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Chapter 5 Problems 5.1 Only two horizontal forces act on a 3.0 kg body. One force is 9.

0N, acting due east , and the other is 8.0N act 62 degrees North of west. What is the magnitude of the bodys acceleration? F1 = 9 i +0 j F2 = 8cos62 i + 8sin62 j Fnet = (9 8cos62) i + (8sin62) j = 5.244 i + 7.066 j Fnet = 5.244 2 + 7.0662 = 8.8N Fnet 8.8 N a = = = 2.93m / s2 m 3kg 5.3 5.4. Three astronauts, propelled by jet backpacks, push and a guide a 120 kg asteroid toward a processing dock, exerting the forces shown in Fig. 5-30. What is the asteroids acceleration (a) in unit vector notation and as (b) a magnitude and (c) a direction.

32N 30 60 41N 55N

a) We begin this problem by writing out each force in component form and then writing the net force. F1 = 32cos30 i + 32sin 30 j F2 = 55 i +0 j F3 = 41cos60i 41sin 60 j Fnet = (32cos30 + 55 + 41cos60) i + (32 sin30 + 0 41sin 60) j = 118.22 i 19.51 j

Now that we know the net force, we can find the acceleration. Fnet 118.22 i 19.51 jN a= = = 0.985 i 0.163 j m 120 kg The magnitude and direction are: a = 0.985 2 + 0.1632 = 0.998m / s2 tan = 0.163 = 9.4 0.985

5.9 (a) An 11.0 kg salami is supported by a cord that runs to a spring which is supported by a cord hung from the ceiling (Fig 5.34a). What is the reading on the scale, which is marked in weight units? (b) In Fig 5-34b the salami is supported by a cord that runs around a pulley to a scale. The opposite end of the scale is attached by a cord to a wall. What is the reading on the scale? (c) In Fig 5-34c the wall has been replaced by a second 11 kg salami and the assembly is stationary. What is the reading on the scale? The scale measures the tension in the cord. In each of these scenarios, the forces acting on the right sausage are as shown below.

In all three cases, the sausage is not accelerating, which means that the net force is zero. We can easily solve for the tension T. 0 = T W T =W = 11kg 9.8 m / s2 = 107.8N The tension is the same in each case because it is exactly balancing the weight. How the rope is attached is not important. 5.19 5.20. A car traveling at 53 km/h hits a bridge abutment. A passenger in the care moves forward a

distance of 65 cm (with respect to the road) while being brought to rest by an inflated air bag. What magnitude of force (assumed constant) acts on the passengers upper torso, which has a mass of 41 kg. To find the force, we need to know the acceleration that the passenger experienced. x f xi = 0.65m 53km 1000m 1h vi = = 14.72m / s h 1km 3600 s vf = 0 ...Ouch!
2 v2 f = vi + 2a( x f x i ) 2 v2 0 2 14.72 2 f vi a= = = 166.7m / s2 2( x f x i ) 2 0.65m

Fnet = ma = 41kg 166.7m / s2 = 6834.7 N

5.24. A 100 kg crate is pushed at constant speed up the frictionless 30 ramp as shown. What horizontal force F is required? (b) What force is exerted by the ramp on the crate? N

mg We use a standard (not rotated) x-y cord system. Since the mass is moving with constant speed, we know that the net force is zero. We write the forces in the vertical and horizontal directions. 0 = N cos mg 0 = F N sin We now solve for F and N

N=

mg cos F = N sin mg = sin cos = mg tan = 100 kg 9.8m / s2 tan 30 = 565.8N mg 100 kg 9.8m / s2 = = 1131.6 N cos cos30

N=

5.42 Figure 5-36 show four penguins that are being playfully pulled along very slippery (frictionless) ice by a curator. The masses of three penguins and the tension in two of the cords are given. Find the penguin mass that is not given. m 20kg 15kg

12kg

111N

222N

In this problem, we need to think about what mass is being accelerated. We can break this system of masses up in different ways. No matter how we break up our masses for calculation, all of them must have the same acceleration. We begin by considering the entire set of penguins as a single mass. In this case the 222 N is the only external force that acts on the entire mass of penguins...

20kg 15kg

12kg

111N

222N

We can write ma, the net force. (12kg + m + 15 kg + 20kg) a = 222N We now consider the force on just the two right most penguins...

20kg 15kg

12kg

111N

222N

We write the net force on these masses (15kg + 20kg) a = 222 N 111N In this second case, we can solve for a. We then use that a to find the missing mass.

(15kg + 20kg) a = 222 N 111N 111N a= = 3.12 m / s2 35 kg

(12kg + m + 15 kg + 20kg) a = 222N (m + 47kg) a = 222N ma = 222N 47 kg a 222N m= 47 kg a 222N = 47 kg a = 24.15kg

5.51 A block of mass m1 = 3.70kg on a frictionless inclined plane of angle 30 is connected by a cord over a massless frictionless pulley to a second block of mass m2 = 2.3kg hanging vertically. What are (a) the magnitude of the acceleration of each block and (b) the direction of the acceleration of m2 ? (c) What is the tension in the cord? The free-body diagram and forces are shown below. N m1 m1g m1 m2 m2 m2g We will call forces that drive the pulley clockwise positive. First we compute the net force on m2 . m2 a = m2 g T We now write the forces on m1 in the vertical direction: 0 = N m1 g cos N = m1 g cos and in the horizontal direction... m1 a = T m1 g sin We now combine the equations to find the acceleration T T

T = m2 g m2 a m1 a = ( m2 g m2 a) m1g sin a= = m2 g m1 g sin m1 + m2 2.3kg 9.8m / s2 3.7kg 9.8 m / s 2 sin30 2.3kg + 3.7 kg

= 0.735m / s2 The mass m2 is downward since downward was defined as positive in this case. T = m2 g m2 a = 2.3kg 9.8m / s2 3.7kg 0.735m / s2 = 19.82 N 5.54 Fig. 5-56, shows a box m2 = 1.0 kg on a frictionless plane inclined at an angle of 30 degrees It is connected by a cord of negligible mass to a box of mass m1 = 3.0 kg on a horizontal frictionless surface. The pulley is frictionless and massless. (a) If the magnitude of the F is 2.3N, what is the tension in the connecting cord? (b) What is the largest value that the magnitude of F may have without the connecting cord becoming slack. We begin by drawing all of the forces on the masses. N1

T m1 m1g T F

N2

m2 m2g We draw free body diagrams...

N1 T T +x m1g F

N2

m2g

+x

We can now resolve the forces into component directions and compute the net force. For m1 y direction 0 = N1 m1g N1 = m1 g For m2 y direction 0 = N1 m1g cos N2 = m2 g cos x direction m1 ax = T + F

x direction m2 ax = m2 g sin T

We now solve one equation for ax and then use that expression to plug into the second equation m1 ax = T + F T+ F ax = m1 m2 ax = m1 g sin T m2 (T + F ) = m1 g sin T m1 m (1 + 2 )T = m1 g sin F m1 T= m1 g sin F 3kg 9.8m / s2 sin 30 2.3N = m2 1.33 (1 + ) m1 = 9.32N

The largest F occurs when the tension T becomes 0. We can solve for F. m1 g sin F m (1 + 2 ) m1 m g sin F 0= 1 m1 g sin F m (1 + 2 ) m1 F = m1 g sin T= = 1kg 9.8m / s2 sin 30 = 4.9N

5.67 Figure 5-63 shows a box of dirty money (mass m1 = 3.0 kg ) on a frictionless plane inclined at angle 1 = 30 . The box is connected via a cord of neglibible mass to a box of laundered monney ( m2 = 2.0 kg ) on a frictionless plane inclined at an angle 2 = 60 . The pulley is frictionless and has neglible mass. What is the tension in the cord. N1 T m1 T N2

m1g

m2 2 m2g

N1 T m1 T N2 m2 1 m1g 2 m2g

We write the net force in the x direction for each mass. m1ax = T m1g sin m2 ax = m2 g sin 2 T

Now solve one of the equations for a and substitute into the second equation. m1ax = T m1g sin1 T ax = g sin1 m1 m2 ax = m2 g sin 2 T m2 ( T g sin 1 ) = m2 g sin 2 T m1 m T (1 + 2 ) = m2 g sin 2 + m2 g sin1 m1 m g sin 2 + m1g sin 1 T= 2 m (1 + 2 ) m1 2.0 9.8 sin60+ 3.0 9.8 sin30 = 2.0 (1 + ) 3.0 = 19.0N