6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

MOSFET Amplifier Large Signal Analysis

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

1

Review
Amp constructed using dependent source control a a′ port
DS

b output b ′ port

Dependent source in a circuit
v

+ –

a +
a′ –

b

i = f (v )
b′

Superposition with dependent sources: one way leave all dependent sources in; solve for one independent source at a time [section 3.5.1 of the text] Next, quick review of amp … Reading: Chapter 7.3–7.7
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 9
2

Amp review
VS
RL

vO
VCCS

vI

+ –

K 2 iD = (vI − 1) 2 for vI ≥ 1V = 0 otherwise

vO = VS − iD RL K (vI − 1)2 2
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 9
3

Key device Needed:
v
A B
i = f (v )

voltage controlled current source

C

Let’s look at our old friend, the MOSFET …

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

4

Key device Needed:
Our old friend, the MOSFET … First, we sort of lied. The on-state behavior of the MOSFET is quite a bit more complex than either the ideal switch or the resistor model would have you believe.

D G vGS < VT

D
G S vGS ≥ VT

S

?

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

5

Graphically
+ vGS –
iDS v+ DS –

Demo

egio n

iDS vGS ≥ VT

iDS vGS ≥ VT

iDS

vDS = vGS − VT vGS 1
Saturation region

T ri o de r

vGS 2
...

vGS3
vDS

vGS < VT

vDS

vGS < VT

vDS

S MODEL

SR MODEL

vGS < VT Cutoff
region

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

6

Graphically
+ vGS –
iDS v+ DS –

egio n

iDS vGS ≥ VT

iDS vGS ≥ VT

iDS

vDS = vGS − VT vGS 1
Saturation region

T ri o de r

vGS 2
...

vGS3
vDS

vGS < VT

vDS

vGS < VT

vDS

S MODEL

SR MODEL

vGS < VT

vDS ≥ vGS − VT
Notice that MOSFET behaves like a current source
7

when

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

MOSFET SCS Model
When

vDS ≥ vGS − VT

the MOSFET is in its saturation region, and the switch current source (SCS) model of the MOSFET is more accurate than the S or SR model

D G vGS < VT D G S vGS G ≥ VT S D iDS = f (vGS ) K 2 = (vGS − VT ) 2 S
when

vDS ≥ vGS − VT

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

8

Reconciling the models…
iDS vGS ≥ VT vGS ≥ VT vGS < VT vGS < VT iDS iDS vDS = vGS − VT vGS 1
Saturation region

T ri o de r

egio n

vGS 2
...

vGS3
vDS

vDS

vDS

vGS < VT
SCS MODEL for analog designs

S MODEL for fun!

SR MODEL for digital designs

When to use each model in 6.002?
Note: alternatively (in more advanced courses)

vDS ≥ vGS − VT vDS < vGS − VT

use SCS model use SR model

or, use SU Model (Section 7.8 of A&L)

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

9

Back to Amplifier
VS
vI

AMP

vO

VS
RL vI

G

D S

vO K 2 iDS = (vI − VT ) 2 in saturation region

To ensure the MOSFET operates as a VCCS, we must operate it in its saturation region only. To do so, we promise to adhere to the “saturation discipline”

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

10

MOSFET Amplifier
VS
RL vI

G

D S

vO K 2 iDS = (vI − VT ) 2 in saturation region

To ensure the MOSFET operates as a VCCS, we must operate it in its saturation region only. We promise to adhere to the “saturation discipline.” In other words, we will operate the amp circuit such that vGS ≥ VT and vDS ≥ vGS – VT vO ≥ vI – vT
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 9

at all times.

11

Let’s analyze the circuit
First, replace the MOSFET with its SCS model.

VS
RL

vO G D
+ vI –

iDS

vGS = vI

+ –

K 2 = (vI − VT ) 2

A

S

for vO ≥ vI − VT

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

12

Let’s analyze the circuit
VS
RL

vO G D
+ vI –

iDS =

vGS = vI

+ –

K (vI − VT )2 2

A

S

for vO ≥ vI − VT
(vO = vDS in our example)

1

Analytical method: vO vs vI vO = VS − iDS RL B K 2 or vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL for vI ≥ VT 2 vO ≥ vI − VT

vO = VS

vI < VT (MOSFET turns off)
for

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

13

Graphical method vO vs vI K 2 From A : iDS = (vI − VT ) , 2 vO ≥ vI − VT 2
for

⇓ 2iDS vO ≥ K ⇓ K 2 iDS ≤ vO 2

B : iDS

VS v0 = − RL RL

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

14

2

Graphical method vO vs vI K 2 K 2 A : iDS = (vI − VT ) , for iDS ≤ vO 2 2 V v iDS = S − O B : RL RL

iDS VS RL
B

iDS
Lo ad

K 2 ≤ vO 2
A
vI = vGS

li n e

VS
Constraints
6.002 Fall 2000

vO

A

and

B

must be met

Lecture 9

15

2

Graphical method vO vs vI

iDS VS RL
B

iDS ≤

K 2 vO 2
A
vI

I DS

VI vO

VO

VS

Constraints A and B must be met. Then, given VI, we can find VO, IDS .

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

16

Large Signal Analysis
of Amplifier (under “saturation discipline”)
1 2

vO versus vI
Valid input operating range and valid output operating range

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

17

Large Signal Analysis
1

vO versus vI vO VS K 2 VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2

VT

vO = vI − VT gets into triode region vI

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

18

Large Signal Analysis
2 What are valid operating ranges under the saturation discipline?

Our Constraints

vI ≥ VT vO ≥ vI − VT iDS

iDS ≤ K 2 ≤ vO 2

K 2 vO 2

iDS VS RL

K 2 iDS = (vI − VT ) 2 vI v V iDS = S − O RL RL vO

VS

?
6.002 Fall 2000

vI = VT vO = VS and iDS = 0
Lecture 9
19

Large Signal Analysis
2 What are valid operating ranges under the saturation discipline?

iDS

iDS

K 2 ≤ vO 2

K 2 iDS = (vI − VT ) 2 vI VS vO iDS = − RL RL vO − 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS vI = VT + KRL
− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS vO = KRL VS vO iDS = − RL RL
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 9

vI = VT vO = VS and iDS = 0

20

Large Signal Analysis Summary
1

vO versus vI vO = VS − K (vI − VT )2 RL 2

2

Valid operating ranges under the saturation discipline? Valid input range:

vI : VT

to

− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS VT + KRL

corresponding output range:

vO : VS to

− 1 + 1 + 2 KRLVS KRL

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 9

21