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Project P j t Management M t Methodology M th d l with ith PMP Exam Preparation Day 2

Aamir Thanawala PMP, Prince2 Practitioner, ITIL, CGEIT July 08, 2012

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Agenda
Define Activity Sequence Activity Estimate Resources TEA BREAK Estimate Duration Develop Schedule Estimate Cost LUNCH BREAK

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Agenda
Determine Budget Plan Communication Plan Quality Direct & Manage Project Execution TEA BREAK Perform Qualitative Assurance Distribute Information Manage Stakeholder Expectation PMP Exam Tips and Tricks

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

In Class Team Exercise Steak Dinner Project


A very important overseas counterpart is presently in Karachi. Youve decided to invite her over to your house for a specially prepared home cooked dinner grilled steak, , baked potatoes p and boiled corn. At the p present time y you of g do not have any food at your home. You have a grill but there is no propane or charcoal. Youve decide that you should lay out the table with your best cutlery and serve the meal when it is done.

Develop a WBS for your Steak Dinner Project (up to Level 2). W k with Work ith your group Take 20 minutes.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

WBS for Steak Dinner Project


Steak Dinner

Materials to prepare Food

Cooked Food

Served Dinner

Groceries

Propane

Grill

Steak

Baked Potatoes

Corn on the Cob

Table Setting

Food Served

Steak Dinner Project


Activities for Groceries and Propane Work Packages Steak Dinner
Materials to prepare Food Cooked Food Served Dinner
Baked Potatoes Corn on the Cob

Groceries

Propane

Grill

Steak

Table Setting

Food Served

Drive to Supermarket Purchase Groceries Drive Home from p Supermarket

Drive to Gas Station Purchase Propane Drive Home from Gas Station

Steak Dinner Project


Activities for Grill, Grill Steak, Steak Potatoes and Corn Work Packages Steak Dinner Di

Materials to prepare Food


Groceries Propane Grill

C k d Di Cooked Dinner

S Served d Di Dinner
Corn on the Cob Table Setting

Steak

Baked Potatoes

Food Served

Attach Propane Pre-Heat Grill

Cook Steak

Wash Potatoes Wrap Potatoes Bake Potatoes

Boil Water

Husk Corn

C k Corn Cook C

Steak Dinner Project


Activities for Table Setting and Food Served Work Packages

Steak Dinner

Materials to prepare Food


Groceries Propane G ill Grill

Cooked Dinner

Served Dinner
Corn on the Cob Table Setting

St k Steak

Baked Potatoes

Food Served

Lay Table Cloth Cl h Place Settings and Food

Serve Food and d Eat

Steak Dinner Project


Entire WBS and Activity list with numbers
0 Steak Dinner
1. Materials to prepare Food
1.1 Groceries 1.2 Propane 2.1 Grill

2. Cooked Food
2.2 Steak 2.3 Baked Potatoes 2.4 Corn on the Cob

3. Served Dinner
3.1 Table Setting 3.2 Food Served 3.2.1 Serve Food and Eat

1.1.1 Drive to Supermarket 1.1.2 Purchase Groceries 1.1.3 Drive Home from Supermarket

1.2.1 Drive to Gas Station 1.2.2 Purchase Propane 1.2.3 Drive Home from Gas Station

2.1.1 Attach Propane 2.1.2 PreH t Grill Heat G ill

2.2.1 Cook Steak

2.3.1 Wash Potatoes 2.3.2 Wrap P t t Potatoes 2.3.3 Bake Potatoes

2.4.1 Boil Water 2.4.2 Husk C Corn 2.4.3 Cook Corn

3.1.1 Lay Table Cloth 3.1.2 Place Settings and Food

Steak Dinner Project


Alternate Activity list numbering 0 Steak Dinner
1. Materials to prepare Food
1.1 Groceries 1.2 Propane 2.1 Grill

2. Cooked Food
2.2 Steak 2.3 Baked Potatoes 2.4 Corn on the Cob

3. Served Dinner
3.1 Table Setting 3.2 Food Served

A. Drive to Supermarket B. Purchase B Groceries C. Drive Home from Supermarket p

D. Drive to Gas Station E. Purchase E Propane F. Drive Home from Gas Station

G. Attach Propane H. Pre-Heat Grill

I. Season Steak J. Cook Steak

K. Wash Potatoes L. Wrap Potatoes M. Bake Potatoes

N. Boil Water O. Husk Corn P. Cook Corn

Q. Lay Table Cloth R. Place Settings and Food

S. Serve Food and Eat

Steak Dinner Project


WBS Dictionary and Activity List
WBS Num.
0 1 1.1 A B C 1.2 D E F 2 Cooked Food Propane Drive to Gas Station Purchase Propane Drive Home from Gas Station

Activity Num.

WBS Name
Steak Dinner Materials to prepare Food Groceries

Activity Name

Description
Steak Dinner Project j Corn, beef, barbeque, drinks, propane etc All food needed for dinner

Drive to Supermarket Purchase Groceries Drive Home from Supermarket

Five minute drive to the supermarket using my car To purchase corn, steak, corn, barbeque sauce, coal etc 30 minutes Five minute drive back home from the supermarket Propane for barbeque Sister to drive to gas station to get propane Buy and pay for propane Sister to drive back home from gas station

Ect.
12

Steak Dinner Project


Extended Activity List
WBS Num. 0 1 1.1 WBS Name Steak Dinner Materials to prepare Food Groceries A B C 1.2 Propane D E F 2 Cooked Food Drive to Gas Station Purchase Propane Drive Home from Gas Station Di t Drive to S Supermarket k t Purchase Groceries Drive Home from Supermarket Activity Code Activity Name Description
Steak Dinner Project Corn, beef, barbeque, drinks, propane etc All food needed for dinner T minute Ten i t drive di t to th the supermarket using my car To purchase corn, steak, corn, barbeque sauce, coal etc Ten minute drive back home from the supermarket Propane for barbeque Sister to drive to gas station to get propane Buy and pay for propane Sister to drive back home from gas station

Preceding Activity

St t Start A B

Start D E

13

Class Exercise
Estimate the Duration of the Summarized Activities

WBS Num. Start A B C D E F G H End

Activity Name

Duration (Mins)

Buy Groceries Buy Propane Heat Grill Cook Steak Bake Potatoes Cook Corn S t Table Set T bl Serve Food

40 20 6 120 20 15 10 12

14

Do you know how long this project will take?

0 Steak Dinner

1. Materials to prepare Food

2. Cooked Food

3. Served Dinner

A Buy Groceries

B Buy Propane

C Heat Grill

D Cook Steak

E Bake Potatoes

F Cook Corn

G Set Table

H Serve Food

40 mins

20 mins

6 mins

120 mins

20 mins

15 mins

10 mins

12 mins

Determine the Sequence of the Activities

WBS Num. Start A B C D E F G H End

Activity Name

Duration (Mins)

Preceding Activity

Buy Groceries Buy Propane Heat Grill Cook Steak Bake Potatoes Cook Corn Set Table Serve Food

40 20 6 120 20 15 10 12

Start Start B A C A, A A Start D, E, F, G H

Draw the Network


F

15
A E

40
Start

20
D H

End 0

120

12

20

10

Working out the Duration of the Steak Dinner Project


The Forward Pass
F

(40,55) ( , )

(0,40)
A

15 (40,60)
E

(0,0)
Start

40 (0,20)
B C

20
D

(160,172)
H

End 0 (172,172)

20

6 (20,26)

120 (40,160)

12

Project Duration
(Earliest Start of Activity, Earliest End of Activity)

(0,10)

10

Working out the Critical Path of the Steak Dinner Project


The Backward Pass
F

(40,55) (40 55) [145 160] [145,160]

(0,40) [0,40]
A

15 (40,60)[140,160]
E

(0,0) [0,0]
Start

40 (0,20) (0, 0) [14,34] [ ,3 ]


B C

20
D

(160,172) [160,172]
H

End 0 (172,172) [172,172]

20

6 (20 26) (20,26) [34,40]

120 (40,160) [40,160]

12

(Latest Start of Activity, Latest End of Activity)

(0,10) ( )[ [150,160] ]

10

The Critical Path of the Steak Dinner Project


F

(40,55) (40 55) [145 160] [145,160]

(0,40) [0,40]
A

15 (40,60)[140,160]
E

(0,0) [0,0]
Start

40 (0,20) (0, 0) [14,34] [ ,3 ]


B C

20
D

(160,172) [160,172]
H

End 0 (172,172) [172,172]

20
Critical Path Activities Start A Buy Groceries D Cook Steak H Serve Food End

6 (20 26) (20,26) [34,40]

120 (40,160) [40,160]

12

(0,10) ( )[ [150,160] ]

10

DEFINE ACTIVITES

Define Activities
Define Activities

The process of identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables at the lowest level in WBS (work packages)

Define Activity Key Points


Identify the specific schedule activities that need be performed to produce various project deliverables Involves Documenting the specific action or work to be performed Identify deliverables at the lowest level i.e. Work Packages Work packages are further decomposed into activities (schedule activities) Defining and planning the schedule activities such that the project j objectives j are met

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Define Activities

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Define Activities
Inputs Scope Baseline Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Decomposition Rolling wave planning Templates Expert Judgment Outputs Activity Lists Activity Attributes Milestone list

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Define Activities

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Define Activities


Scope Baseline
Project deliverables, constraints and assumptions documented in project scope baseline are considered explicitly while defining activities

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Project management information systems (PMIS) Scheduling software tools

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Define Activities


Organization Process Assets
Formal / informal activity related policies Procedures and guidelines for activity definitions Lessons learned Historical information on activity lists from previous similar projects j t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Define Activities


Decomposition
Subdividing project work packages into smaller, manageable units of work called schedule activities. These are not deliverables but the individual units of work that must be completed to fulfill the deliverables. deliverables WBS and WBS dictionary are basis of development of activity ti it list li t (th (they can be b developed d l d in i parallel ll l as well) ll) Involving team members in decomposition can lead to more accurate results. Each work package in the WBS is decomposed into the schedule activities required to produce the work package deliverables

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Define Activities


Rolling wave planning
Form of progressive elaboration planning As scope is evolved planning. evolved, WBS and WBS dictionary items are more detailed. Work to be accomplished in near term is detailed at low level of WBS while work to be accomplished in future is at a higher level of WBS. During early strategic planning, activities can be defined at milestone level, when less information is less defined, later it can be decomposed into activities.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Define Activities


Templates
Standard activity list or portion of activity list from a previous project Can contain resource skills, required hours of effort, identification of risks, expected deliverables, can be used to identify typical milestones

Expert p Judgment g
Consulting experts

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Activities


Activity lists
Its a comprehensive list including all schedule activities required on the project Activities are discrete components of project schedule, but NOT a part of WBS Verified V ifi d against i t WBS for f completeness l t Only contains the activities required as a part of project scope Includes descriptions (activity identifier, scope of work) of activities for the team to understand Are used in the schedule model and is part of the project management plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Activities


Activity lists

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Activities


Activity Attributes
Extend the description of activity by identifying attributes associated with each activity. Used for schedule development, for selecting, ordering & sorting planned activities within report. Attributes includes (but not limited to) :
Activity identifier Activity codes Activity description Predecessor activities Successor activities Logical relationships Leads and Lags Resource requirements Imposed dates Constraints and assumptions Person responsible for executing the work Geographic area where the work will be performed Schedule activity type level of effort (LOE), discrete effort and apportioned ti d effort ff t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Define Activities


Milestone lists
Milestone is a significant point or event in project Example : Approval & sign-off of Business Requirements document Sign-off Si ff of f UAT It identifies all the milestones Indicates whether the milestone is mandatory (required by contract) or optional (based on project requirements or historical information)

Milestones Have no duration, indicate start or completion of an activity

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Start

Finish

SEQUENCE ACTIVITIES

Sequence Activities
Sequence q Activities

Identifying and documenting the logical relationships among the schedule activities

Sequence Activities Key Points


Interactivity of the logical relationships must be sequenced correctly to facilitate development of realistic and achievable project schedule (in later process). Sequencing can be performed by using project management software or by using manual or automatic technique. Example : Lets say you are going to build a house,
You must excavate before you can build the foundations Y must You t build b ild th the walls ll fi first tb before f you b build ild th the roof f

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Sequence Activities
Sequence S A Activities ti iti Key K P Points i t
Once youve identified the dependencies and assembled all the other inputs for the Sequence Activities process, youll take this i f information ti and d produce d a diagram di of f th the project j t activities ti iti called ll d Project Schedule Network diagram

Characteristics of Project Project Schedule Network diagram diagram Show workflow from Left to Right Not drawn on timescale

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Sequence Activities
Inputs Activity list Activity attributes Milestones List Project scope statement Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Precedence diagramming method (PDM) Dependency determination Applying leads and lags Schedule Network templates Outputs Project Schedule network diagrams Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Sequence Activities

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Sequence Activities


Activity lists (described earlier) Activity attributes (described earlier) Milestone lists (described earlier) Project Scope Statement
P Product d t characteristics h t i ti described d ib d in i scope description d i ti may impact activity sequencing. These are often apparent in activity lists This Thi i is reviewed i dt to ensure accuracy

Organization Process Assets


Organizational Process Asset can influence the sequence activities process

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


1 . Precedence diagramming method (PDM) A method of Critical Path Methodology (CPM) for constructing a project p j schedule network diagram. g No Dummy activities This technique is also called Activity-On-Node (AON).

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Precedence diagramming method (PDM) - Example 1

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Precedence diagramming method (PDM) - Dependency / Logical Relationship

Finish to start Finish to finish Start to start Start to finish

Activity A must finish before Activity B starts Activity A and Activity B must finish at the same time Activity A and Activity B must start at t the th same time ti Activity A must start when Activity B finish

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Precedence diagramming method (PDM) - Dependency / Logical Relationship

Finish to Start B

A Finish to Finish B
Testing Documentation

Furniture movein

Employee movein

A Start to Start B
Design Code

Start to Finish B

Test new system

Phase out old system

Finish to start relationships are the most commonly used type of relationships
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Dependency Determination To define sequence among activities, following type of dependencies are used

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Applying Leads and Lags Lag is the amount of wait time before the successor activity can be started (Inserted waiting time between activities) Example: In a finish to start dependency : You must wait 20 days after you can construct d ft pouring i concrete t before b f t t the th house h frame Before the Lag B A 10 day lag

After the Lag

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Applying pp y g Leads and Lags g
Lead allows the acceleration of the successor activity (May be added to start an activity before the predecessor activity is complete.) 10 day lead

Example: You can start the brick work on a house 10 days before the entire wood frame is completed Before B f the th lead l d

After Aft the th lead l d

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Applying Leads and Lags Use leads and lags to support realistic and achievable project schedule. Each activity is connected at least to one predecessor and one successor except the start and the end. A predecessor B C Successor

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Sequence Activities


Schedule Network Templates
Standardized network templates p can be used to expedite p the p preparation p of project network diagram. Sources of templates: p The PMO or other similar projects Standardized templates are mostly useful when a project includes several identical or nearly identical deliverables e.g., floors on high rise buildings etc

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Sequence Activities


Project Schedule Network Diagram
Schematic display of projects schedule Includes either full project details or one or more summary activities (called Hammocks)

Project Document updates


Project documents that may be updated include, but not limited to: Activity A i i li list Activity attributes Risk Register

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

ESTIMATE ACTIVITY RESOURCES

Estimate Activity Resources


Estimate Activity y Resources

Estimating the type and quantities of resources required to perform each schedule activity

Estimate Activity Resources Key Points


Estimate Activity Resource process is closely coordinated with Estimate Cost process.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Resources


Inputs Activity list Activity attributes Resource Calendars Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Expert judgment Alternative Analysis Published estimating data Bottom-up estimating Project Management software Outputs Activity resource requirement Resource breakdown structure Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Resources

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Activity Resources


Activity lists
Activity List identifies the activities which will need resources.

Activity attributes
Developed during the define activities and sequence activities processes .

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Activity Resources


Resource Calendar
Provides information on which resources are potentially available during planned activity period and is used for estimating resource utilization. Specify when and how long identified project resource will be available during project. Includes availability, y capabilities, p and skills of human resources.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Resources


Enterprise Environmental Factors
Can influence the Estimate Activity Resources process

Organization Process Assets


Policies regarding staffing, purchase and rental of supplies and equipments Available historical information regarding what type of resources were required for similar projects in past

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Resources


Expert Judgment
People or group with specialized knowledge in resource planning and estimating.

Alternative Analysis
Alternative methods for accomplishing schedule activities Different levels of resource capabilities p or skills. Example p : Seniorlevel versus junior level resources Different size or type of machines Hand operated tools versus automated tools Make or buy decisions regarding resource (equipment, supplies)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Resources


Published Estimating data
Published updated production rate and unit costs of resources for an extensive array of labor trades, material, and equipment for different countries and geographical locations within a country. Example Your organization might have established price agreements with vendors outlining rates by resource types.

Project Management Software


Helps planning, organizing, managing resource pools and develop resource estimates. Sophisticated tools have capabilities to define resource breakdown structures, resource availabilities, resource rates and resource calendars.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Resources


Bottom-up Estimating
If project team does not have adequate confidence in the estimates at the schedule activity level, it needs to be further decomposed. R Resource needs d at t these th decomposed d d levels l l are estimated ti t d and d quantities are rolled up to the scheduled activities resources. Dependencies between these activities may impact application and use of resources and such pattern of resource usage is documented.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Estimate Activity Resources


Activity Resource Requirements
Description of type and quantities of resources required for each schedule activity ti it in i work k package k Aggregated to determine resource estimates for each work package Supporting documentation basis of estimate for each resource, assumptions made while determining type, availability and quantity of resources

Resource breakdown structure


Hierarchical structure of identified resources by resource category and type

Project Documents update


Project documents that may be updated include, Activity list, Activity attributes and Resource calendars.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

ESTIMATE ACTIVITY DURATIONS

Estimate Activity Durations


Estimate Activity y Durations

Process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

Estimate Activity Durations Key Points


Uses information on activity scope of work, required resource types, estimated resource quantities and resource calendars.

Estimating the number of work periods required to complete each schedule activity y

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Durations


Inputs Activity list Activity attributes Activity Resource Requirements Resource Calendars Project Scope statement Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets t Tools and Techniques Expert judgment Analogous estimating Parametric estimating Three-point estimate Reserve Analysis Outputs Activity duration estimates Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Durations

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Activity Durations


Activity lists (described earlier) Activity attributes (described earlier)

Activity Resource Requirements


Duration of activities will depend on the resources available to work on activities Availability of skilled resources will significantly influence the duration of most activities. Output improves proportionally less than the increase in resources

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Activity Durations


Resource Calendar
Developed as part of Estimate activity resource process Type yp of resource assigned, g quantity, q y availability, y capability p y of both equipment & material resources could significantly influence the activity duration Example : Senior staff members are expected to complete the activity in lesser time as compared to junior staff members

Project Scope Statement


Constraints and assumptions are considered when estimating activity durations. Example : Constraints are available skilled resources, contract terms and requirements. Example : Assumptions are existing conditions, availability of information and dl length th of f reporting ti periods. i d
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Activity Durations


Enterprise Environmental Factors
Duration estimating databases and other reference data. Published commercial information Productivity metrics

Organization Process Assets


Historical duration information Project calendars Scheduling methodology Lessons L l learned d

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Expert Judgment
Should be used along with historical information Can also be used to determine whether to combine methods of estimating and how to reconcile differences between them

Analogous g Estimate (Top( p Down Estimate) )


Form of expert judgment Uses performance results of similar past activities Used when there is only limited amount of detailed information about project.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Parametric Estimating
Uses a statistical relationship between bet een historical data and other variable to calculate an estimate for activity parameter such as cost, budget & duration. Can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon sophistication and underlying data built into the model. E Example l : Total T t l resource quantities titi are multiplied lti li d b by l labor b hours per unit of work Design project Number N b of fd drawings i xN Number b of fl labor b h hours per drawing Cable Installation project Meters of cable x Number of labor hours per meter

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Parametric Estimating
Example: Project that requires you to run new cable to the switches on every floor in the building. Taking known element - the amount of cable needed and multiplying it by the amount of time it takes to install a unit of cable suppose you have 10,000 meters of new cable to run .You know from past experience it takes one hour to install 100 meters. cable activity duration estimate is 100 (10,000 meters/100) hours.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Reserve Analysis
Incorporating additional time referred to as contingency reserves or buffers. C Can b be percentage t of f estimated ti t d activity ti it duration, d ti fi fixed d number b of f work k periods, or developed by quantitative risk analysis Can be used completely or partially, can be reduced or totally eliminated later on

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Three p point estimate
Also called Program Evaluation and Review technique (PERT) Use for time and cost estimation Expected activity duration calculated from Most-likely, Most likely Optimistic, Optimistic Pessimistic estimates Range of estimate = EAD (Expected Activity Duration) +/- SD (Standard Deviation)
Expected Standard Deviation Variance

P + 4 + 6

P 6

P 6

Standard deviation cannot be sum. Variance used to calculate total SD of the p project j

SD=

variance

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Three point estimate (PERT) Exercise

Activity P A B C D P j t (Total) Project (T t l) 47 89 48 42

Duration M 27 60 44 37 O 14 41 39 29

A ti it Activity Expected Activity Variance Duration Standard Range of (PERT) Deviation Estimate

Range of the estimate

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Activity Durations


Three p point estimate (PERT) ( ) Solution
Activity P A B C D 47 89 48 42 Duration M 27 60 44 37 O 14 41 39 29 Activity Expected Activity Variance Duration Standard Range g of (PERT) Deviation Estimate 28.167 61.667 43.833 36.500 5.500 8.000 1.500 2.167 30.250 64.000 2.250 4.696 Range of the estimate 22.667 to 33.667 or 28.167 +/- 5.500 53.667 to 69.667 or 61.667 +/- 8.000 42.333 to 45.333 or 43.833 +/- 1.500 34.333 to 38.667 or 35.500 +/- 2.167

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Estimate Activity Durations


Activity Duration Estimates
Quantitative assessments of likely number of work periods that will be required i dt to complete l t a schedule h d l activity ti it Generally expressed as a range 2 months +/- 5 days or 90% probability of finishing in 2 weeks

Project j Documents update p


Project documents that may be updated include, Activity attributes, and assumption made in developing the activity duration estimate such as skill levels and availability. y

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

DEVELOP SCHEDULE

Develop Schedule
Develop p Schedule

Process of analyzing activity sequences, duration, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. schedule

Develop Schedule Key Points


Developing an acceptable project schedule is often an iterative process.

Project schedule (once approved) serves as a Schedule Baseline against g which project j progress g can be tracked

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Schedule
Inputs Activity list Activity attributes Project Schedule Network diagrams Activity Resource Requirements Resource Calendars Activity duration estimates Project Scope statement Enterprise E i Environmental t l factors f t Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Schedule network analysis Critical path method Critical chain method Resource leveling What-if scenario analysis Adjusting leads & lags Schedule compression Scheduling tool Outputs Project Schedule Schedule baseline Schedule Data Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Develop Schedule

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Schedule


Activity lists (described earlier) Activity attributes (described earlier) Project schedule network diagrams (described earlier) Activity Resource requirements (described earlier) Resource Calendars (described earlier) Activity duration estimates (described earlier)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Schedule


Project Scope Statement
Assumptions and constraints Imposed dates, market window on technology project Commonly used constraints in PM software Start No Earlier Than and Finish NO Later Than Major milestones dictated by Project sponsor, customer e.g. Imposed dates, Key milestones etc

Organization Process Assets


Scheduling methodology Project calendars

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Develop Schedule


Enterprise Environmental Factors
Can influence the develop schedule process by using a scheduling tool for developing the schedule

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Schedule Network Analysis
Technique to generate Project Schedule Used to calculate early and late start and finish dates Analytical techniques Critical Path Method Critical Chain Method What- If Analysis Resource Leveling

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Critical Path Method (CPM)
Calculates early start and finish dates and late start and finish dates by performing forward pass and backward pass analysis. The critical path (CP) is the longest full path on the project or the earliest time that the project can finish. It determines the amount of float, or schedule flexibility, for each of the network paths. CPM is a method to determine schedule durations without regard to resource availability. As such CPM is concerned mostly with meeting the project timelines than costs. Any project activity with a float time that equals zero is considered a critical path activity activity.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Critical Path Method (CPM)
Total Float / Slack : The amount of time the activity can be delayed without affecting the Project completion date. Example : Task A can be delayed by 20 days without delaying project completion date. Free Float / Slack : The amount of time the activity can be delayed without affecting the early start (ES) of its successor activities. Example : Task A can be delayed by 12 days without delaying Task B early start start. Project Float / Slack: The amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the externally imposed project completion date required by customer/management Example : Complete project can be delayed by 2 weeks as the externally imposed completion date is 4 weeks away.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Finding Total Float /Slack OR Free Float /Slack
Finding the Early Start (ES) and Early Fi i h (EF) dates Finish d t perform f a forward f d pass through the network Finding the Late Start (LS) and Late Finish (LF) dates perform a backward pass through the network Formula Float or Slack Late Finish (LF) Early Finish (EF) Late Start (LS) Early Start (ES)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Finding Total Float /Slack OR Free Float /Slack
Float > 0 Time is available No Extra time available (Critical path) Float = 0 Float < 0 Critical situation Schedule cannot be met without re planning

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Critical Path using PDM network diagram - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Forward Pass through the Network
Determining ES and EF dates for each activity

Backward Pass :
D t Determining i i LS and d LF dates d t for f each h activity ti it

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


PDM Forward Pass (Using ES=0) - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


PDM Forward Pass (Using ES=1) - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


PDM Backward Pass (Using ES=1) - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Total Float Calculations - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Critical Chain Method
Schedule network analysis technique that modifies project schedule to account for limited resources. Resource-constrained critical path is known as critical chain. Adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty. One buffer is known as project buffer. Additional buffers are known as feeding buffers. Size of buffer should account for uncertainty in the duration of chain of dependant tasks.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Resource Leveling g
Often cause original critical path to change and is necessary when resources are over allocated. Allocate scarce resources to the critical activities first lets the cost and schedule slip in favor of having stable number of resources per month Sacrificing schedule for having resource stability is called as resource-based scheduling Scheduling of finite or critical resource from project ending date is known as reverse allocation scheduling

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


What if Scenario Analysis y
Consideration of different scenarios of event occurrence and their impact on the project schedule. These events could be external to the project p j or integral g p part of p project j Examples What will happen if there is a change in process? What will happen if a specific component gets delayed Out come of scenario analyses helps to assess the feasibility of schedule under adverse conditions and in preparing contingency/response plan to mitigate the impact of unexpected situations

Leads and Lags


Adjustments to leads and lags to come up with a via with a viable project schedule.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Schedule Compression
Shortening of schedule without changing the project scope, to meet the Schedule Constraints Imposed Dates Other schedule objectives

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Crashing g
Crashing is a compression technique that looks at cost and schedule trade-offs. Cost and schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost. One of the things you might do to crash the schedule is add resources-from either inside or outside the organization-to the critical path tasks. p Often results in higher costs, decreased quality

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Crashing g Example p
The following table shows the critical path activities of a project. If the project float is negative 3 months which activity or activities would you crash to save 3 months?

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Crashing g Example p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Fast Tracking g
Fast Tracking is doing critical path activities in parallel that were originally planned in Series. Often results in Rework Usually U ll i increases th the Ri Risk k Require more attention to Communication

Scheduling Tool
Can be used in conjunction with other project management Software application as well as manual methods.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Develop Schedule


Schedule Compression p and Tool (MS ( Project) j ) - Example p

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Project Schedule
Contains milestone schedule, summary schedule and detailed schedule with logical relationships. Remains preliminary until resource assignments are confirmed This process is completed on or before the completion of project management plan Can be at summary level master schedule or at a detailed level Can be p presented in tabular or g graphical p format Project schedule network diagram Bar charts or Milestone charts

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Methods of presenting Project Schedule

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Schedule baseline
Think of the schedule baseline as the final, approved version of the project schedule with baseline start and baseline finish dates and resource assignments.

Schedule Data
Supporting data schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes assumptions and constraints attributes, Resource requirements by time periods resource histograms Alternative schedules best case, worst case schedules etc Scheduling S h d li of f contingency ti reserves

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Develop Schedule


Project Document updates
Include but not limited to Activity Resource Requirements Activity Attributes Calendar Risk Register

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

ESTIMATE COSTS

Estimate Costs
Estimate Costs

Process of developing an approximation (estimate) of the costs of resources (people, equipment, materials) needed to complete project activities. activities

Estimate Costs Key Points


Cost estimating also includes identifying and considering cost alternatives Cost estimation is an iterative process from phase to phase. Example : A project in the initiation phase can have an estimate in the range of (-50% to +50%). As the project progress estimate could narrow to a range of (-10% ( 10% to +10%)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Costs
Inputs Scope Baseline Project Schedule Human Resource Plan Risk Register Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Expert Judgment Analogous Estimating Parametric Estimating Bottom-up Estimating Three-point Estimates Reserve Analysis Cost of quality Project Management estimating software vendor bid analysis Outputs Activity cost estimates Basis of estimates Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Estimate Costs

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Costs


Scope Baseline
Scope Statement Provides product description, acceptance p criteria, key y deliverables, p project j boundaries, assumptions and constraints. WBS Provides relationships among all components of the project and, project deliverables. deliverables WBS Dictionary Provide an identification of the deliverable and description of work in each WBS component.

Project Schedule
Type and quantity of resources Amount of time the resources are applied.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Costs


Human Resource Plan
Staffing attributes Personnel Rates Rewards & Recognition

Risk Register
Positive Risk and Negative risks Risk Mitigation costs

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Market Place conditions Commercial Database

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Estimate Costs


Organization Process Assets
Cost Estimating Policies Cost Estimating g Templates p Historical Information Lessons Learned

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Costs


Expert Judgment
Insight about environment and information from prior similar projects.

Analogous Estimate (Top- Down Estimate)


Based on the actual cost of previous, previous similar projects as the basis for estimating. Used when there is a limited amount of information about the current project. project

Parametric Estimating
Uses statistical relationship between historical data and other variables. (e.g., price per square foot). g level of accuracy y depending p g upon p the data. High

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Costs


Bottom-up Estimating
Estimating the cost of individual activities or work packages from WBS, and summarizing, summarizing or rolling up the costs to arrive at a project total.

Three point estimate


Uses combination of three estimates to define the activity cost. Also referred as PERT. Most likely - Cost of activity based on realistic effort. Optimistic - Cost of activity based on bestcase scenario. Pessimistic - Cost of activity based on worstcase scenario. i
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Costs


Project Management Estimation Software
Computerized spreadsheets, simulation and statistical tools are widely accepted to assist with cost estimating.

Vendor Bid Analysis


Analysis of what project should cost based on responsive bids from qualified vendors.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Estimate Costs


Reserve Analysis
Many cost estimates include contingency reserves also known as contingency allowances) to account for uncertain events. These events are known unknowns. Contingency reserves may y be p percentage g of estimated cost or fixed number. To be used at the discretion of project manager.

Cost of Quality
Refers to the total cost of all efforts related to quality. Cost of Quality can also be used to prepare the schedule activity cost estimate ti t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Estimate Costs


Activity Cost Estimates
Quantitative assessments of the cost of resources required to complete project work. (e.g., units of currency or staff hours). Resources include labor, materials, equipment, services, facilities, information technology, etc.

Basis of Estimates
Supporting detail for activity cost estimate may include: Description of estimated scope of work Documentation of the basis of the estimate Documentation of any assumptions made Documentation of any constraints Range of possible estimates Confidence level of final estimate

Project Document Updates


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DETERMINE BUDGET

Determine Budget
Determine Budget g

Process of aggregating the cost estimates of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.

Determine Budget Key Points


Project budgets constitute funds authorized to execute the project. It includes all authorized budgets but excludes management reserves.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Determine Budget
Inputs Activity cost estimates Basis of Estimates Scope Baseline Project Schedule Resource calendars Contracts Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Cost Aggregation Reserve Analysis Expert Judgment Historical Relationships Funding limit reconciliation Outputs Cost Performance baseline Project funding requirements Project document (updates)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Determine Budget

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Determine Budget


Activity Cost Estimates
Cost estimates for each schedule activity within a work package are aggregated to obtain a cost estimate for each work package

Basis of Estimates
Supporting detail for cost estimates should be specified specified. Any basic assumptions dealing with inclusion or exclusion of indirect costs in the project budget are specified.

Scope Baseline
Scope Statement WBS WBS Dictionary

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Determine Budget


Project Schedule
Includes planned start and finish dates for activities, milestones, work packages and control accounts. Used to aggregate costs to calendar periods.

Resource Calendars
Provide information on which resources and when they are assigned to the project.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Determine Budget


Contracts
Contract information related to what products, services, or results have been p purchased and their costs are used in determining the budget

Organization Process Assets


Existing formal and informal cost budgeting related policies, p ,p procedures and g guidelines. Cost Budgeting Tools Reporting methods.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Determine Budget


Cost Aggregation
Schedule activity cost estimates are aggregated by work packages in accordance with the WBS The work package cost estimates are then aggregated for the higher component levels of the WBS, such as control accounts and ultimately for entire project.

Reserve Analysis
Establish both contingency reserves and management reserves, Contingency reserves are reserved for unplanned, but potentially required changes that can result from risks identified in risk register. g Management reserves are reserved for Unknown unknowns. Project manager may require to obtain approval before obligating or spending this reserve. Not a part of the project cost baseline, but are included i l d di in th the t total t l budget b d tf for th the project. j t
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Tools & Techniques Determine Budget


Cost Aggregation - Example

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Determine Budget


Expert Judgment
Available from many sources including Consultants Stakeholders including customers Professional and technical associations..

Historical Relationships p
Relationship that result in parametric or analogous estimates involve the use of project p j characteristics to develop p mathematical models to predict total project costs.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Determine Budget


Funding limit reconciliation
The next thing to be check is the project cash flow (for example monthly cash flow) against the funding available for the project (in thi example this l , monthly thl f funding di available il bl ). ) Funding may not be available when it is required causing changes to the project (usually ( rescheduling of f work) ) and iterations of f the project management plan. There is an other obvious reconciliation needed before the cost baseline and cost budget become final. Reconciliation with any funding constraints identified in the project scope statement.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Determine Budget


Cost Performance Baseline
Authorized time-phased budget at completion (BAC) used to measure, monitor and control overall cost performance on the project. Developed as a summation of approved budgets by time period and usually displayed in the form of a S-curve.

Project j Funding g Requirement q


Funding requirements, total and periodic (e.g., annual or quarterly), are derived from the cost baseline. Funding usually occurs in incremental amounts that are not continuous continuous. The total funds required are those included in the cost baseline plus management reserves.

Project Document Updates


Risk Register, Cost estimates, Project schedule

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PLAN COMMUNICATION

Plan Communication
Plan Communication

Process of determining the project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach.

Plan Communication Communication Key Points


It Includes Who needs what information ? When they will need it ? How it will be given to them ? By whom ? Effective communication means that only the required information is provided in the right p g format at the right g time and with the right g impact p .

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Plan Communication
Inputs Stakeholder register Stakeholder Management strategy Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Communications requirement analysis Communication technology Communication models Communication methods Outputs Communications management plan Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Plan Communication

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Plan Communication


Stakeholder Register
Discussed earlier in Identify Stakeholder process.

Stakeholder Management Strategy


Discussed earlier in Identify Stakeholder process

Enterprise Environmental Factors


All enterprise environmental factors are used as inputs in this process.

Organization Process Assets Lessons learned Historical Information

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Communication


Communication Requirement q Analysis y
Determines the information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information.

Customer, sponsor, Functional managers, and Team Members

Other Project Managers

The Project

Other Projects

Other Stakeholders

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Tools & Techniques Plan Communication


Communication Requirement Analysis
Includes, Communicating in all directions D Determining t i i and d limiting li iti who h communicates with whom. Who will receive what information.

Consider the number of potential communication channels or paths

N ( N 1 ) 2

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Tools & Techniques Plan Communication


Communication Technology gy
Used to transfer information back and forth among project stakeholders.

Factors that can affect the project include, Urgency of the need for Information Availability of f technology Expected project staffing Duration of the project and project environment

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Communication


Communication Models
A basic model of communication shown below demonstrates how information is sent and received between Sender and Receiver. The sender is responsible for making information clear and complete so that the receiver can receive it correctly, and for confirming that it is properly p p y understood.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Communication


Communication Methods
It can be broadly classified as Interactive communication Multidirectional exchange of information e e.g. g Video conference Push Communication Sent to specific p recipients p who need to know the information. e.g. memos. Pull Communication Requires recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion. Used for Large volumes of information or for very Large audiences Project Manager decides what, how and when communication methods are to be used in the project. j t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Plan Communication


Communication Management Plan
Communication Plan includes, Stakeholder communication requirements Information to be communicated Reason, Timeframe, Frequency and person responsible for the distribution of the information Person P responsible ibl f for authorizing h i i release l of f confidential information. Resources allocated for communication activities, including time and budget budget. Flow charts of information flow in the project Escalation process.

Communication management plan is a subsidiary of the project management g plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Plan Communication


Project Document updates
Updates to project documents including but not limited to, e.g. Project schedule, Stakeholder register and Stakeholder management strategy. t t

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PLAN QUALITY

Plan Quality
Plan Quality y

Process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will satisfy them

Plan Quality Key Points


Should be performed in parallel with the other project planning processes

Quality is planned, designed and built in Not inspected in

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Plan Quality - Definitions


Fitness for use
States that the product or service is capable of being used

Fitness for purpose


States that the product or service will meet its intended purpose

Customer Satisfaction
States the customers feelings about a product or service

Conformance to requirements
States the condition of the product or service in relation to the customers requirements

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Plan Quality
Inputs Scope baseline Stakeholder Register Cost Performance Baseline Schedule Baseline Risk Register Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Cost- Benefit Analysis Cost of Quality (COQ) Control Charts Benchmarking Design of experiments Statistical Sampling Flowcharting Proprietary QM methodologies Additional Quality Planning tools Outputs Quality Management Plan Quality Metrics Quality Checklists Process Improvement plan Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Plan Quality

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Plan Quality


Scope p Baseline
Scope statement : Contains the project description, major project deliverables and acceptance criteria WBS: identifies the deliverables deliverables, the work packages and the control accounts used to measure project performance WBS Dictionary: defines technical information for WBS elements

Stakeholder Register
Identifies stakeholders with particular interest in, or impact on, quality

The definition of acceptance criteria can significantly increase or decrease project j quality y costs

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Plan Quality


Cost Performance Baseline
Documents accepted time phase budget used to measure cost performance

Schedule Baseline
Accepted schedule performance measures including start date and end date

Risk Register
Information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Plan Quality


Organization g Process Assets
Organizational quality policies, procedures etc Lessons learned from previous projects

Enterprise Environmental Factors


Governmental Agency regulations, rules, standards and guidelines etc.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Cost / Benefit Analysis
The primary cost of meeting quality requirements is the expense associated with Project Quality Management activities. ti iti Benefits are less rework, higher productivity, lesser costs etc Benchmarking Involves comparing p g actual or p planned project p j practices p to those of comparable projects to identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement and to provide a basis by which to measure performance Example : if your current printer can produce 8 pages per minute and youre considering a new printer that produces 14 pages per minute, i the h benchmark b h ki is 8 pages per minute. i
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Design of Experiments (DoE)
DoE is a statistical method that helps identify which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under d d development l t or i in production d ti It provides a statistical framework for systematically changing all of the important factors, instead of changing the factors one at a time Example: Senior employees will cost more than junior employees, but can also be expected to complete the assigned work in less time. A An appropriately i t l d designed i d experiment i t (i (in thi this case, computing project costs and durations for various combinations of senior and junior employees) will often allow determination of an optimal p solution from a relatively limited number of cases.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Cost of Quality (or Conformance)
Types of Costs Associated with Quality are: Cost of Conformance (Prevention and Appraisal costs) Cost of Non-Conformance ( (Failure Costs) )

Impact of Poor Quality Increased cost, decreased productivity, increased risk, increased cost of tracking and monitoring The cost of conformance is always lower than the cost of nonconformance

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Control Charts
Graphical display of the project results, over time, of a product, process, to d t determine i if th the process, product d ti is within ithi acceptable limits (in control) or outside the acceptable limits (out of control)

Statistical Sampling
Choosing a part of population of interest for inspection p Sample size and frequency are planned

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Flow Charting
Graphical representation of process steps and their inter-relationships

Proprietary QM Methodologies
Six sigma, TQM, CMMI etc

Additional Quality Planning Tools


Brain storming Force o ce field eda analysis a ys s Affinity diagrams Nominal group techniques, etc

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Plan Quality


Grade vs. vs Quality
A ranking or categorization used to distinguish items or products that have the same functional use (e.g., eggs, hammers, paper), but do not t share h the th same requirements i t f for quality lit (e.g., different diff t hammers maybe built to withstand varying degrees of force) If f the customer or clients requirement calls for f grade B materials rather than grade A, then using grade A does not add to the project. You must understand the spec, then conform to it.

Low Grade is acceptable, but not low Quality

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Plan Quality


Quality y Management g Plan
Describes how the project management team will implement p the performing p g organization quality policy

Q li Metrics Quality M i
A metric describes what something is and how the Quality Control (QC) process measures it. A measurement is an actual value
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Plan Quality


Quality y Checklists
A checklist is a structured tool, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed

Process Improvement Plan


Process Improvement plan focuses on finding inefficiencies in a process or activity and eliminating them

Project Document Updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

DIRECT AND MANAGE PROJECT EXECUTION (EXECUTING) ( )

Direct and Manage Project Execution


Direct and Manage g Project j Execution

Process of performing the work defined in project management plan to achieve projects objectives

Direct and Manage Project Execution Key Points


Perform activities to accomplish project objectives Extend effort and spend funds Staff, train and manage team members Obtain, Obt i manage and d use resources Implement planned methods Create project deliverables Manage risks, select and manage sellers Issue change requests p approved pp changes g into p project j scope, p p plans Adapt and environment.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Direct and Manage Project Execution


Inputs Project Management plan Approved change requests Enterprise Environmental factors Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Expert Judgment Project Management Information system Outputs Deliverables Work Performance information Change requests Project Management plan updates Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Direct and Manage Project Execution

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Direct and Manage Project Execution


Project j Management g Plan As described earlier Approved Change Requests
Documented authorized changes to expand or contract project scope. The approved change requests can also modify policies, project management plans, procedures, costs or budgets or revise schedules

Organization Process Assets

Enterprise Environmental Factors

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Direct and Manage Project Execution


Expert Judgment

P j t Management Project M t Information I f ti System


Automated system used by the project management team to aid execution of the activities planned in the project management plan

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Direct and Manage Project Execution


Deliverables
Unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that must be produced and provided to complete a process, phase or project Change Request Issued to cover preventive (e.g. Contingency plans and risk responses) p ) or corrective actions to forestall negative g impact p later in the project.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Direct and Manage Project Execution


Work Performance Information
Deliverable status Schedule progress Costs incurred Project Management Plan updates Project document updates Requirements documents Project logs Risk register Stakeholder register

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE

Perform Quality Assurance


Perform Quality y Assurance

Process is the application of planned, planned systematic quality activities to ensure that the project will employ all processes needed to meet requirements

Perform Quality Assurance Key Points


Performed by Quality assurance department or group QA also provides support for Continuous Process Improvement Quality assurance is not a one time activity, but performed throughout the project

Continuous Process Improvement reduces waste and non-value-added activities

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Perform Quality Assurance


Inputs Project Management Plan Quality Metrics Work performance information Quality control measurements Tools and Techniques Quality planning tools and Quality control tools Quality audits Process Analysis Outputs Organization process assets updates Change requests Project management plan updates Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Perform Quality Assurance

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Perform Quality Assurance


Project j Management g Plan
Quality Management Plan: Describes how QA will be performed with in the p j project Process Improvement Plan: Details the steps for analyzing processes to identify activities which enhance their value

Quality Metrics
I Is an operational ti l definition d fi iti that th t describes, d ib in very specific terms, a project or product attribute and how a quality process will measure it

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Perform Quality Assurance


Work Performance Information
Project deliverables status, schedule progress, costs incurred

Quality Control Measurements


QC measurements are the results of QC activities that are fed back to the QA process

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Perform Quality Assurance


Quality Planning & Control Tools and Techniques
Discussed in Plan Quality and Quality Control Processes

Quality Audits
A quality audit is a structured, independent review to determine whether project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures Quality audit may be scheduled or random and may be conducted by internal or external auditors.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Perform Quality Assurance


Process Analysis
Follows steps outlined in process improvement plan Examines problems/constraints experienced Includes root cause analysis

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Perform Quality Assurance


Organization process assets updates
Changes in quality standards (not limited to)

Change Requests Project Management plan updates Project document updates


Quality audit reports, Training plans, process documentation.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

DISTRIBUTE INFORMATION

Distribute Information
Distribute Information

Process of making relevant information available to project stakeholders as planned.

Distribute Information Key Points


Various ways of Information distribution include, Status Reports Project meetings Review meetings Effective information distribution includes e.g. Sender receiver models Choice of media Writing style q Presentation technique

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Distribute Information
Inputs Project Management plan Performance reports Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Communication methods Information distribution tools Outputs Organization process assets (updates)

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Distribute Information

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Distribute Information


Project Management Plan
Communication management plan included in project management plan details stakeholder communication needs, channels of di t ib ti distribution, periodicity i di it of f di distribution t ib ti etc. t

Performance Reports
Used to distribute project performance and status information

Organization Process Assets Policies, procedures and guidelines regarding information distribution. Templates Historical information and lessons learned.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Distribute Information


Communication Methods

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Distribute Information


Information Distribution Tools
Project information may be distributed using a variety of methods including, g Project Meetings Hard-copy document distribution Shared access to networked electronic databases Fax, e-mail Voicemail Video Conferencing

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Distribute Information


Organization Process Assets (updates)
Stakeholder notifications about resolved issues, approved changes Project Reports Formal and informal project reports detail project status, issue logs, closure reports, etc Project presentations. Project Records Correspondence, memos, reports, and documents describing the project Feedback from stakeholders Lessons learned documentation

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

MANAGE STAKEHOLDERS EXPECTATIONS

Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Manage g Stakeholders Expectations p

Process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur

Manage Stakeholders Expectations Key Points


Increase the likelihood of project acceptance by actively managing stakeholder expectations Proactive identification and addressing of concerns that have not become issues yet. Clarifying and resolving issues issues.

Managing expectations helps to increase the probability of project j success

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Inputs Stakeholder register Stakeholder Management strategy Project Management plan Issue Log Change Log Organization process assets Tools and Techniques Communication methods Interpersonal skills Management skills Outputs Organization process assets Change requests Project Management plan updates Project document updates

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Manage Stakeholders Expectations

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Stakeholder Register g
List of relevant stakeholders for the project (Discussed earlier in Identify Stakeholder process)

Stakeholder Management Strategy


Defines the approach to increase the support and minimize the negative impacts of the stakeholder (Discussed earlier in Identify Stakeholder process)

Project Management Plan


Communication management plan in Project Management plan documents the identified and analyzed needs of stakeholders stakeholders.

Issue Log
Used to document and monitor the resolution of issues.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Inputs - Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Change Log
Used to document the changes that occurs.

Organization Process Assets


Assets like Organizational communication requirements Issue management procedures Change Control procedures Historical Information about previous projects.

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Tools & Techniques Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Communication Methods
Method identified for each stakeholder in the communication management plan (discussed previously).

Interpersonal skills
Building trust Resolving conflict, Active listening, listening etc etc.

Management skills
Presentation skills Negotiating, writing skills etc. Public speaking etc

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Outputs Manage Stakeholders Expectations


Organization Process Assets (updates)
Cause of issues reasoning behind corrective actions lessons learned

Change Request
Any Change request as a result of managing stakeholders.

Project Management Plan Updates


This is required when new or changed communication requirement are identified.

Project document updates


Documents that may y be updated p are Stakeholder management g strategy, Stakeholder register, issue log etc.
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

PMP EXAM TIPS AND TRICKS

You have devoted months to studying y g for the PMP exam

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

You have spent p your y time, , money and effort

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Dont waste it by failing to prepare for the PMP-day

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

How to prepare for your exam day

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Avoid cramming with ith a overnight study sessions


Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Take a whole day off from work

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Wear comfortable clothes

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

The day of the exam!


Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

The check-in process


Arrive early Bring ID Bring confirmations Photos Names match?
Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Do not bring g anything y g or anyone y with y you

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Remember Murphy's Law?

Expect p the unexpected p Concentrate on passing!


Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Ready, Set, Go!


Familiarize yourself with the workstation and watch the tutorial

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Review your answers g the exam after taking


Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Result will appear (almost) immediately after exam! It t just feels ee s like e it t ta takes es forever oe e

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

If y you p pass.. Congratulations!

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Congratulations!

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management

Recognizing Excellence in Project Management