 5. For the final carbon intensities. Compressor efficiency is assumed to be 98% as per CARB.8 gCO2e/MJ from vehicle combustion to a total CI of 70. Oregon Electricity Pathway Oregon 2007 statewide weighted average provided by ODOE and shown in Figure 11 was used in this pathway.7 20. gCO2e/MJ 20 16. Renewable diesel transport to Portland assumes 190 track miles from Arlington to Portland and 71 miles to refueling stations. Electricity pathways carbon intensity is comprised of 8. This value is then adjusted with an energy economy ratio Page 15 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .2 gCO2e/MJ for CNG pathway. EPA. and GHGenius updates. 3. and natural gas properties assumptions are used. resulting in a carbon intensity of 154. 6.10 gCO2e/MJ from electricity production at the power plant. This value is then adjusted with an energy economy ratio (EER) to account for the difference in energy use per electric vehicle mile compared to that of a conventional light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle. processing. The EER applied depends on the year and whether the electric vehicle substitutes for a light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle.16 gCO2e/MJ from compression. and 58. pipeline transmission. Oregon 2007 average mix electricity is used in this pathway.9 15 Feedstock & Transport 10.98 gCO2e/MJ.2 gCO2e/MJ from recovery. please see the “Fuel Carbon Intensity Lookup Table” chapter in the report.88 gCO2e/MJ from feedstock recovery and transport to the power plant and 146. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Pathway This pathway represents pipeline natural gas compressed to CNG at the refueling station.

77 11.00 0.75 5.66 11.20 0. NW Production.87 5. pipeline NG Wheel to Tank (WTT).54 20.00 0. Page 16 of 17 Appendix B: Lifecycle Analysis DRAFT Low Carbon Fuel Standards Report .00 2.00 154.54 34.(EER) to account for the difference in energy use per CNG vehicle mile compared to that of a conventional light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle.49 12.30 64.31 10. 2007 OR avg.71 20.61 6.95 0.65 0.40 5.04 3. These do not include indirect land use change.58 0.58 0. Overview of Oregon Carbon Intensities Carbon Intensity Values of all Oregon pathways is summarized in Table 2.82 56.04 3.80 5.65 0.80 8. and have not been adjusted with energy economy rations.83 0.29 23. MW soy oil Electricity.45 21. g CO2e/MJ Feedstock & Production WTT Transport T&D Total 6.88 8.26 0.68 4.16 63.00 3.79 9.39 3.32 0.83 7. 7.98 12.61 10.00 15.15 21.99 15. please see the “Fuel Carbon Intensity Lookup Table” chapter in the report.20 146.00 0.01 0.26 0.48 25. please see the “Fuel Carbon Intensity Lookup Table” chapter in the report.65 0.04 0.58 0.99 56. MW Corn Farmed Trees Wheat Straw Forest Residue Mill Waste Brazil Sugarcane Biodiesel MW Soybeans NW Canola Yellow Grease Average Tallow Average Renewable Diesel.03 6.10 3. The EER applied depends on the year and whether the CNG vehicle substitutes for a light-duty or heavy-duty vehicle.31 26. For the final carbon intensities.75 15. g CO2e/MJ Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle CO2 CH4 N2O 72.71 16.90 20.01 0.99 27.74 0.58 0.59 Tank-to-Wheel.04 3.02 0.26 0.58 0.26 0.61 16.26 0.66 154.01 0.28 16.44 19.01 0.00 0.26 0.34 91.00 0.07 19.98 70.07 1. For the final carbon intensities.29 11.41 74.00 0.85 21.53 0.65 0.22 1 No EER has been applied to the carbon intensity value.38 3.26 0. mix CNG.80 11.29 7. Table 2: Summary of OR Carbon Intensity Values Pathway Gasoline Blendstock Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Ethanol MW Corn Average NW production.00 0.03 15.68 20. g CO2e/MJ1 Total with equivalents 92.51 21.05 Total Direct.58 0.01 0.16 14.00 6.58 0.65 0.58 13. For a description of EERs please see “Calculating Carbon Intensities for Oregon’s Fuels” chapter in the report.00 56.28 7.00 0.24 42.78 8.23 18.

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