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Introduction to Biology
Essential Question Why is it important to study biology?

Biology and Society:

Biology provides exciting breakthroughs changing our culture. Scientists are studying questions that are relevant to our lives.

Molecular biology is solving crimes and revealing ancestries. Genetics and cell biology are revolutionizing medicine and agriculture. Ecology helps us address environmental issues. Neuroscience and evolutionary biology are 2 reshaping psychology and sociology.

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Biology All Around Us

Biology and You

Biology is the study of life and living organisms Offers a framework for posing questions about how living things work Directly applies to your health, life, and future Biologists work to solve problems such as improving our food supply, curing diseases, and preserving our environment
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Life at Its Many Levels

Biologists explore life at levels ranging from the biosphere to the molecules that make up cells. Ecosystems Cells

Fig. 1-02-3

Biosphere Ecosystems Communities

Populations

Organisms

Organ Systems and Organs

Tissues

Organelles Nucleus Cells

Molecules and Atoms Atom

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Organizing the parts of life

Tissue: similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function.

Organ is made up from multiple tissues


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Organizing the parts of life

Population: Group of individuals of the same kind (that is, the same species) that occupy the same area

Community: multiple populations of different species in a particluar geographic area


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Ecosystems

Each organism interacts continuously with its environment. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system

Organisms interact continuously with the living and nonliving factors in the environment. The interactions between organisms and their environment take place within an ecosystem.

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Chapter 1 What Is Life? Characteristics of Living Organisms


Living organisms and inanimate objects.
Living organisms, such as this lizard (Iguana iguana), have characteristics that are fundamentally different from those of inanimate objects, like the rock on which it is sitting.

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Is an apple living or nonliving? Why?

Chapter 1

Characteristics of Life
a. Cell b. Cellular organization- Order c. Energy Utilization d. Response to Envoiremen e. Regulation f. Reproduction g. Growth and Development h. Evolution

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Characteristics of Life a. Cells and Their DNA


Cells are smallest unit of life The cell is the lowest level of structure that can perform all activities required for life. -All organisms are composed of cells.

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Cells are complex & highly organized Cells have parts called organelles that do different jobs e.g. Chloroplasts in plants make sugars

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We can distinguish two major types of cells: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic


The prokaryotic cell is simpler and smaller and contains no organelles. Bacteria have prokaryotic cells. The eukaryotic cell is larger, more complex, and contains organelles. The nucleus is the largest organelle in most eukaryotic cells. Plants and animals are composed of eukaryotic 17 cells.

The simplest cells are called prokaryotes prokaryotes DO NOT have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Bacteria are examples

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More complex cells are called eukaryotes Eukaryotic cells DO have a nucleus and membranebound organelles Plants, animals,& fungi are examples

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All cells use DNA as the chemical material of genes.

Genes are the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring.
The language of DNA contains just four letters: A, G, C, T (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Tymine)
The four chemical building blocks of DNA

A DNA molecule

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Characteristics of Life
b. Order: All living things exhibit complex but
ordered organization

pine cone

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Characteristics of Life

Life Requires energy


c. Energy Utilization: Organism
take in energy and use it to perform all of lifes activities

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All organisms must take in materials and energy to grow, develop, and reproduce.

Metabolism describes the ability of a cell or

organism to extract energy from its surroundings and use that energy to maintain itself, grow, and reproduce Life comes out metabolic reactions
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Inflow of light energy

ECOSYSTEM

Loss of heat energy

Consumers (animals)

Chemical energy food

Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms)

Cycling of nutrients

Decomposers (in soil)

The dynamics of any ecosystem depend on two main processes: Cycling of nutrients Flow of energy

Characteristics of Life

d. Response to envoirement: All organisms respond to envoiremental stimulus


Organisms detect and respond to stimulus from their environment. A stimulus is a signal to which an organism responds.
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Characteristics of Life
e. Regulation: The envoirement outside the organism
may change drastically, but the organism can adjust its internal envoirement

Most organisms need to keep conditions inside their bodies as constant as possible, even when external conditions change dramatically. All living organisms expend energy to keep conditions inside their cells within certain limits. This process is called

homeostasis.

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f. Reproduction: Organisms reproduce


their own kind
All organisms reproduce, which means that they produce new similar organisms. Most plants and animals engage in sexual reproduction.

In sexual reproduction, cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism.
Other organisms reproduce through asexual reproduction, in which a single organism produces offspring identical to itself.
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Characteristics of Life
g. Growth and development: Information carried by
genes controls the pattern of growth and development Every organism has a particular pattern of growth and development. During development, a single fertilized egg divides and divides again. As these cells divide, they differentiate, which means they begin to look different from one another and perform different functions.

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h. Evolution: Reproduction underlies the


capacity of population to change over time

Life adapts to its envoirement over time

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Arctic Fox

Red Fox

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Evolution by means of natural selection

White Fox

White Fox Red Fox

Red Fox

Red Fox Red Fox Red Fox White Fox

Red Fox

Red Fox

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Diversity Life
Life in its Diverse Forms Diversity is the hallmark of life. The diversity of known life includes 1.8 million species. 290,000 plants 52,000 vertebrates (animals with backbones) 1,000,000 insects Estimates of the total diversity range from 10 million to over 100 million species.
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