Accessory Drive The accessory drive section is attached to the outside bottom or side of the engine and is where

all the mechanically-driven components are mounted to the engine. This section takes mechanical energy from the engine to power the engine and aircraft accessories mounted to the accessory gearbox. Afterburner The afterburner is an assembly aft of the turbine section that supplies atomized fuel into the exhaust airflow to increase exhaust temperature and pressure. Afterburners use large quantities of fuel, and thus are used for short periods of time only. Afterburners are used on turbojet engines to increase thrust for short periods of time during takeoff, climb and supersonic flight. Very few commercial aircraft use afterburners. Afterburners are usually on military aircraft only. Augmentor Augmentors are afterburners on low-bypass turbofan engines. Core airflow and bypass (fan) airflow are mixed aft of the turbines, in the exhaust. Fuel nozzles supply atomized fuel into the airflow and an igniter ignites the fuel/air mixture. Augmentors are used on low-bypass turbofan engines to increase thrust for short periods during takeoff, climb, and combat flight. Augmentor Exhaust Nozzles Augmentor exhaust nozzles make up the aft end of augmented low-bypass turbofan engines. It has a flame holder, fuel nozzles, an igniter, and a variable exhaust nozzle. The fuel nozzles supply atomized fuel into the exhaust airflow and the igniter makes the fuel/air mixture burn. Augmentor exhaust nozzles are used on low-bypass turbofan engines to increase thrust. Combustor In the combustor, compressed air generated by the compressor is mixed with fuel and then ignited. Nozzles spray fuel into the stream of air and the mixture of air and fuel is ignited providing an extremely hot and powerful airflow. The fuel burns with the oxygen in the compressed air, producing hot expanding gases. The inside of the combustor is often made of ceramic materials to provide a heat-resistant chamber. Temperatures in the combustor can reach 2700ºF. Compressor

The core is responsible for supplying approximately 20 percent of the total engine thrust and the torque for operation of all accessories. This cooler air helps to quiet the engine as well as adding thrust to the engine. resulting in an increase in the air pressure. Most blades of the fan are made of titanium. depending on the aircraft application. Variable nozzles are usually found on military engines while fixed are typically associated with commercial turbofans. Core The core engine module is aft of the fan module and forward of the turbine stator case and is made up of three components: compressor rotor and stator. Convergent-Divergent Exhaust Nozzle A variable convergent-divergent (C-D) exhaust nozzle (Iris) is made up of flaps that interlock. It goes through a duct that surrounds the core to the back of the engine where it produces much of the force that propels the airplane forward. The spinning fan sucks in large quantities of air. The exhaust section directs the exhaust gases aft and further accelerates the exhaust gases to produce forward thrust. The compressed air is then forced into the combustion chamber. One part continues through the "core" or center of the engine. A variable C-D exhaust nozzle is more efficient than a fixed C-D exhaust nozzle. Fan The fan is the first component on the engine. The C-D exhaust nozzle is automatically controlled to improve subsonic and supersonic flight of jet aircraft.The compressor is the first component in the core of the engine. A variable C-D exhaust nozzle is used on modern supersonic aircraft. It then speeds this air up and splits it into two parts. where it is acted upon by the other engine components. . It is made up of a series of fans with many blades and is attached to the shaft. The result is an increase in the energy potential of the air. The fan module typically supplies approximately 80 percent of the engine thrust. As the exhaust nozzle converges. The compressor squeezes air that enters it into progressively smaller areas. It is made up of either a fixed or variable nozzle assembly. Exhaust The exhaust section is located behind the turbine section and at the rear of the engine. the exhaust gases are subsonic. combustion liner and Stage 1 HPT nozzle. As the exhaust nozzle diverges the gases become supersonic. Supersonic flight requires a C-D exhaust nozzle. The second part "bypasses" the core of the engine.

Mach 1 Breaking the speed of sound. it will not start moving by itself. • • • 1. there is always a resistance of the same size in the opposite direction. This is the engine part that actually produces the thrust for the plane. Nozzle The nozzle is the exhaust duct of the engine. The inlet is aerodynamically designed to insure a smooth. 3. The energy depleted airflow that passed the turbine. Laws of Motion Sir Isaac Newton proposed three laws of motion. Low-Pressure Turbine (LPT) The LPT module is the in the rear of the engine. Lift A force that pushes objects upward. 2. forward. it will not stop or change direction unless something pushes it. LPT nozzle stator case and turbine rear frame. The HPT module is made up of the HPT rotor and HPT stator and is removes energy from the combustion gases to turn the high-pressure compressor and accessory gearbox. If an object is moving. Inlet The inlet sends air to the forward end of the compressor. in addition to the colder air that bypassed the engine core. and therefore the airplane. If an object is not moving. . Mach 1 is equivalent to 760 miles per hour. The LPT removes energy from the combustion gases to drive the low-pressure compressor (N1) rotor assembly. produces a force when exiting the nozzle that acts to propel the engine. aft of the HPT stator case.Gas Turbine Another term for an aircraft engine. Objects will move farther and faster when they are pushed harder. LPT components include the LPT rotor. evenly distributed airflow into the engine. High-Pressure Turbine (HPT) The HPT module is aft of the compressor rear frame and forward of the LPT stator case. When an object is pushed in one direction.

In order to travel faster than sound the plane must push through these waves. Transonic: 350-750 MPH. Propulsion (as a field of study in relation to Aeronautics) is the study of how to design an engine that will provide the thrust that is needed for a plane to take off and fly through the air. An example is the commercial Concorde. Small planes such as crop dusters and seaplanes are examples of planes that travel at this speed. This creates a sonic boom. If a plane is going at the speed of sound it is traveling at Mach 1. Sound Waves Sound is made up of molecules of air that move. The aircraft's speed averages more than 760 miles per hour. Subsonic Subsonic is a speed of 100-350 MPH. The sonic boom sounds when the plane is going faster than 760 MPH. the combustor ignites the mixture (bang) and the turbine blows the air out the back creating thrust and turning the forward fan. When they push together they form sound waves. Regimes of Flight The ranges of speed that airplanes fly. . Supersonic Planes that travel faster than Mach 1 (or the speed of sound) are traveling at supersonic speeds. Suck-Squeeze-Bang-Blow The term that is generally used to describe the operation of a jet engine. which causes a forward thrust.The combination of the hot air and cold air are expelled and produce an exhaust. Supersonic:760-3500 MPH. The noise is the result of breaking through the airwaves that form in front of a fast moving plane. Speed of Sound When a plane travels faster than 760 a sound barrier forms in front of the plane. Sonic Boom When a plane pushes through a shockwave it creates a sonic boom. Subsonic: 100-350 MPH. The fan sucks in the air. Hypersonic: 3500-7000 MPH Shock Wave A series of air waves that form in front of a fast moving plane. the compressor squeezes the air down.

This motion decreases the speed of the aircraft and is the loud noise you hear when landing. The turbojet sucks in air and compresses or squeezes it. Sir Isaac Newton discovered that for "every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. The resulting hot air is passed through a turbine. pushing the plane forward. hot gases coming out of the combustion section to turn a shaft to drive the compressor and other engine accessories.Thrust The forward force that pushes the engine and. The gases flow through the turbine and make it spin. All three literally reverse the engines thrust by closing in when deployed by the pilot pushing the air out the front of the engine rather than the back. expanding gases push hard against the front of the engine." Aircraft engine use this principle.100ºF to 1. Transonic speed is 350 . the turbine section uses energy in the rapidly moving. and this excess pressure is sent to the nozzle to produce a high-velocity stream of gas which produces a thrust. There are three types of thrust reversers: translating cowl.300ºF. The turbojet engine is a reaction engine. Turbine Located behind the combustor. Transonic This speed of flight includes most of the commercial flights that carry passengers and cargo. Fuel is added to the air and burned in a combustion chamber to raise the temperature of the fluid mixture to about 1. the pressure at the turbine discharge will be nearly twice the atmospheric pressure. clam shell and turboprop reverse pitch. In a reaction engine. Thrust Reverser Thrust reversers serve as an aircraft's main brakes on landing. Turbojet Air taken in from an opening in the front of the engine is compressed up to 3 to 12 times its original pressure in compressor.750 MPH. The result of this increase in temperature is an increase of about 40 percent in thrust at takeoff and a much larger percentage at high speeds once the plane is in the air. If the turbine and compressor are efficient. therefore. It is a second combustion chamber positioned after the turbine and before the nozzle. These gases bounce back and shoot our of the rear of the exhaust. the airplane forward. Substantial increases in thrust can be obtained by employing an afterburner. The afterburner increases the temperature of the gas ahead of the nozzle. . which drives the compressor.

In a turbojet all the air entering the intake passes through the gas generator. Instead. Most of the air flows around the outside of the engine. In a turbofan engine only a portion of the incoming air goes into the combustion chamber. making it quieter and giving more thrust at low speeds. Compared with a turbojet engine. which is composed of the compressor. Vectoring supplies the directional thrust necessary for vertical take off and landing (VTOL) and short take off and landing . Vectoring Vectoring is the procedure that makes the exhaust nozzle structure turn to make forward. which sucks in air. and is ejected directly as a "cold" jet or mixed with the gas-generator exhaust to produce a "hot" jet. combustion chamber. To accommodate the higher flight speeds. and turbine. the turboprop has better propulsion efficiency at flight speeds below about 500 miles per hour. It achieves this by increasing the total air-mass flow and reducing the velocity within the same total energy supply.Turboprop A turboprop is a jet engine attached to a propeller. and this turns a shaft that drives the propeller. Modern turboprop engines are equipped with propellers that have a smaller diameter but a larger number of blades for efficient operation at much higher flight speeds. the turboprop engine consists of a compressor. it provides power for a helicopter rotor. The turboshaft engine is designed so that the speed of the helicopter rotor is independent of the rotating speed of the gas generator. Turbofan A turbofan engine has a large fan at the front. This permits the rotor speed to be kept constant even when the speed of the generator is varied to modulate the amount of power produced. or low-pressure compressor. The remainder passes through a fan. the air and gas pressure is used to run the turbine. and turbine. Most of today's airliners are powered by turbofans. A variety of smaller aircraft are powered by turboprops. The objective of this sort of bypass system is to increase thrust without increasing fuel consumption. It does not drive a propeller. Engines featuring such propellers are called propfans. The turbine at the back is turned by the hot gases generated by the engine. combustion chamber. Turboshaft This is another form of gas-turbine engine that operates much like a turboprop system. which then creates power to drive the compressor. vertical or side-to-side thrust. Like the turbojet. the blades are scimitar-shaped with swept-back leading edges at the blade tips.

(STOL) military aircraft. Vectoring also gives aircraft a better rate of climb and increases control during flight. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful