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research paper, PID controller mode

research paper, PID controller mode

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Director RVCCT, 2 Director R&D RVCE, 3Dy Director NRB, 4,6Research scholar RVCE, MTech EEE Dept RVCE.

Abstract: Accurate ship navigation is very essential for saving fuel as well time. In order to achieve accurate tracking in unmanned ship navigation various controllers like PID, Predictive and Adaptive controllers are used. Each one is having its own merits and demerits but the Predictive controller provides better tracking. The only major limitation of Predictive and Adaptive controllers is that they are computationally heavy. In order to reduce the computational time, researches have come up with various matrix inversion techniques [7]. In this work an attempt is made to evaluate the performance of PID and Predictive controllers in terms of tracking efficiency and computational time. Computational result evaluated using mat lab shows that Predictive controller with matrix inversion technique provides better tracking and takes less time. Index terms- PID, Predictive, matrix inversion

environmental changes in order to obtain optimal solutions. The only drawback is that it cannot predict the future control outputs which are very crucial in ship navigation. Another type of adaptive controller which is used in ship navigation is Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) system. The general idea behind Model Reference Adaptive Control is to create a closed loop controller with parameters that can be updated to change the response of the system. The output of the system is compared to a desired response from a reference model. The control parameters are updated based on this error. Eduardo F [5], explains the Model Predictive Controller which is an advanced method of process control, which involves the complex computational operations to predict the behavior of dependent variables (i.e. heading angle outputs) of the modeled dynamic system with respect to changes in the process of independent variables (i.e. way point inputs). The main advantage of this controller over adaptive controller is that, it can predict future outputs and can tune the control parameters for future steps, thus reducing heading angle error. Even though the literature survey indicates that predictive controller is the best method, predictive controllers are computationally intensive [6], but research [7] is going on to reduce the computational time. This paper compares the tracking efficiency and computational time of PID and predictive controller. Section discusses the simulation results of PID controller. In Section , the simulation results of predictive controller is discussed. Section V gives the results and conclusion of the work. SIMULATION OF PID CONTROLLER A proportionalintegralderivative controller (PID controller) is a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.

. INTRODUCTION The efficient ship track keeping/course keeping is very important in the ship navigation because it not only saves the time but it also saves the fuel consumption of the ship which is very important parameter to be considered in the ship. But to achieve the efficient track keeping/course keeping of ship and as well to generate accurate heading angles, one should have a robust controller which takes into account of sea disturbances, ship hydrodynamics and both internal /external noise parameters into consideration. There are several technique used for ship tracking, namely PID, adaptive and predictive controllers. A .S White [2], has discussed the most widely used PID controller for control application. For ship navigation task, the controller coefficients need to be changed due to several reasons like environmental changes (wind, waves, and currents), random disturbances, internal errors etc. To accommodate these changes PID controller coefficients Kp, Ki, Kd, must be tuned accordingly, which demands the support of other controllers (fuzzy, genetic etc), which in turn increases the complexity of the system. Hence PID controllers are not suitable for Navigation applications. Juan Martin [4], explains a special type of nonlinear control system called adaptive controller which can alter its gain parameters in accordance with the changing environment. The main advantage of adaptive controllers is that it can adjust its weight functions according to the

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The general simulation set up for ship tracking is as shown in figure 1. Controller used for simulation is PID controller. In order to consider Sea disturbances, modified Pierson-Markowitz Spectrum (P-M) is used which will take into account of both high and low tides. The Bechs non linear model, which supports 6 degree of freedom and larger rudder angle turns of ship, is used to simulate ship dynamics.

Figure 2: Waypoint Navigation by PID.

Matlab simulation result of PID controller is as shown in figure 2 which exhibits the trajectory of both practical and theoretical way points. One can observe that there is deviation between the obtained trajectory (black) and reference trajectory (red) because of sea waves disturbances and improper tuning of PID coefficients. The obtained (practical) trajectory is closer to the theoretical reference trajectory by 72 to 85%. If there is an error in choosing the value of coefficients, that is, if tuning is not proper the system performance will be degraded. So tuning of a PID controller is very important. .SIMULATION OF PREDICTIVE CONTROLLER Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a multivariable control algorithm that uses an internal dynamic model of the process, a history of past control moves and an optimization function over the receding prediction horizon, to calculate the optimum control moves. If the system includes large time delays and higher order dynamics, MPC controllers performs better than PID controllers. The simulation is carried by using predictive controller, based on CARIMA (Controlled Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model) model. Algorithm steps for simulation are given below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Ship parameter declaration i.e., length, speed and non linear parameters of the ship. Ship transfer function declaration. Transferring ship model into CARIMA model [1]. Latitude Longitude array initialization. Conversion of coordinates to angles. State vector initialization. Random generation of sea disturbance. Calculation of predictor and desired heading angle [7]. Addition of noise effect to the output and adding the same to the controller for future calculation. Computation of predictive controller parameters for next iteration. Conversion of angle to coordinates(x-y axis form). Update state vector. Back to step 7 for continuous monitoring.

Algorithm steps for simulation are given below: 1. Ship parameter declaration i.e. length, speed and non linear parameters of the ship. 2. Ship transfer function declaration. 3. Latitude Longitude array initialization. 4. Conversion of coordinates to angles. 5. PID gain and state vector initialization. 6. Random generation of sea disturbance. 7. Addition of noise effect to the output and adding the same to the controller for future calculation 8. Computation of K (heading angle gain) and T (time constant) parameters for next iteration. 9. Conversion of angle to coordinates (x-y axis form). 10. Update state vector. 11. Back to step 6 for continuous monitoring.

As per the input waypoint information, rudder angle (reference) inputs for various stages are calculated by finding the slope between the waypoints. These reference angles are given to the predictive controller to calculate the future heading angles. Matlab Simulation result of Predictive controller is as shown in Figure 3 which exhibits the trajectory of both practical and theoretical way points. The reference waypoints are randomly chosen by the user. By utilizing MPC (selftuning) recursive method, the obtained (practical) trajectory is closer to the theoretical reference trajectory by 92 to 95%.

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The difference between the obtained trajectory and reference trajectory is due to the effect of sea disturbances.

Table 1: Performance Comparison between MPC and PID Computational time Profiler PID MPC MPCReduced 1.785 2.885 2.314 Tic Toc 1.798 2.851 2.243 Obtained Deviation From Reference (Accuracy) 75-85% 92-96% 91-94%

From the Table-1 PID controller takes less computation time compared to predictive controller but the tracking performance is not to the expected level. The computational time of predictive controllers depends on the number of way points as well the prediction steps. The computational time increases with the increase of number of prediction steps and way points. By using suitable Matrix inversion method, the computational time can be further reduced. REFERENCES

[1] S.A. Hariprasad, 2Pampapathi, 3Vijay Singh 4Dr.Krishna 5Sharath.K, 6 Smt.T.D.Shashikala, A Design Approach to Rudder Controller, international journal of computer science and technology (IJCST)- Vol III Issue III, Ver. 1, July To September, 2012 [2]. A S White, Control of Ship Capsize in Stern Quartering Seas, International Journal of Simulation, Vol. 8 No 2, ISSN 1473-8041 dated 2007 [3] Proportional-integral-derivative http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PID [4] Juan Martin, Adaptive Predictive control system, United States Patent, patent no. 4197576 April 8, 1980. [5] F.Camacho and Carlos Bordons, Model predictive controller, springer, Berlin, 1999, ISBN 3540762418. [6] Y. L. Huang, Helen H. Lou, J. P. Gong, and Thomas F. Edgar Fuzzy Model Predictive Control IEEE Transactions On Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 8, No. 6, December 2000 [7] Yaoua Hu, Suwu Xu Generalized Predictive Controller Design for Ship Track Keeping IJCSNS VOL.9 No.5, May 2009 [8]. Anthony J, Multivariable Sliding Mode Control for Autonomous Diving and Steering of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles, IEEE Journal Of Oceanic Engineering, VOL. 18, NO. 3, JULY 1993 [9] Ching-Yaw Tzeng, Fundamental Properties of Linear Ship Steering Dynamic Models, Journal of Marine Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 79-88 (1999) [10] Yuanhui Wang, Research on wave disturbance acting on large ship with 4 degree of freedom motion, 2010 Second International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation-2010, 978-0-7695-3941-6/10 2010 IEEE dated 2010.217

V. CONCLUSION Matlab simulation results of both PID and MPC are compared and the plots of the same are as shown in figure 4. Red color indicates the Reference trajectory, black color indicates the obtained PID trajectory, and blue color indicates the obtained MPC trajectory. From the plot it is clear that, MPC controller results are closer to reference trajectory (91-96%), and PID based controller has more deviation from reference trajectory (75-85%). So performance of the MPC controller is better than PID controllers.

The table 1 shows the performance and timing comparison between MPC and PID controllers.

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