6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Incremental Analysis

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

1

Review

Nonlinear Analysis
Analytical method Graphical method Today Incremental analysis Reading: Section 4.5

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

2

Method 3: Incremental Analysis
Motivation: music over a light beam Can we pull this off?
iD iR

vI (t ) + –

+ vD LED light intensity I D ∝ iD vI music signal

AMP
iR ∝ I R light intensity IR in photoreceiver
LED: Light Emitting expoDweep ☺

t

vI (t )

iD (t )

light

iR (t )

sound

nonlinear

6.002 Fall 2000

linear problem! will result in distortion
Lecture 7
3

Problem:

The LED is nonlinear
iD

distortion
iD

t
vD t

vD vD = vI

iD

vD

t

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

4

Insight:
ID

iD

small region looks linear (about VD , ID)
VD vD

DC offset or DC bias

Trick:
vi (t ) + –
VI

iD = I D + id
+ vD LED vD = VD + vd
VI

vI

+ –

vi
5

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

Result
iD

id
ID VD

vD

very small

vd

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

6

Result
vD = vI

vd

VD

vD

t

iD iD

id

ID

~linear!
t

Demo
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7
7

The incremental method:
(or small signal method)
1. Operate at some DC offset or bias point VD, ID . 2. Superimpose small signal vd (music) on top of VD . 3. Response id to small signal vd is approximately linear. Notation:

iD = I D + id

total DC small variable offset superimposed signal

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

8

What does this mean mathematically?
Or, why is the small signal response linear? nonlinear
iD = f (vD )

We replaced

large DC

vD = VD + ∆vD

vd

increment about VD

using Taylor’s Expansion to expand f(vD) near vD=VD :

iD = f (VD ) +
+

df (vD ) ⋅ ∆vD dvD vD =VD
1 d 2 f (v D ) 2! dvD 2 v ⋅ ∆vD +
D =VD

2

neglect higher order terms because ∆vD is small
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7
9

iD ≈ f (VD ) +
constant w.r.t. ∆vD We can write

d f (v D ) ⋅ ∆vD d vD vD =VD
constant w.r.t. ∆vD slope at VD, ID

X : I D + ∆iD ≈ f (VD ) +

d f (v D ) ⋅ ∆ vD d vD vD =VD

equating DC and time-varying parts,
I D = f (VD )

operating point

d f (v D ) ∆iD = ⋅ ∆vD d vD vD =VD
constant w.r.t. ∆vD so, ∆ iD ∝ ∆vD
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7

By notation, ∆ iD = id ∆ v D = vd

10

In our example,

iD = a e

bv D

From X : I D + id ≈ a e bVD + a e bVD ⋅ b ⋅ vd Equate DC and incremental terms,

I D = a ebVD

operating point aka bias pt. aka DC offset

id = a ebVD ⋅ b ⋅ vd id = I D ⋅ b ⋅ vd
constant small signal behavior linear!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

11

Graphical interpretation
I D = a ebVD

operating point

id = I D ⋅ b ⋅ vd
A
iD ID

slope at VD, ID B operating point vd vD

id

VD

we are approximating A with B

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

12

We saw the small signal Large signal circuit:
VI

graphically mathematically now, circuit

+ –

+ LED VD -

ID

I D = a ebVD

Small signal response: id = I D b vd + vd -

behaves like: small signal circuit:

id

R=

1 ID b

vi

+ –

+ vd -

id
1 I Db Linear!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 7

13