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( 1 Stress 2 Strain 3 Axial Deformation of Bars: Statically Determinate Systems 4 Axial Deformation of Bars: Statically Indeterminate Systems 5 Generalized Hookes Law: Pressure Vessels

1-1. Introduction
The subject of mechanics of materials involves analytical methods for determining the strength, stiffness(rigid), and stability(buckling) of the various load-carrying members. The behavior of a member subjected to forces depends not only on the fundamental laws of Newtonian mechanics, but also on the mechanical characteristics( breaks, deformations, ) of the materials of which the member is fabricated. Complete, carefully drawn diagrammatic sketches of problems to be solved will pay large dividends in a quicker and more complete mastery of this subject.

1-2 Method of Sections

A complete diagrammatic sketch of the member on which all of the external forces acting on a body(the reactive forces, the weight, ) are shown. (free-body diagram) Method of sections If the body as a whole is in equilibrium, any part of it must be in equilibrium. The externally applied forces to one side of an arbitrary cut must be balanced by the internal forces developed at the cut. Some moving bodies, although not in equilibrium, are in dynamic equilibrium. These problems can be reduced to problems of static equilibrium.(dAlembert principle)

1-3 Definition of Stress

In general, the internal forces acting on infinitesimal areas of a cut are of varying magnitudes and directions.(from point to point) Since the components of the intensity of force per unit area - that is, of stress - hold true at a point. normal stress / shear stresses

psi (pounds per square inch)

ksi (kilopounds per square inch)

Pa (newtons per square meter) kPa, MPa, GPa 1 psi = 6894 Pa( 7000 Pa)

1-4 Stress Tensor

The first subscripts associate the stress with a plane perpendicular to a given axis. The second subscripts designate the direction of stress.

It is a second-rank tensor requiring two indices to identify its elements.

only six independent components!

plane stress

a particular set of coordinates exists

triaxial, biaxial, uniaxial

1-5 Differential Equations of Equilibrium

three unknown stresses and only two equations (indeterminate)

1-6 Maximum Normal Stress in Axially Loaded Bars


nonuniform stress distribution


buckling bearing stress residual stresses


Stresses on Inclined Sections in Axially Loaded Bars

only two components in the plane of symmetry



1-8 Shear Stresses

two glued surfaces

small applied couple


no slipping (a sufficiently large clamping force) or slipping


1-9 Analysis for Normal and Shear Stresses

For the equilibrium of a body in space,

For the purposes of obtaining the forces in members, the initial undeformed dimensions of members are used in computation. (The deformations are usually negligible )



The reactions that can be removed leaving a stable system statically determinate are superfluous or redundant.






1-10 Member Strength as a Design Criterion

By dividing the ultimate load by the original cross-sectional area of the specimen, the ultimate strength (stress) of a material is obtained. For applications where a force comes on and off a number of times (fatigue test), the materials cannot withstand the ultimate stress of a static test. Some materials deform plastically under a sustained load. (creep) Unique magnitudes are assigned to the applied forces as well as to the allowable stresses. (deterministic approach) After identification of the main parameters in a given stress-analysis problem, their statistical validity is assessed. (probabilistic approach)


1-11 Deterministic Design of Members

factor of safety

margin of safety