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Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties
Stress and strain:
What are they and why are they used instead of load and deformation
Elastic behaviour:
Recoverable Deformation of small magnitude
Plastic behaviour:
Permanent deformation We must consider which materials are most
resistant to permanent deformation?
Toughness and ductility:
Defining how much energy that a material can take before failure. How
do we measure them?
Hardness:
How we measure hardness and its relationship to material strength

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Concepts of Stress and Strain
(tension and compression)

To compare specimens of different sizes, the load is calculated per unit area.
Engineering stress:
= F / Ao

F is load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section; A0 is cross-sectional
area (perpendicular to the force) before application of the load.
Engineering strain:
= l / lo ( 100 %)
l is change in length, lo is the original length.


These definitions of stress and strain allow one to compare test results for
specimens of different cross-sectional area A0 and of different length l0.
Stress and strain are positive for tensile loads, negative for compressive loads
Strain is always Dimensionless!
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Shear and Torsion
Shear stress: t = F / A
o

F is applied parallel to upper and lower faces each having area A
0
.
Shear strain: = tanu

( 100 %)
u is strain angle
Torsion is variation of pure shear. The shear stress in this case is a function of
applied torque T, shear strain is related to the angle of twist, .
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To understand and describe how materials deform (elongate, compress, twist) or
break as a function of applied load, time, temperature, and other conditions we
need to discuss standard test methods and standard language for mechanical
properties of materials.
Tensile Testing
specimen extensometer
LOAD vs. EXTENSION PLOTS
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- During Tensile Testing,
I nstantaneous load and displacement is measured
These load / extension graphs depend on the size of the specimen.
E.g. if we carry out a tensile test on a specimen having a cross-sectional area
twice that of another, you will require twice the load to produce the same
elongation.
The Force .vs. Displacement plot will be the same shape as the
Eng. Stress vs. Eng. Strain plot
0
200
400
600
800
0 5 10
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)

Strain (mm/mm)
Stress vs Strain Curve
Stress vs Strain
Curve
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10
Force vs Displacement Curve
Force vs
Displacement
Curve
Displacement (mm)
F
o
r
c
e

(
N
)

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Compression Tests
A compression test is conducted in a manner similar to the
tensile test, except that the force is compressive and the
specimen contracts along the direction of the stress.
Tensile tests are more common because they are easier to
perform; also, for most materials used in structural
applications, very little additional information is obtained
from compressive tests. Compressive tests are used when a
materials behaviour under large and permanent (i.e.,
plastic) strains is desired, as in manufacturing applications,
or when the material is brittle in tension.
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The Engineering Stress - Strain curve
Divided into 2 regions
ELASTIC
PLASTIC
Elastic means reversible!
Plastic means permanent!
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Stress-Strain Behaviour: Elastic
Deformation
In tensile tests, if the deformation is elastic, the stress-
strain relationship is called Hooke's law:
= E

Higher E higher stiffness
Units:
E: [GPa] or [psi]
o: in [Mpa] or [psi]
c: [m/m or mm/mm] or
[in/in]
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Modulus of Elasticity
This modulus may be thought of as stiffness, or a
materials resistance to elastic deformation.
The greater the modulus, the stiffer the material, or
the smaller the elastic strain that results from the
application of a given stress.
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Nonlinear elastic behavior
In some materials (e.g., concrete, grey cast iron, many
polymer ), elastic deformation is not linear, but it is still
reversible.
Definitions of E
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Elastic Deformation: Atomic scale
On an atomic scale, macroscopic elastic strain is manifested as small changes
in the interatomic spacing and the stretching of interatomic bonds. As a consequence,
the magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is a measure of the resistance to separation of
adjacent atoms, i.e., the interatomic bonding forces.
Modulus of elasticity is proportional to the slope of the interatomic forceseparation
curve at the equilibrium spacing:
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Modulus of elasticity plot
Plot of modulus of elasticity versus temperature for
tungsten, steel, and aluminium. (Adapted from K. M. Ralls,
T. H. Courtney, and J.Wulff, Introduction to Materials
Scienceand Engineering.
With increasing temperature, the
modulus of elasticity diminishes, as is shown
in Figure for several metals .

As would be expected, the imposition of
compressive, shear, or torsional stresses also
evokes elastic behaviour.
Shear stress and strain are proportional
to each other through the expression
Where G is the shear modulus, the slope of
the linear elastic region of the shear
stressstrain curve
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Anelasticity
(time dependence of elastic deformation)


Have assumed elastic deformation is time independent
(applied stress produces instantaneous strain)

Elastic deformation takes time; can continue even after load
release.
This behavior is known as anelasticity.

For metals the anelastic component is normally small and is
often neglected.
However, for some polymeric materials its magnitude is
significant; in this case it is termed viscoelastic behavior
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.1
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Elastic Deformation: Poissons ratio
Materials subject to tension shrink
laterally. Those subject to compression, bulge.
The ratio of lateral and axial strains is
called the Poisson's ratio .
The negative sign is included in the
expression so that will always be positive,
since
x
and
z
will always be of opposite sign.
is dimensionless
metals: v ~ 0.33
ceramics: v ~ 0.25
polymers: v ~ 0.40
For isotropic materials, shear and elastic
moduli are related to each other and
to Poissons ratio according to
EXAMPLE PROBLEM 6.2
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Stress-Strain Behaviour: Plastic
deformation
In Plastic deformation:
stress is not proportional to strain
deformation is not reversible
deformation occurs by breaking and re-arrangement of atomic
bonds (crystalline materials by motion of defects)
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Tensile properties: Yielding
Yield point: P
Where strain deviates from being
proportional to stress (the
proportional limit)
Yield strength: o
y

In most cases the position of this
point P can not be determined
precisely. Line is drawn parallel to
elastic portion of the stress-strain
curve at strain offset of 0.002.
A measure of resistance to plastic
deformation

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Tensile properties: Yielding
Stress
Strain
In some materials (e.g. low-carbon steel), the stress
vs. strain curve includes two yield points (upper and
lower). The yield strength is defined in this case as
the average stress at the lower yield point.
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Tensile Strength
If stress = tensile strength is maintained
then specimen will eventually break
Fracture
Strength
Necking
S
t
r
e
s
s
,

o

Strain, c
For structural applications Yield stress, o
y
, usually more important
than tensile strength. Once yield stress has been passed, structure
has deformed beyond acceptable limits.
Tensile strength =
max. stress
(~ 50 - 3000 MPa)
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Tensile properties: Ductility
Defined by percent elongation
(plastic tensile strain at failure)
Or
Percent reduction in area
Ductility is a measure of the deformation at fracture. i.e. the
capacity to undergo plastic deformation
100
l
l l
EL %
0
0 f

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
100
A
A A
RA %
0
f 0

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
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Mechanical Properties of Metals
The yield strength and tensile strength vary with prior
thermal and mechanical treatment, impurity levels etc.
Whereas elastic moduli are relatively insensitive to these
effects.
The yield and tensile strengths and modulus of elasticity
decrease with increasing temperature, ductility increases
with temperature.
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Resilience, Ur
Ability of a material to store (elastic) energy
Energy stored best in elastic region
If we assume a linear
stress-strain curve this
simplifies to
Adapted from Fig. 6.15,
Callister 7e.
}
c
c o =
y
d U
r
0
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Energy to break a unit volume of material or it is a measure
of the ability of a material to absorb energy up to fracture
Approximate by the area under the entire stress-strain
curve.
Toughness
Brittle fracture: elastic energy
Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
very small toughness
(unreinforced polymers)
Engineering tensile strain, c
E ngineering
tensile
stress, o
small toughness (ceramics)
large toughness (metals)
Adapted from Fig. 6.13,
Callister 7e.
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True Stress & Strain
Note: Stressed Area changes when sample is deformed (stretched)
True stress = load divided by actual
area or instantaneous area in the necked-down region (Ai):
Sometimes it is convenient to use true strain defined as
i T
A F = o
( )
o i T
ln = c
( )
( ) c + = c
c + o = o
1 ln
1
T
T
Adapted from
Fig. 6.16,
Callister 7e.
If no volume change
occurs during
deformation,
A
i
l
i
= A
0
l
0
and the true and
engineering stress and
stress are related as
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Elastic Recovery During Plastic Deformation
If a material is deformed plastically and
the stress is then released, the material
ends up with a permanent strain.
If the stress is reapplied, the material
again responds elastically at the beginning
up to a new yield point that is higher than
the original yield point.
The amount of elastic strain that it will
take before reaching the yield point is
called elastic strain recovery.
Adapted from
Fig. 6.16,
Callister 7e. It is an important factor in
forming products (especially sheet
metal and spring making)
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Hardness (I)
Hardness is a measure of the materials resistance to localized plastic
deformation (e.g. dent or scratch)
Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
--better wear properties.
Variety of hardness tests have been designed based on the indenter shape (Brinell
,Rockwell, Vickers, etc.).

e.g.,
10 mm sphere
apply known force
measure size
of indent after
removing load
d
D
Smaller indents
mean larger
hardness.
increasing hardness
most
plastics
brasses
Al alloys
easy to machine
steels file hard
cutting
tools
nitrided
steels diamond
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Hardness (II)
Both tensile strength and
hardness may be regarded as degree
of resistance to plastic deformation.


Hardness is proportional to the
tensile strength but note that the
proportionality constant is different
for different materials
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N
y
working
o
= o
N
y
working
o
= o
Design uncertainties mean we do not push the limit!
Typically as engineering designers, we introduce a
Factor of safety, N
Often N is
between
1.5 and 4
Example: Calculate a diameter, D, to ensure that yield does
not occur in the 1045 carbon steel rod below subjected to a
working load of 220,000 N. Use a factor of safety of 5.
Design or Safety Factors
1045 plain
carbon steel:
o
y
= 310 MPa
TS = 565 MPa
F = 220,000N
D
L
o
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Solving:
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0
2
2
2 2
6
2 3 2
2
310
5
220000
4
310
220000
5
4
220000 4 5
m
310 10
4.52 10 m
6.72 10 m 6.72 cm
Y
working
working
N
m
N
N F
A
D
MN
m
N
D
D
D x
D x D
o
o
o
t
t
t

= =
= =
=
- -
=
- -
~
~ =
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Stress and strain: These are size-independent
measures of load and displacement, respectively.
Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior often
shows a linear relation between stress and strain.
To minimize deformation, select a material with a
large elastic modulus (E or G).
Toughness: The energy needed to break a unit
volume of material.
Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.
Summary
Plastic behavior: This permanent deformation
behavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)
uniaxial stress reaches o
y
.
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