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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Dependent Sources
and Amplifiers

Review

##  Nonlinear circuits — can use the

node method
 Small signal trick resulted in linear
response

Today
 Dependent sources
 Amplifiers

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 2

Dependent sources
Seen previously
+ v – v
Resistor i=
i R R
+ v –
Independent
i=I
Current source i I

iI i O

+ f ( vI ) +
control output
vI vO port
port
– –

2-port device

## E.g., Voltage Controlled Current Source

Current at output port is a function of voltage
at the input port
6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 3
Dependent Sources: Examples

Example 1: Find V

+
R V

independent
current
I = I0
source

V = I0R

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 4

Dependent Sources: Examples

Example 2: Find V

voltage +
R V
controled –
current
source K
I = f (V ) =
V

iI iO
K
f (vI ) =
+ vI +
+
R V vI vO

– –

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 5

Dependent Sources: Examples
Example 2: Find V
voltage
controled
+
current R V
source –
K
I = f (V ) =
V
e.g. K = 10-3 Amp·Volt
R = 1kΩ

K
V = IR = R
V
or V 2 = KR
or V = KR
= 10 −3 ⋅ 10 3
= 1 Volt

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 6

Another dependent source example

RL VS +

iIN iD
+ +
vI +

vIN vO

– –

iD = f (vIN )
e.g.
iD = f (vIN )
K
= (vIN − 1) for vIN ≥ 1
2

2
iD = 0 otherwise

Find vO as a function of vI .

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 7

Another dependent source example
VS

RL
iIN iD
+ +
vI +

vIN vO

– –

iD = f (vIN )
e.g. iD = f (vIN )
K
= (vIN − 1) for vIN ≥ 1
2

2
iD = 0 otherwise

Find vO as a function of vI .

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 8

Another dependent source example
VS

RL
vI vO
K
iD = (vIN − 1) for vIN ≥ 1
2
vI +
– 2
iD = 0 otherwise

Find vO as a function of vI .

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 9

Another dependent source example
VS

RL
vI vO
K
iD = (vIN − 1) for vIN ≥ 1
2
vI +
– 2
iD = 0 otherwise

KVL
− VS + iD RL + vO = 0
vO = VS − iD RL
K
vO = VS − (vI − 1) RL for vI ≥ 1
2

2
vO = VS for vI < 1

Next, Amplifiers

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 11

Why amplify?
Signal amplification key to both analog
and digital processing.

Analog:
AMP
IN OUT

Input Output
Port Port
Besides the obvious advantages of being
heard farther away, amplification is key
to noise tolerance during communication

Why amplify?

## Amplification is key to noise tolerance

during communication

No amplification

10 mV
e
nois
1 mV
useful
signal

huh?

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 13

Try amplification

e
nois

AMP

Why amplify?
Digital:

Valid region

5V 5V
VIH IN VOH
OUT
VIL
VOL
0V 0V
Digital System

IN OUT
5V 5V
VIH V OH
VIL
V OL
0V t 0V t

Why amplify?
Digital:

## Static discipline requires amplification!

Minimum amplification needed:

VIL VIH − VIL
VOL

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 16

An amplifier is a 3-ported device, actually

Power port
iI iO
Input +v Amplifier + v Output
port – I – O port

## We often don’t show the power port.

Also, for convenience we commonly observe
“the common ground discipline.”
In other words, all ports often share a
common reference point called “ground.”

POWER
IN OUT

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 17

Remember?
VS

RL
vI vO
K
iD = (vIN − 1) for vIN ≥ 1
2
vI +
– 2
iD = 0 otherwise

KVL
− VS + iD RL + vO = 0
vO = VS − iD RL
K
vO = VS − (vI − 1) RL for vI ≥ 1
2

2
vO = VS for vI < 1

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 18

So, where’s the amplification?
Let’s look at the vO versus vI curve.
mA
e.g. VS = 10V , K = 2 2 , RL = 5 kΩ
V
K
vO = VS − RL (vI − 1)
2

2
2
= 10 − ⋅10 −3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 103 (vI − 1)
2

2
vO = 10 − 5 (vI − 1)
2

vO
VS

∆vO

vI
1 ∆vI
∆vO
>1 amplification
∆v I
6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 19
Plot vO versus vI
vO = 10 − 5 (vI − 1)
2

vI vO
0.0 10.00
1.0 10.00
1.5 8.75
0.1 change 2.0 5.00 1V change
in vI 2.1 4.00 in vO
2.2 2.80
2.3 1.50
2.4 ~ 0.00 Gain!

Demo Measure vO .

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 20

One nit …
vO

What
happens
here?

vI
1

Mathematically,
K
vO = VS − RL (vI − 1)
2

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 21

One nit …
vO K
vO = VS − RL (vI − 1)
2

2
What
happens
here?

vI
1
However, from
K
iD = (vI − 1)2 for vI ≥ 1
2
VS
RL
vO
VCCS iD

## For vO>0, VCCS consumes power: vO iD

For vO<0, VCCS must supply power!

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 22

If VCCS is a device that can source
power, then the mathematically
predicted behavior will be observed —

vO K
i.e. vO = VS − RL (vI − 1)
2

2
where vO goes -ve
vI

## 6.002 – Fall 2002: Lecture 8 23

If VCCS is a passive device,
then it cannot source power,
so vO cannot go -ve.
So, something must give!
Turns out, our model breaks down.

Commonly K
iD = (vI − 1)
2

2
will no longer be valid when vO ≤ 0 .
e.g. iD saturates (stops increasing)
and we observe:

vO

vI
1