Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Ed

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Introductions
Note: These class notes will be revised throughout the semester to be updated to the 5th Ed of the Textbook. Chapters 1 thru 4 need little revision. Chapter 5 is a major change from the 4th Ed. Later chapters have been rearranged but the content is substantially up-to-date. a) Instructor: This is a key course for those of you who really want to be a successful analyst. It is about processes and databases. The name of the course, Systems Analysis and Design, implies processes and design. i) What to call me and other instructors. Mrs Culler for me. Call instructors with PhDs by the title “Doctor” but not me. ii) Your ISLABS user account username is the same as for your university email. I strongly recommend you use the same password also. You may have to change your email password because Windows 2003 (the ISLABS server) requires higher security. ISLABS passwords must be at least 7 characters containing at least one upper case and at least one lower case letter plus at least one number. iii) Email messages: my policy is to use only your High Point University email address to communicate with you; even when responding to your email. This is to encourage you to regularly use the university account so that we all can benefit fully from Blackboard and other university resources. iv) Email: preferred method for turning in Project. I will respond to your email except for complaints about grades. You have to come to see me to review an assignment grade or end of semester grade. (1) Read my syllabus: I reserve the right to lower a grade if I re-grade a whole assignment or the semester. If you have a question about one problem or one answer, I will re-grade only that question. I do round up and give the benefit of doubt when grading assignments. Often, little gifts in the grades assigned. Might disappear if I review a complete assignment. Check my math. b) Textbook: Shelly Cashman – this is a very good text. One of the best. I strongly recommend against selling this textbook at the end of the semester if you are an MIS or CIS major. c) Syllabus: see www.highpoint.edu/~culleev8 d) Class policies: i) Pop quizzes on reading assignments and vocabulary ii) Assignments only accepted on time. iii) Class attendance: (1) Arrive in time, tardy same as absent because … (2) You must attend class regularly to pass this course, it is designed that way, not a policy. e) Grade scale: 70 is passing, 69 is not. See my syllabus. f) ADA: see my syllabus g) Web site: page on turning in assignments h) Class notes: web site i) Projects:

Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Ed i) Individual: ii) Group: The notes that follow were developed for my use in lecturing in MIS 310 based on the Shelly – Cashman textbook. Many of the notes are brief and intended to help me draw from my own professional expertise and experience in systems development. They are offered here only as a starting point for your study notes. Please note that just below each chapter heading I have added the website URL that supports your textbook.

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Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Ed

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Chapter 1
Introduction to Systems Analysis http://www.scsite.com/sad5e/ Terms

Preamble: You are embarking on a new adventure. The adventure is that you are about to develop an understanding of the concept of systems analysis. It may be the opportunity of your lifetime. You may be starting a chain of reactions or opportunities to develop a career as a project manager. Opportunities come when you least expect them and you can take advantage of the opportunities only if you understand the language. Make sure you learn the terms and concepts. It is my job to give this opportunity to learn and grow. If you seriously want to be a successful analyst, this is a key course for you. You are about to learn what an analyst does. The course is all about processes and databases. The name of the course implies processes and database design. I will make my case for the importance of database design … define an enterprise, what do enterprises require? Databases. Who designs databases for enterprises? YOU. This course focuses on the processes necessary to develop a software/hardware application for a business. We will be covering the total system of processes, a sampling of modern tools, procedures and practices. In the real world, these tasks would be shared or performed by a team. We will focus on the project manager’s role because it is he or she who must understand all processes and procedures to get the job done. As discussed earlier, your first project is an individual project designed to ensure that you get focused quickly. The second project is designed to give you the opportunity to put all the skills of the project development team to work; not just the project manager skills. Let’s get to work. Make sure you understand everything we cover. 1) What is IT, Information Technology? 2) What is a business rule? 3) What is a policy? 4) What is a procedure? 5) What is a practice? 6) What is Systems Analysis and Design? 7) Business Process Modeling: represents operations and IT needs 8) What is a model? 9) What is analysis? What is an analyst?

Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design, 5th Ed 10) What is systems analysis?

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a) Many definitions, in this case, someone dedicated to studying business IT needs, business rules or processes, designs a system satisfy the needs. 11) What is a system? 12) What is a process? 13) What is a project manager? 14) Types of computing systems a) Enterprise b) Transaction processing c) Business support d) Knowledge management e) User Productivity f) Integrated g) Decision support h) Data warehousing 15) Organizational structures a) Executive b) Middle management c) Lower management d) Operational 16) Systems development Techniques and tools a) Data gathering b) Modeling c) Prototyping d) CASE engineering 17) Methodologies a) Structured analysis b) Object-oriented (new and experimental) c) JAD and RAD d) Other i) UML, Unified Modeling Language

Explain how New Century might use a transaction processing system. opportunity of a lifetime. B. procedure and practice. For each type of system. Microsoft Solutions Framework iii) IBM solutions 18) SDLC. Identify at least three business processes that New Century performs. provide a specific example. 2. EDI. 5th Ed ii) MSF. Use the Organizational Chart function in Word. Prepare an Organization chart of New Century Health Clinic’s office staff. why. i) If. Know what a project manager does. . and explain how the system would benefit the clinic. vertical and horizontal systems packages. and HOW. how much. who. when. should New Century consider any of the following. Excel or PowerPoint to draw the chart. 3. Know what systems analysis is. The phases of SDLC Differentiate between business rules.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. and a user productivity system. What you really need to know: A. 4. what. a business support system. or the Internet? Explain your answers. Systems Development Life Cycle a) Planning. b) Analysis c) Design d) Implementation e) Operation and Support 19) Putting it in motion a) In-house b) Consultants c) IT departments 20) Career Opportunities a) Analysts b) Project manager. c) Certifications. policy.30) New Century Health Clinic Case Study 5 1. and explain who is responsible for the specific tasks. 21) Terms 22) Chapter Review (Page 1. C. During the systems development process. D.

5th Ed E. 6 . Know what a model and modeling are.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design.

5th Ed 7 Chapter 2 Analyzing the Business Case Systems Planning. Opportunities plus and Threats minus. Phase 1 www. to remain competitive vi. Weaknesses. if your enterprise is large enough to have a system in place ii. (iii) When the list is complete. Suppliers 2. Brainstorming is often a group session arranged so there are NO interruptions. rearrange each list is order of significance. the boss iii. Costs. a) Projects do not just happen. to stay current v.scsite. (iv)Assign a weight to each item with values from 1 to 10 with Strengths carrying plus (+) signs and Weaknesses minus (-) signs. (1) Decide if to do. User requests. . more effectiveness to stay competitive. b. IT department. (a) SWOT analysis (i) Draw a cross on a clean piece of paper dissecting the sheet exactly in the middle. Label each quadrant: Strengths. (v) Another method is to assign each quadrant a 100% total value with each item a decimal weight based on importance. (ii) Brainstorm identifying as many items for each category as you can.e. The total values in each quadrant cannot be more than 100% but they do not have to total 100%. Whose idea is it anyway? Proposals to build a system come from: a. Competition vii. Decision to do a project. Sears and Walmart will only use suppliers with online order/billing v. Threats.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Driving force: i. Total the values. Reasons: i. Opportunities. Legacy out of date iv. You have now quantified your problem. Supplier/customer demand: i. Performance iii. Improved service ii. Economic demands vi. (2) what to do. i) Project to decide to do a project. Management directive. Better controls.com/sad5e/ Terms 1. Government demand if you are providing a service wholly or partially tax funded iv. Customer demand viii.

(2) Buy.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. c) Starts with need recognition i) Based on Business Plan (which many companies lack) ii) Goals and objectives iii) Mission statement iv) Risks or threats v) Opportunities vi) Plan of Action and Milestones vii) Periodic assessment 3) The Charter process: Your textbook does not define or discuss a charter. iii) Scope. (3) when to do. ii) Build or buy decision. to “buy into it”. v) Protects the project manager. (1) Provides a vehicle for the supreme authority. career and legal preservation. a letter of authority. b) Charter or contract i) Goal (1) Objectives are steps for attaining the goal ii) Recommended Course of Action (1) Defines what. not how. it is doomed. It should contain these: a) Why a charter? i) Defines what you are going to do. there should be a charter. Whether it is a project to decide to do a development project or a development project itself. CFO. (4) The approach. You can now draw an inference regarding chances for success. a) Board of Directors b) CEO. COO. iv) Set time limits. (c) Garners support from all stakeholders. I would insist on a charter. (b) If he has not bought into it. (a) If he has not bought into it. 5th Ed 8 Total all values. Much of this course will be about professional survival. consultant. CEO. only if you have the resources in house. defines (1) Boundaries (2) Configuration management iv) Plan of Actions and Milestones (1) Top down approach (2) Bottom up approach . turn-key (3) Out-source to a contractor. iii) Defines authority. etc. Other textbooks do. NOT how you will do it. the project manager may be doomed. (1) Build. 2) Define these entities as a basis for understanding the processes. ii) Sets limits. We will go on to discuss how this decision gets made. CIO. of some description if only as a measure of self.

when to quit. (a) Defines his authority. (4) Is your staff capable or will you have to hire new. (b) Defines his limits. 9 Systems Development Life Cycle Important to understand that the SDLC is defined as having four to seven phases depending on whose textbook or philosophy of systems development you are using. out source (2) Has it been invented yet? (3) Technology search. .8) (7) Schedule manager v) Roles and Responsibilities (1) Names who is in-charge. where. support for the program. vii) Signatures.will the project goal support the mission b) Define the scope and constraints: Set the boundaries i) What.finding: i) Performed by analysts ii) Skills required iii) Access required iv) Documentation d) Determine feasibility: Analysis/feasibility methods i) Technical feasibility Study (1) In house. (2) Names stakeholders. fire old? (5) Go. His source of power. if ever. complexity and type of project. (a) Defines their responsibility.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. 5th Ed (3) Start and end times (4) Identifiable objectives (5) Critical paths (6) Gant or PERT charts (see TK 3. Five phases are generally accepted as defined by the textbook. who. when c) Perform fact. The phases may evolve and overlap. Also understand. a clear departure from one phase into the next. there is seldom. Some components of a project may transition to another phase before other components depending on the size. (3) Managers (4) Support groups (5) Staff vi) Critical success factors (x-factors) provides a way to decide when success as been achieved. indicates ownership. Another name may be “specifications” document. no go. 4) Phase 1: Preliminary Investigation Steps in the Preliminary Investigation a) Understand the Problem or Opportunity i) Where to start: Mission statement .

The project itself will require a contract or charter that would follow the same general guidelines. Find a method of analyzing the cumulative results of go. no go. no go. build more facilities (3) Go. v) Summary of study results. v) Expected benefits vi) Appendix: documentation. etc. Dr. reports. accounting. (4) Go. What should the associates try to learn about you? What should you try to learn in this meeting? 2. then a contract will kick-off the project and Phase I will start for real. e) Estimate time and cost i) Performed by the experts ii) RFP – request for proposal iii) IT department estimates iv) Contractor provided f) Present results and recommendations to management. does the project seem feasible? 3. New Century Health Clinic Case Study 10 1. 6) If the project is a go. What would be your plan for action? . New Century management decided to contract for your services to perform a preliminary investigation. What kind of questions would you ask to assess the initial feasibility of this project? Based on the information above. iv) Time feasibility Study. lawyer. RFP responses. 5th Ed ii) Physical feasibility Study (1) Will it fit? (2) What other decisions will it drive? (a) Will you have to move the facility. analyses 5) If the project is to decide on a project. Jones arranges an introductory meeting between the associates of New Century and you to determine if mutual interest exists in pursing the project. suggested format: i) Introduction: summary of need ii) Systems request summary: executive summary style iii) Recommendations: iv) Time and cost estimates: Based on expert input such as contractor.4) (a) Break even point. (1) Can it be done it time? (2) Will be cost effective by the time you can do it? (3) Go. no go. no go studies. iii) Economic or Financial feasibility Study (1) Can you afford it? (2) Can you afford not to do it? UPS decision (3) Cost-Benefit Analysis (see TK 2. present it and wait for a decision. when does it occur? (b) How to compute.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design.

etc. E. The components of a charter. Where to start the study. B. cost. 5th Ed 11 4. F. What information is needed? From whom would you obtain it? What techniques would you use in your fact finding? What you really need to know: A. You begin the preliminary investigation. D. its components and how to quantify the data Types of feasibility studies: economic. The SDLC phases SWOT. C. Why a charter is necessary. technical. . skills.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. operational. G. The types of studies that should be undertaken before starting a project.

Microsoft Solutions Framework.3) b) RAD. d) Project Management software such as MS Project. An organizational method of in-house systems development that draws on the resources. PowerPoint is an example.2).com/sad5e/ Terms 1) Methods. e) Word processors: complete with templates. computer assisted system design such as VISIO 2002. 3) Processes and techniques a) Sequence diagrams: Function / Use matrix (similar to Event/Location matrix) . Joint Application Development. “Short” is a relative term that may compress years into months or months into weeks depending on the enterprise’s willingness to accept risks. 5th Ed 12 Chapter 3 Requirements Modeling Systems Analysis Phase 2 www. Rapid Application Development. A method of graphing and communicating ideas. (the term is derived from the pack in Rugby football) it is really a variation of sashimi which is a form of RAD. each is a variation of SDLC: a) JAD. c) SCRUM. (See TK 4. (Page 3. forms and formats f) Spreadsheets: Lotus. d) MSF. unified modeling language. 2) Tools for systems analysis a) UML. interests. Excel g) PDAs h) Databases: Introduce MS Project at this point.scsite. skills and knowledgebase of multiple work centers within an enterprise. b) CASE. Addressed in more detail in chapter 5. To be introduced to the class as a drawing tool c) Presentation graphics.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. An organizational or abbreviated method for developing a system within a short timeframe.

TCO. v) Fixed costs: development costs once expended. The cost could be in $millions. is a relative factor. contract costs. Nearly always 13 traceable in budget and expenditure terms. etc. services of supervisors and executives and there staffs not working directly with the project but in a tangential way such as management reviews of multiple projects. 5th Ed b) FDD. lost effectiveness. cost of implementation. similar to organizational charting and may include organizational charts. rentals. purchases and other goods and services. hardware purchased as a deliverable. Includes: salaries. etc. 3-9 c) Checklist of requirements: pg 3. good will.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. f) Costs and Benefits: i) Tangible costs: factors to which one can assign real dollar values. plus lost business. ii) Intangible costs: factors associated with opportunities lost. See Fig. . iv) Indirect costs: items not directly chargeable to the project such as purchase of test equipment that will be used on other projects. iii) Direct costs: salaries of team members. i) Formula: cost of design. telephone fees. consumables. cost of editing. functional decomposition diagrams. fuels.7 i) Outputs ii) Inputs iii) Processes iv) Performance v) Controls d) Evaluate scalability e) Assessing Total Cost of Ownership. Defines or is a method of drawing how functions relate. cost to replace Plus number of users x days in year used x years before replaced x salary x extra time used per day. salaries: items that are budgeted for in blocks of time as major costs categories and disbursed over a given budget period then renegotiated or estimated at a fixed rate. impressions of stakeholders. Plus lost customer good will.

Technical assistance at Microsoft is paid for by a license or direct customer charge. Portions of profit. maintenance. track or chargeback costs of their service. ix) Operational costs: recurring costs such as operator salaries. environmental costs. consulting fees that are negotiated or renegotiated. If an organization such as IT tracks the manhours required for services and then accounted for in the accounting office by charging the served department’s operating budget for the service. maintenance and depreciation. 5th Ed 14 vi) Variable costs: items with a shelf life that may cost more to replace as consumed. training. warranty. xi) Cost centers: organizational units such as the IT department that provide one or more services for which they do not collect fees. x) Profit centers: organizational units that account for their operational costs through fees. (3) Budgeted rates: unit for unit cost charged based on budget planning rates. staff salaries. May be tracked based on direct costs or charges as the vary with consumption. (2) Variable: utility charges for gas and electric may be distributed across the organization and all budgets based on end of period accounting or rates that change as they occur. it becomes a profit center. fuel costs driven by weather and the environment. improvements and enhancements. benefits. replacements due to breakage. cleaning . (4) Volume rates: user-oriented charge methods assigned at the end of a budget year or period based on rates of consumption of the period. repairs. vacation time salaries. charges to a customer. viii) Development costs: costs incurred only once at the time the system was developed. fees for consulting. good will. Cost Benefit analysis: Return on Investment: ROI = g) ROI = Benefit – costs = ratio % Total costs (see page 548) .Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. assessments and evaluations etc. heating. cost of operating offices. or write-offs. cooling. vii) Overhead costs: executive salaries. xii) Chargeback methods: (1) No charge: write-off charges for repairs.

i) NPV = total present value of benefits – total present value of costs factored for inflation (1) Cost avoidance: risk oriented.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. (b) Closed-ended questions. ii) Interviews. if we did not. no or short answers that lead the responder.benefits = if balance is a plus. good decision (a) Acquisition costs. steps: (1) Who to interview (2) Develop Objectives for interview (3) Develop Interview questions (a) Open-ended questions. including direct and development (b) Operating costs x life cycle (c) Maintenance costs x life cycle (d) Intangible costs x life cycle (e) Replacement costs i) Fact-finding i) Who. Based on major assumptions about the company. what. 5th Ed h) Net Present value analysis – can be done in current year dollars or estimated inflated dollars. See case study. interviewee must focus and come up with the response. (c) Range-of-response: multiple choice type (4) Preparing for the interview (5) Conducting the interview (6) Documenting the interview (7) Evaluating the interview iii) Observations: iv) Questionnaires and surveys: v) Sampling: vi) Collection of input/output forms. yes. the market. do not do this it will costs (2) Methodology: costs . when. where and how. 15 . Must be consistent and must be known based on assumptions about economy. competition and the competitive environment.

You may work with another student who is equally prepared for this chapter as you and record the results for both responses. SCRUM are. Should there be any changes? Provide a new chart with changes you see necessary if any. 7. Record the interviewee’s responses to your questions in number 4. 5th Ed New Century Health Clinic Case Study 16 1. You decided to send a questionnaire to a sample of New Century patients to find out if they are satisfied with current insurance and scheduling procedures. E. D. Design a questionnaire that follows the suggestions in this chapter. What happens during the first phase of SDLC What the required skills are for a project manager and an analyst. a. F. B.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Can you use open-ended questions in a questionnaire? b. Prepare a list of specific questions for each individual you will interview. G. Identify processes and tools for data collection. Open-ended and closed-ended questions. RAD. What JAD. 6. How to initiate data collection and interviews. Review the office organization chart you prepared in Chapter1 for New Century. 4. C. Prepare a written summary of the information gained from each of the interviews. 5. Describe what sample of patients should receive it and why you selected that group. List the individuals you would like to interview during the analysis phase. 2. What you really need to know: A. Remember the questions should seek the right information and therefore must be targeted to the issue. Prepare a list of objectives for each of the interviews you will conduct. The objectives will indicate why you think it is necessary to interview this person. . Conduct the interviews. 3. Be able to identify tools for data collection. These may be both open-ended and closed-ended but should be designed to reveal the information you need.

processing. . Also see figure 424.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Select a convention and stick with it. context and therefore making it meaningful or useful to the consumer. symbols without context or format. External External Entity Entity 0 System Process Data store Data flow 3) Components: Data is simply raw numbers and words. Both these conventions can be drawn using Microsoft Word. Is documented in a data dictionary. Ex: a model of a store purchase is a receipt.com/sad5e/ Terms 1) What is a model or the process of modeling? a) A method of representing a concept or idea. There are others such as “Yourdon” shown at page 4. 2) Data flow symbols: the symbols below are based on the “Gane and Sarson” convention. a) Data flow: a path representing an action that copies or moves data from one location to another location in a system for the purpose of storing. be consistent. Visio can also be used. Processing gives the data format. 5th Ed 17 Chapter 4 Enterprise Modeling Systems Analysis Phase 2 www. For this class there is only one rule.2 of your textbook.scsite. inputting or outputting. an external entity. characters. Information is data that has been processed.

f) Every flow and every entity must be identified and labeled.1. etc. 2. i) A data store is documented in a data dictionary. b) Every entity must be included and labeled.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. See table on page 4. 5) Data flow model (DFD): (page 4. e) Every message flow should/must be included. (2) No input means it spontaneously generates data. . 2. ii) Stubs will be shown for each flow that must be continued on a second page for printing or that flows to another level. (1) No output means it is a black hole.9.1. h) Use professional composition/writing standards.8) c) Used to control system growth d) Represented by a system circle and all external entities that have a digital connect (input/output) to the system. b) Sets boundaries on the system. DFD must be balanced with the context 18 model. 1. ii) Multiple levels dictate numbering to indicate the level.2. It should show the system a) Must fit on one page. 5th Ed b) Data store: a logical location where data is stored.3) the “path for data to move from one part of the information system to another”. 2.7 and conventions at the bottom of page 4. with each new subset of numbers representing a subsystem such as payroll. 1. a table or group of tables. include every entity shown in the context model must be included in the DFD and no entities will be shown in the DFD that are not shown in the context model. 4) Context model: the top level of a system diagram. not possible. i) Flow lines will not cross. (page 4. iii) Every data store must have an input and an output.2. a) The DFD is equivalent to an expanded or exploded view of the context model. i) May require multiple levels based on the complexity and size of the system. c) Rules for diagramming a DFD. 1. each process numbered and listed in the data dictionary. iii) Every process must be included. g) All components must be connected.

Example: data for a process that computes the value of a paycheck may flow from 2 or more data stores. 19 vi) Entities and processes may appear only once unless clearly labeled as a duplicate for purposes of clarity. d) Functional primitive: DFD may be broken into functional primitives or process showing a single function. 6) Data dictionary: see page 4. ii) Flow lines (arrows) that do not connect to something. viii) Inclusion of any object not contained in the data dictionary. viii) Two data stores cannot be connected without a process in the flow. vii) Data flowing out of a process or data store must be consistent with the input. ix) An entity cannot be connected to a data store without a process. element or component much be clearly identified. e) Data Flow Diagramming errors to avoid: i) Failure to balance the DFD with the context model. and sent to a print generator as a information or a paycheck.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. v) Arrows for flows can point in only one direction. 5th Ed iv) Two entities cannot be connected without a process in the flow. v) Violations of the margins. The functional primitive must be clearly labeled and numbered consistent with the numbered labels in the data flow diagram.20 and figures 4-25 and 4-27. transformed. . vii) Duplicates of any type unless clearly identified as a duplicate for purposes of clarity and properly connected. iii) Flow lines with arrows pointing in two directions. are processes. This rule is sometimes violated unnecessarily and is nearly always an indication minimal effort from a lazy designer. ix) Crossing data flow lines. Each segment.4) Ex: a process cannot produce paycheck output by processing customer address data. vi) Diagrams without captions to indicate what they represent. x) Each segment of a flow (entity 1-----process1-----data store 1----process2---entity2) is a different message and must be given a different name and identifying number. (page 4. iv) Flow lines and objects without a label.

Use Visio and place a hyperlink to your document here. What it means to balance a model. Know the rules of process modeling. Prepare a lower-level DFD for the appointment processing subsystem. E. What you really need to know: A. B. F. and records maintenance. report processing. flatten or explode an O level model. 4. Prepare a diagram 0 DFD for New Century. 4-36) (3) Decision tables (fig. 20 7) ER model: It is a methodology for designing and diagramming a database showing all tables and fields and the relationships between tables. b) Figure 4-25 is a partial listing or example of manually documenting metadata. 8) Process: software such as a query or body of code that transforms data. Prepare a list of data stores and data flows needed for the system. 5. 3. D. Prepare a context diagram for the New Century information system. c) CASE and DBMS software are tools that assist the developer in compiling data dictionaries. payment and insurance processing. It is the “blue print” for building a database. Use Visio and place a hyperlink to your document here. 5th Ed a) A data repository of metadata or data about data and data flows. Demo: see Visio and Access. Know what an O level model is.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Be sure to show subsystems for handling appointment processing. 4-41) (2) structured English (fig. ER modeling will be defined in chapter 8.4-38) New Century Health Clinic Case Study 1. Using a table format. 2. Use Visio and place a hyperlink to your document here. Know what a context model does. prepare a data dictionary entry and process description for one of system’s functional primitives. i) Documented: ii) Models (1) decision tree (fig. Note: you must know what a functional primitive is before you can proceed with this problem. What is the Gane and Sarson convention? Know the symbols for modeling. C. Under each data store list the data elements (attributes) required. . Use a table format for your response.

exposure 5) This chapter addresses the type of task you are most likely to engage in as entry level analysts. Read this chapter with this in mind. 2) Considerations: . otherwise at the mercy of the community.com/sad5e/ Terms 1) Systems development has essentially split into two configurations Traditional Development Web-based development Legacy issues of compatibility Web considered the platform Local and wide area networks Web issues are considered enhancements Scalability issues Easily scaleable Can be acquired as a service (packaged systems) Requires middleware to talk to legacy systems 2) Application service provider: ASP 3) IBS or internet business service (systems): web-based service. iv) Meet constraints of legacy technology v) To develop internal resources and capabilities. rules necessary to make the software function and serve a purpose. iii) Meet constraints of legacy systems. assisting with build or buy decisions.scsite. Specifically. 1) Build or buy a) Why buy? i) Cheaper ii) Faster iii) Less turbulence iv) Proven reliability v) Less technical staff demand vi) Take advantage of vender developments and other company resources and developments b) Why build? i) To satisfy unique business requirement ii) Minimize changes in business procedures. full services 4) Outsourcing fee: a) Fixed fee: defined service implementation b) Subscription fee: often based on usage or modules c) ISSUES: i) Must be cost attractive ii) Must be reliable and long term iii) Day to day service can expose proprietary information and present risks. 5th Ed 21 Chapter 5 Development Strategies Systems Analysis Phase 2 www.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design.

5th Ed a) b) c) d) e) Cost Time Skills available Technology available Knowledge base 22 Advantages Can be tailored to the business rules Development schedule to fit need Can keep it private or proprietary. Many. Money. perhaps most.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. because of the limited market but also because they are usually much better engineered and more fully developed. PeachCalc. data and functions May be cheaper than out source Build Disadvantages Limited knowledge base Manpower/time investment Discovery/inventing based lack of experience Platform resources / parallel systems 3) Buy considerations: a) Horizontal: general application that could be applied to many types of enterprises as long as one can accept that many features will not totally satisfy specific requirements. c) Four step process: i) Evaluate the requirements (1) Identify key desired features (2) Estimate volume and growth (3) Hardware constraints (4) RFP or quotation ii) Identify vendors (1) Licensed (2) Qualified vendors (3) Vendors who can customize iii) Evaluate software alternatives (1) Existing user satisfaction (2) Testing (a) Trial copy (b) Send employees to site (c) Benchmarking iv) Decision (1) Make sure all stakeholders are represented (2) Presentation (3) Summary of advantages and disadvantages (4) Risks (5) Assessment factors (a) Time to install. Quicken are samples of a horizontal application. Vertical applications are much more costly than horizontal. bring on line . Certain types of reports or specific queries might not be available without major modifications to the software. in part. vertical applications are modified by consultants for their customers. b) Vertical: industry specific such as software written for doctor’s offices or any other specific type of enterprise.

Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. 5th Ed (b) How functional it will be (c) How much modification will be required (d) How much training required (e) Staffing v) Make the Purchase (1) License vi) Install (1) Evaluation (2) 23 .

no access to source code. Advantages Disadvantages Very cheap Limited functionality Ready to go when installed May require changing business rules Proven technology Hard to customize. what they are and why would you choose. c) VAR. PowerPoint. 5th Ed Buy Disadvantages May be limited. Decision process for making build or buy Vertical and horizontal applications. proprietary limitations Cost vs value may be in doubt Legacy problems Data format problems Specialized functions Middle men and uncertainty 24 Advantages Turn key Quicker. Advantages Disadvantages More specifically tailored to the industry May not address all business needs Cheaper than custom built Need contractor to modify Turn-key operation May need maintenance contract Proven technology May need upgrading frequently 6) Horizontal application a software package that can be used by many types of enterprises. May not work with legacy data or systems 7) Prototyping a) Storyboard b) Fly-away c) Something in between: mockup nonfunctional i) Tools: Word. McKenzie Paint Company. customize pre-built applications 5) Vertical application. $10K in 1992. Perhaps $20K today. Cheap to upgrade Upgrades may be modest and not error free. Peach Tree Accounting is an example. maybe Broader experience base across industry Parallel operations Industry standards 4) Out-source a) Build from nothing b) Modify a legacy or purchased package. B. VB d) Limitations i) How can you best sell an idea? What you really need to know: A. application package designed for a specific TYPE of business. C. D. value-added reseller.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Example. Considerations for the decisions: build/buy/outsource Steps in deciding what to buy or outsource . Access.

Considerations for code design 25 .Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Prototyping types a) Risk decisions in prototyping F. 5th Ed E.

you should take CIS 241 as an elective. d) Candidate keys: any key that has the potential to serve as a primary key is a candidate key. SQL. compound or concatenated key. Business rules are the collection of practices that describe how an enterprise really functions. data . Any field that does not have this potential is a ‘non-key’ field. field Attribute column i) The character of the data may require more than one field be used as the primary key.com/sad5e/ Terms Definitions Rules Concept: the structure of a database system must represent or mirror the enterprise business rules. e) Foreign keys: an attribute that links or relates the record in one table to a record in another table. Such a primary key is also known as a combination. Tables Relation Entity c) Primary keys: an attribute that uniquely Record Tuple Row identifies a record. 5th Ed 26 Chapter 6 Data Design Systems Design.scsite. You will not be able to take full advantage of career opportunities as an analyst without having a full knowledgebase of database design.” This chapter is not intended to cover database design in the depth and detail addressed by CIS 241. taken separately any single field may also serve as a foreign or secondary key. When referential integrity is being enforced. a) Data definition language: DDL b) Data manipulation language: DML c) Query by example: QBE 3) Physical data repository: 4) Data warehousing: 5) Data mining: 6) Database structures: see Database definitions a) File – container for the database. You will never be a successful analyst without database design knowledge and skills. an error condition will result when data exists in a foreign key before exiting in its primary key relation. b) Table: see figure at right. Phase 3 www. Written policy and the boss’s understanding may not be a business rule if it is not also a “practice.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. sometimes known as Sequel. As an analyst. Serving together they comprise the primary key. Likewise. 1) Data structures: a) DBMS b) Table Files c) Master files d) Transaction files e) Work files f) Security files g) History files 2) Structures Query Language.

b) Cardinality i) Cardinality annotations in Chen ii) Cardinality in Crow’s Foot convention c) The ERD d) Database rules e) Relations or relationships: i) Characterized as 1:1 or one to one.15. creating new attributes and modifying the ER model. Normalizing a database may require creating additional tables. and M:M or many to many. See page 8. access or retrieve data. 9) Entity Relationship Diagramming or Modeling: a) Diagramming conventions i) Chen ii) Crow’s Foot iii) Others. Referential integrity demands that data in a foreign key must first exist in its corresponding primary key. 5th Ed 27 f) g) h) i) must be deleted first from a foreign key before it can be deleted from its primary key relation. often an autonumber created simply for the purpose of having a primary key. a primary key must exist. partial and transitive) i) Normalize the entities (tables) 8) IMPORTANT: building a database is an iterative process even for experienced designers. 1:M or one to many.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. Bridge or associative table: a constructed table that is often the result of decomposing a many to many relationship between two tables. Secondary keys: fields used to select. 7) Steps to building a database a) Understand business rules i) List all business rules b) Define major processes c) Define information components d) Define or assign all data elements to the entities (tables) e) Develop ER model i) Steps in designing an ERD (1) Identify the entities (2) Determine all significant events that occur between two or more entities (3) Analyze the nature of the interaction (4) Draw the ERD. f) Define and annotate cardinality g) Define keys (Primary and Foreign) i) Foreign keys are assumed not defined in Access ii) Foreign keys must be declared in more scalable database such as Oracle. . Example: a pay record cannot exist in a payroll table for an employee that does not exist. h) Identity all dependencies (full or functional. Declaring the foreign keys turns of enforcement of referential integrity in Oracle. included in Visio and SmartDraw. deleting and moving attributes. Surrogate key: a constructed PK. Referential integrity: for every foreign key. Your textbook uses the term ‘associative’.

transitive and partial dependencies (2) Eliminate partial dependencies (3) Eliminate transitive dependencies (4) Voila: 3rd normal form Note: review the normalization example starting at page 8. Please notice the textbook does not define partial and transitive dependencies but does identify fields that are dependent on other fields. Associative or bridge tables would be used to decompose the situation and handle the relationship. This example follows precisely the three step process described in sub-paragraph ii above. Likewise.27. ii) Transitive dependency – attribute is indirectly dependent on its existence from a secondary source.a table is in second normal form if it is in first normal form and no nonkey attribute is dependent on only a portion of the primary key (3) Third Normal Form . See transitive dependency. ii) Three Step Process to Normalize (1) List table columns and Identify functional. The process is the same as we follow in class. . h) Normalization i) Normal forms: see definitions for MIS 231 and CIS 241 (1) First Normal Form . o ZIP code as dependent on City or State is debatable.Boyce-Codd Normal Form. Example: • Dependencies: o A dependency is established when the existence of the data in one attribute is dependent on the existence of another attribute. f) Dependencies i) Full (functional) dependency – an attribute is fully dependent on the primary key for its existence. 5th Ed 28 ii) Most databases will contain 1:1 relationships iii) All databases will contain 1:M relationships iv) No databases should contain M:M relationships. Value of X determines the value of Y. A table is BCNF if it is in 3rd NF and there are no transitive dependencies and if the only determinant it contains is a candidate key.24 of the Shelly-Cashman text.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. a special case of the 3rd Normal form. product_name is dependent on product_number. Example: If you know customer number you will also know customer name. iii) Partial dependency – the attribute is part of a compound or combination key g) Relationships – a verb that correctly characterizes the relationship of one table to another through the primary-foreign key.a table is in third normal form if it is in second normal form and it contains no transitive (4) Boyce-Codd Normal Form .a table is in first normal form if it does not contain repeating groups (2) Second Normal Form . second and third normal form definitions to fully understand BCNF. Follow the example carefully through page 8. first.

(c) new ZIP codes can be created Partial dependency: a dependency based on only part of the primary key.1) Customer 1 Generat es M Invoice 1 M Line M (O.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. ZIPs are related to cities but not the city name. (b) some cities have only one ZIP code. 5th Ed  29 o Yes.N) (1.N) (1. INV_NUM LINE_NUM PROD_CODE CUS_NU M LINE_UNIT S PROD_TITLE Product 1 (O.N) (1.1) 10) . a) Transitive dependency: a dependency based on an attribute that is not part of the primary key. Problem: (a) multiple cities have the same name.1) (1.

Definitions of dependencies Three step process for normalization. H.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. and surrogate) First. foreign. B. E. candidate. 5th Ed 30 What you really need to know: My notes from CIS241 A. secondary. Cardinality Definitions of relations Define referential integrity . C. second and third normal forms. Chen or Crow’s Foot modeling notations ER modeling concept Definitions of the various types of keys (primary. F. D. G.

The customer is getting what he expects. and Output Design Systems Design. i) Story board (1) Advantages: cheap.scsite. function.com/sad5e/ GUI Standards Terms 1) Prototyping: developed as a tool for first look interaction with stakeholders/users.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. 3) GUI Design consideration 4) Event Modeling . 5th Ed 31 Chapter 7 User Interface. a concept that requires a decision maker to consider all costs related to an action. practice. quick. TCO. Input. easy to start over (2) Disadvantages: (a) limited ability to demonstrate planned capabilities (b) promotes very limited feedback from the client (c) little to no value added (d) few errors will be found ii) Static Model (1) Advantages: (a) cheaper than a functional model (b) provides a starting point for talking to the issues (c) little lost value if have to change direction or cancel the project (2) Disadvantages: (a) Promoted limited feedback (b) Promoted limited innovations iii) Functional Model (1) Advantages: (a) promoted the best possible feedback (b) promotes innovations (2) Disadvantages: (a) High risk (b) High cost (c) Hard to change direction because of the required re-engineering 2) Total Cost of Ownership. even an option to do nothing. Phase 3 www. a) The walk-thru: demo to the customer what is being built. object. purchase or any other business component over the life expectancy of the component. rule. Includes: a) Cost of building or buying b) Cost to replace c) Cost to maintain d) Cost to operate e) Cost to customer good will f) Cost to stakeholder satisfaction g) Lost opportunity costs TCO should be evaluated as a comparison to the same cost factors for other options or alternative actions. Opportunity for confirmation that system will satisfy requirement. low risk.

5th Ed 32 a) An event is an action that occurs in the environment to which the system must respond. The event is not part of the system but requires the system to accept input or respond with output.see figure 5-27 on page 5.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. b) Examples of events: i) Receive order ii) A sale iii) Completion of manufacturing iv) End of work week v) Hire new employee vi) Fire an employee c) Types: functional event model. event function model. event location model i) Functional event model .16 .

Understand the TCO implications of GUI design. Define an event.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. 5th Ed 33 ii) Event function model – Sample Event Function Model Users Doctors Payroll clerk Receptionist Drug custodian Purchasing Manager Laboratory Technician Events Log on Pay employees Log off Make Medical appointment Receive new inventory X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X iii) Event location model – this model would be used for a system with multiple locations. F. B. What you really need to know: A. Be able to discuss major issues of GUI design. Understand the concept of TCO. Both model are needed when multiple sites or locations are involved. D. Replace user with site listings to develop the model. Define the three levels of prototyping Define advantages and disadvantages of the various prototyping types. C. . The model is simply a method of recording where functionality of the system will be accessible and by whom. E.

Now final decisions on the approach or HOW. Define the difference between on-line and batch processing. modems.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. B. What to build has been decided.scsite. Phase 3 www. servers. Considerations: 2) Initial cost 3) Total cost of ownership: 4) Scalability 5) Integration with web 6) Legacy interface 7) Security a) Access b) Recovery c) Denial d) Configuration controls 8) Processing methods: a) Batch b) On-line 9) Physical or network models: a) LAN. TCO G. network cables. That. security planning starts with your event matrix. a network model defines the physical network. routers. Define a three tiered client/server system and a web-based database system. . no go decisions have been made. Define scalability. F. 5th Ed 34 Chapter 8 Application Architecture Systems Design. firewalls. Buy or build decision has been made. C. printers etc. workstations. That. WAN b) Client/server i) Fat or thin c) Distributed d) 10) Middleware decisions 11) Platform decisions 12) What you really need to know: A. Define middleware D.com/sad5e/ Terms 1) Go. E. switches.

1) Application Development Coding documentation a) Models – Context. prototypes b) Structured English or pseudo-code c) Embedded comments: Comment out d) Configuration management documentation 2) Configuration Management a) Baselines b) Current baselines with documentation: cite Y2K issues c) Backup copies i) NEVER use 3. detail and content ii) Correct testing – testing design. Quality Management Principles b) It means getting it as right as you can. c) The proper approach d) The proper design and testing principles e) The proper documentation 2) Quality Assurance vs Quality Control a) Assurance – to assure that the system is built to specification i) Correct documentation – format. recording. DFD.scsite. the first time. timing. therefore cohorts are necessary.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. ERD. plain old firing of employees. results.iso. That the Project manager must have a cohort trained in Quality Assurance and Control technology and Quality Management. do Project managers have all the skills necessary to do the job. 5th Ed 35 Chapter 9 Systems Implementation www. correcting and retesting b) Control – the word implies a method or methods of monitoring. detail. if ever.com/sad5e/ Terms www. network.5 diskettes except as transportation copies d) Security i) Multiple places ii) Secure conditions and environments iii) Procedures 3) Coding 4) Testing the System Testing .ch/ 1) Software Quality Assurance Quality Assurance – what does it mean to an analyst? a) Visit the ISO web site see: About ISO. Very seldom. Event. third party observers ii) Custody of test records iii) Overview and controls of testing methods iv) Custody of baselines v) Cohort direct access to management for alerting to procedural problems and POF. and ISO 9000. In IT development it means the following i) Monitoring testing.

system. Perhaps not even then. This also applies to software – could include using a commercial application such as Excel to build a database to validate a formula before it the formula is coded into a programming statement for a database. d) You. who has the authority to start and stop the test. iv) Define or have test data attached. v) Identify the operator. e) Procedures should be detailed and contain the following i) Set up description. and acceptance b) There are several types of testing within each mode.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. They should be reviewed and approved by customer representatives and your own quality assurance people. will develop the tests and test procedures. That is to combine all components in such a way that all components function together. a) Bench. who is allowed to be in the room during the test. Among them i) Functional ii) Load iii) Endurance iv) Baseline c) Your charter or contract should specify the stages and types of testing to be performed. It certainly means testing before and after each component is added and perhaps disassembly. module. . Depending on the charter or contract the operators could be your analysts or the customer’s employees. The word integration comes from integrate which means to bring together as one unit. (1) It can be very costly to fail to start a test on time or stop a test early or without justification if you are paying for use of the test facilities and equipment and paying the people observing and participating in a test. f) Acceptance – testing either before or after delivery but demonstrated to and for the customer before they agree to write you a check. ii) List performance standards iii) List specification references. the project manager. unit. It is not unusual that test procedures will not be approved until immediately before testing begins. b) Unit testing – the word ‘unit’ can be interpreted in many ways but the concept is that a developer find or develop ways to test all components before they are compiled into modules or modular units. remanufacture or recoding and reassembly and testing.evaluation Testing – we talked about testing stages last class. c) Modular – larger unit tests before integration d) Integration – the term itself implies that the process is iterative. e) System – system is fully assembled and tested in the manufacturing environment using real or simulated real data. who will be present to observe. 5th Ed 36 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) a) Bench testing – the term comes from hardware testing in which a component may be taken to a workbench and tested with oscilloscopes or other metering devices before assembly into a larger component or unit. integration. Documentation Management Approval System Installation and Evaluation Operational and Test Environments Operational and Test environment a) Includes four phases: testing – implementation – training . redesign.

(2) Function selective. 11) Data Conversion 12) System Changeover Implementation a) Methods are driven by the degree of RISK TOLERANCE you can allow. Tell the story of Lucy. is a big question. not possible if it is a distributed database. She was a $10 hour employee. b) Who pays for it. engineers and contractors on the site at the time. (2) Managers – cannot properly manage and evaluate system and people performance if you do not understand what the people can do with the system. find what you need if they do not understand they system. it took her a month to produce a 30 page document. ix) Evaluation procedures. 13) Post-implementation Tasks 3) Documentation – document. (4) Support personnel – IT people cannot help you maintain and correct problems if they do not understand how it is supposed to operate. etc. (3) Vendors – how can they sell. Off site training would have been much cheaper.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. VERY RISKY ii) Phased switching after extensive testing. depends on the integration of the live data. As soon as the operator starts making decisions you have lost control of the test environment. spreadsheets. The engineer who wrote it had to redo it to make it useful. (5) Executives – does not need to be able to operate it but he MUST KNOW what it can do for his company. vi) List step by step procedures. viii) Documentation procedures or instructions. E-Systems bought her a PC with Word processing. provide. (1) Users – OJT is EXPENSIVE. leaving nothing to the operator to decide. vii) Pass / fail criteria and identify who will make this decision. by vendor or off-site b) Decide which is best. document. less demanding site with all functions. . i) Cold turkey switch over. iv) Parallel operations – dual operations with old and new system in concurrent operation until the customer is confident that all problems have been identified and corrected. c) Who gets the training i) Everyone who is a stakeholder. (1) Site selective. document 1) Post-implementation a) The charter or contract should specify the type and extent of post implementation documentation and assessment. 10) Training Training a) Can be provided in-house. 5th Ed 37 (a) I can cite you an example from just last month in which a truck drive was allowed to stop an engineering event even though there were customers. iii) Pilot operations: go live at a small. the engineer a $50 hour employ. Now there is a $10. After 3 months of OJT.000 legal dispute over a 24 hours delay because no one knew who was in charge.

Content of a good test plan. secure. d) Things the post-implementation assessment should document: i) Was the project completed on time ii) What did it cost? iii) How well did it perform compared to how well it was expected to perform? iv) How accurate. you will be interested in measuring your success.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. you may be going out of business and just not be aware that it is happening to you. Types and stages of testing. 5th Ed c) As a contractor or IT department manager. C. Levels and types of documentation . B. Difference between quality assurance and quality control Aspects of Quality Assurance and Control Testing levels and standards E. how could we have done it better? 38 What you really need to know: A. If not. D. and reliable was the system? v) Is the system maintainable? vi) How did it measure up in terms of Quality factors? vii) Cost-benefits viii) Lessons learned (1) What were the skill shortfalls? (2) Were there any equipment or materiel shortfalls? (3) Were there unknown or unrecognized risks? ix) What improvements must be made before you do it again? x) Were there any training or education mismatches? xi) What were the user or customer satisfaction scores? xii) In short. C. Methods of implementation What is ISO and ISO standards. A. B.

views. efficient and provide full service ii) Managers: fully so that they can properly supervise.com/sad4e/more. etc. access privileges. incorrectly closing files that create orphaned files or file fragments. b) Adaptive i) Adds new capabilities or enhancements. In software the changes may anticipate limits to file size. obsolescence of components. unauthorized access by a user. (2) Changes to operating procedures or processes to avoid reductions in speed or functionality. d) Preventive i) Corrections to prevent errors or system failure that can be attributed to wear and tear in hardware due to time and use. on your new job upon graduating from High Point University. May be driven by changes in business practices or innovations in technology. improve system and employee performance iii) IT department: fully trained so that they can understand when and why something is not working as designed iv) Executives: to the extent they know what the system can and cannot do for them and their business v) Vendors: to the extent they know what your system can do and how they can help you. c) Perfective i) Minor changes to the body of software. 4) Managing Systems Operation and Support a) Maintenance: software and hardware . (4) Re-engineering to improve the system based on new technology. dust. ii) Software: replacing or installing software patches for modules that are not working correctly. may include: (1) Changes to fonts. May include adding memory or storage capacity or crash recovery such as RAID 5.scsite. evaluate.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. voltage spikes. 2) User support: a) Training: who needs the training i) Users: fully so they can be effective. 3) Maintenance types a) Corrective i) Hardware: Required by wear and tear. design tasks. perhaps your first month. Phase 5 www. on-screen tools.htm Terms 1) This chapter will describe your first week. lessons learned during design or process changes. read errors and many other causes. (3) Changes to reflect changes in organizational structure. incompatibility of replacement parts. etc. Can be caused by mishandling. 5th Ed 39 Chapter 10 Systems Operation and Support. read or write sequences that can eventually cause problems.

General concepts of the maintenance phase of the SDLC. obviously a maintenance or change contract must be written. If the system is out sourced. C. 5th Ed 40 b) Priorities: under the control of the configuration control board.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. If the project was an in house development. down time. General idea of why everyone must receive some degree of training depending on their role in the enterprise. improvements c) Configuration Control: establish a board of users to evaluate change with procedures for handling every complaint or recommendation. set priorities for changes. company accounting procedures will dictate who funds the maintenance phase. What you really need to know: A. General concepts of why and how configuration management is necessary. i) Maintain baselines ii) Document changes to the baselines iii) Provide crash or disaster recovery and backup iv) Version Control: under the control of configuration management 5) Who pays for it? a) It depends on the contract. B. .

designer or user having a functional interest in the related system by virtue of their work. a method for identifying. Chief Systems Engineer. Network Design Manager. The Project Manager has the authority to approve or disapprove them as long as the changes can be accomplished within confines of the projects performance specifications and the build being developed. changes to the requirements. A stakeholder is defined as any customer. schedule or scope and exceed the Project Manager's discretionary authority. Resource constraints. All the baselines are inter-related and a change in one usually generates changes in the others. Configuration Control Board. Given that changes are likely to occur. services. It also provides a defined. technological innovation and political considerations may all force a change to the original requirements structure. A build is an iterative stage of development between declared and documented baselines. Software Engineering Director. Baselines will be created at regular intervals and whenever a change has been implemented. approving and implementing required changes must be established and adhered to in order to reduce the associated risks. developer. manager. Significant changes are those that affect the baseline cost. sponsor or developer adds a feature that was not included in the original requirements or the previous baseline. A baseline is the total configuration of a module. Systems Design Director. These must receive approval of the CCB before work can begin toward their implementation. alternative approaches to the same conclusion) and before a new baseline is declared are much less significant in the Program Management context. repeatable mechanism to improve the timeliness of the decision process and a methodology for controlling scope creep. a contract or operational use. Project baselines can occur when the user. The attached Change Request Form shall be used to request all changes to configuration and may be submitted via the administration organizational authority by any stakeholder. 5th Ed 41 Configuration Management Despite the best efforts of everyone. Program Manager. schedules and cost baselines will be required. assembly or system at a given point in time. documenting. Developers will maintain multiple copies of each build between baselines to guard against the risk that a complete fallback to a baseline will be necessary. functions. client. has been established to review and approve or disapproved all proposed changes to configuration. Changes can also occur if the developer is unable to meet the threshold or performance specification prescribed for a function. approved and controlled. Design changes that can be accommodated within the current build (such as. The CCB will meet at regular intervals or when convened by the CIO.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. The CCB. The change control process ensures that the change is identified. and Quality Assurance Director. assessed. Project Manager. The CCB will be composed of CIO. .

5th Ed CHANGE REQUEST FORM 42 .Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design.

5th Ed Request Type Change Description WBS Code Benefits of Change Systems Affected Projects Affected Resources Required Estimated Impact on Project Schedule Cost and Hours Estimates Estimated Labor Hours Estimated Labor Costs Estimated Expenses Total Estimated Cost Originator Name: Signature: Print Name: Verification Section PM Signature: Project Manager Project Sponsor Program Sponsor Portfolio Owner Decision Section Approved Signature: Disapproved Deferred Date: Date: Date: Requirements (Scope) Schedule 43 Cost (Budget/Resource) Review Conducted Approval Level Required Title: Reason for decision: Completion Section Date Incorporated in Schedule Deferral Review Date .Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design.

CR# Date In Short Title Originator Status Date Decision Courses of Action The Project or Program Manager. references and implementation recommendations. CRs will be maintained as a historical audit trail of changes and will be associated with the baseline in which they were incorporated. is feasible but does not warrant . rejected and deferred and will record the status of proposals. benefit analysis • Timeliness • Technical feasibility • Support by stakeholders Impact Analysis Each change request will contain an impact analysis as follows: • Estimate of related costs • Description of benefits • Assessment of how the system will be changed • Contract implications if appropriate • Customer/user assessments • Assessment of a decision not to implement Change Request Process The CR can have the following dispositions: Rejected: This decision should not be interpreted to mean the proposal does not have merit. defer or reject change requests on their merit with these considerations: • A clear statement of need • A positive cost vs. 5th Ed 44 Requested changes will be documented using a Change Request (CR) form and entered into the Change Request Register. The following indicates the minimum content of a Change Request Register. A rejection decision will not preclude the proposal’s sponsors from placing it in consideration when conditions have changed. accurate and fully supported by technical data. with the help of the originator and other team members. cost estimates. The CCB is a decision group and will make final decisions to accept. those that are implemented. Rejected change proposals will be retained for record and may be considered if a sufficient justification is found at a future time. Rejection will simply mean the CCB was not persuaded the proposal’s utility justified the cost.Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. will review each change request to ensure all information necessary for a CCB decision is complete. Deferred: This decision will mean the proposal has merit. The CR Register will serve as a record of all proposed changes.

Class Notes MIS 310 Systems Analysis and Design. schedule and budget. 5th Ed implementation until conditions recognized by the CCB have changed. a change order is issued. Closeout the Change Request A rejected CR is closed out at the completion of the CCB. Class of 2002 . and re-baseline Revise all affected configuration items. The proposal will be retained for active consideration at a future time. Note: Thanks to Russell Grove. Many of these actions will be revealed in status reports against the revised project plan. Returned: The CCB will return proposals that do not appear to be sufficiently developed or documented or that the originator and sponsors have decided to delay action for further consideration. the CCB may have more choices than simply adopting the recommendation. It also includes the specific text of what the decision-maker approved. f the Project Team has provided a proper analysis. the PM must ensure it is implemented. Change Orders If the CR is approved. They may select one of the other alternatives or some combination of alternatives. An approved and implemented CR will be closed out after all appropriate documentation is completed. This is actually the completed copy of the CR cover page including all the necessary signatures. Implement Change Order Implementing the change order includes: • • • • • • Notify all affected parties Revise the project requirements. especially documents Revise all affected contracts Obtain revised budget authorities as needed Continue to work under the new guidance Verify: Implementation Subsequent to issuance of the Change Order. The configuration manager will also have a major role in carrying out document audits to ensure that revisions have been made. 45 Approved: The CCB reserves the right to approve change proposals outright or will modifications.

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