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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Incremental Analysis

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 1

Review

Nonlinear Analysis
X Analytical method
X Graphical method

Today
X Incremental analysis

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 2

Method 3: Incremental Analysis
Motivation: music over a light beam
Can we pull this off?

iD iR
+
vI (t ) +
– vD LED AMP
-
light
intensity iR ∝ I R
I D ∝ iD
light intensity IR

t LED: Light
Emitting
expoDweep ☺

vI (t ) iD (t ) light iR (t ) sound

nonlinear
linear
problem! will result in distortion
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 3
Problem:
The LED is nonlinear distortion
iD
iD

vD
t vD = vI

vD
t

iD
vD
t

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 4

Insight:
iD

ID small region
looks linear
vD
VD
DC offset
or DC bias

Trick:

iD = I D + id
vi (t ) +
– +
vI vD LED
+ -
VI – vD = VD + vd

VI vi

Result

iD

id

ID

vD
VD

very small
vd

Result
vD = vI vd

VD vD
t

iD id

iD
ID ~linear!
t

Demo

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 7

The incremental method:
(or small signal method)

## 1. Operate at some DC offset

or bias point VD, ID .
2. Superimpose small signal vd
(music) on top of VD .
3. Response id to small signal vd
is approximately linear.

Notation:
iD = I D + id

total DC small
variable offset superimposed
signal

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 8

What does this mean
mathematically?
Or, why is the small signal response
linear? nonlinear
iD = f (vD )
large DC
We replaced vd
vD = VD + ∆vD increment

## using Taylor’s Expansion to expand

f(vD) near vD=VD :
df (vD )
iD = f (VD ) + ⋅ ∆vD
dvD vD =VD

1 d 2 f (v D ) 2
+ ⋅ ∆vD + "
2! dvD 2 v
D =VD

## neglect higher order terms

because ∆vD is small

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 9

d f (v D )
iD ≈ f (VD ) + ⋅ ∆vD
d vD vD =VD

## constant constant w.r.t. ∆vD

w.r.t. ∆vD slope at VD, ID

We can write
d f (v D )
X : I D + ∆iD ≈ f (VD ) + ⋅ ∆ vD
d vD vD =VD

## equating DC and time-varying parts,

I D = f (VD ) operating point
d f (v D )
∆iD = ⋅ ∆vD
d vD vD =VD

## constant w.r.t. ∆vD

so, ∆ iD ∝ ∆vD By notation,
∆ iD = id
∆ v D = vd
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 10
In our example,
bv D
iD = a e
From X : I D + id ≈ a e bVD + a e bVD ⋅ b ⋅ vd

## I D = a ebVD operating point

aka bias pt.
aka DC offset

id = a ebVD ⋅ b ⋅ vd
id = I D ⋅ b ⋅ vd small signal
behavior
constant linear!

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 11

Graphical interpretation
I D = a ebVD operating point

id = I D ⋅ b ⋅ vd

A
slope at
iD
VD, ID
id
ID B
operating
point
vd
vD
VD

we are
approximating
A with B

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 7 12

graphically
We saw the small signal mathematically
now, circuit
Large signal circuit:
ID
+ +
VI – LED VD I D = a ebVD
-

## Small signal response: id = I D b vd

+ vd -
behaves like:
id 1
R=
ID b
small signal circuit:
id
+ 1
vi + vd
– - I Db
Linear!