Zhc Hrt

of the

Ipittt

palace

g- Hrt (Sallcries of

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^be Brt of tbe IDatlcan BY MARY KNIGHT POTTER ^be Brl of tbe ipittt ipalace BY JULIA DE W. ADDISON OTe Bet of tbe Xouvre BY MARY KNIGHT POTTER
tTbe

Brt of tbe IDenice BcaDemi^ BY MARY KNIGHT POTTER ^be Brt of tbe Batfonal (Bailer^ BY JULIA DE W. ADDISON tibe Brt of tbe 2)res&en (3alleri2 BY JULIA DE W. ADDISON ^be Hrt of tbe praDo BY CHARLES S. RICKETTS tTbe Hrt of tbe IRetberlanD
Galleries

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fS^ JJ5 jV^

BY DAVID

C.

PREYER
:ffiel0ian (Ballcrfes

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cvo ^i^ cvc

^be Hrt
L. C.

of tbe BY ESTHER SINGLETON

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PAGE & COMPANY

Publishers, Boston, Mass.

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DONNA VELATA
By Raphael;
in the

Stanza of the Education of Jupiter
{See page 2gb)

be Hrt of tbe
f^tttl
With
an Appreciation of

l^alace
^

a Short History of the

Building of the Palace, and Its Owners, and
Its

Treasures

^

«^

Julia de
Author of

By Wolf Addison

" Florestane the Troubadour," etc.

Illustrated

Boston L, C, Page & Company
Publishers

S.Copyright. February. Mass. Page & Company (Incorporated) All rights reserved Published October. H. C. 1903 Fifth Impression. 1910 (iTolonial ^rrss Eloctrotyped and Printed by C. 1903 By I. THE LIBRARY BRfGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY PROVO.. A. 1908 Sixth Impression. April.. Simonda Boston. U. UTAH . & Co.

LUCA PiTTI AND HiS PaLACE The Growth of the Collection The Hall of Venus The Hall of Apollo I 32 46 68 TOO 130 160 V. III. PAGB II. IV. IX. VIII. XII. VI. XI. The The The The The The Hall Hall Hall Hall of Mars of Jupiter of Saturn of the Iliad Stanza of Prometheus 206 246 290 312 333 362 377 Stanza della Stufa and the Stanza OF THE Education of Jupiter Stanza of Ulysses and Stanza of Justice The Stanza of Flora and the Stanza . VII. The Royal Apartments and the Boboli Gardens Bibliography Index 379 .Contents CHAPTER I. DEI Putti XIII. X.

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in the Angelo Doni By Raphael. {See page 2q6) . in the 106 Hall of Mars EccE Homo By Cigoli. Frontispiece in the Stanza of the Education ofJupiter . 112 in the Hall of Mars Judith with the Head of Holofernes By A llori . Catherine Hall of Venus . 84 in the Hall of Apollo Infant Prince Leopold de Medici By St. in the no Hall of Mars .Xi8t of miustrattons PAGE Donna Velata By Raphael . in the Hall of Venus 22 . Howard. Duke of Norfolk (Detail) By Titian . 69 in the Hall of Apollo Madonna and Child in the 1^ Hall of Apollo PietA By Fra Bartolontnteo . St. 95 in the Hall of Apollo Peter Raising the Widow Tabitha By Guercitto . 96 100 in the Hall of Apollo Mars Preparing for War By Rubens . Tiber io Tito . 27 48 52 Marriage of Titian . in the Hall of Mars VU "5 . By Murillo . in the Hall of Mars Four Philosophers By Rubens . Facade of the Pitti Palace Garden -Front of the Pitti Palace Venus and Vulcan with Cupid By By Tintoretto .

. in the - Hall of the Hiad Altar Piece By Fra Angelico . 266 272 in the Stanza of Prometheus Stanza of Prometheus The Epiphany By Pinturicchio . in the Hall of Saturn 197 Hall of the The Concert By Giorgione Iliad ..VUl 3Lt0t of IHlusttattons PAGE Hall of Jupiter Three Ages of Man By Lotto . .. in the Stanza of Prometheus 250 Madonna and Child By Fra Filippo Lippi. . by Perugino /« the Hall of Saturn 188 in the Hall of Saturn John Asleep By Carlo Dolci . with Dupre's Statues of Cain and Abel La Zingarella By B. in the Stanza of Prometheus 254 - Madonna of the Rose Bush By Botticelli .. in the 170 Hall of Saturn Vision of Ezekiel in the Hall of Saturn Head of Mary Cleophas Disputa By A ndrea St. in the Hall of the Hiad Tobias and the Angel . in the Stanza della Stufa. in the Stanza della Stufa Temptation of St.y 292 304 324 Garofalo . .. Vasari . 206 208 Hall of the Hiad in the Christ Enthroned By A Caracci. By Raphael. in the 142 152 Hall ofJupiter in the Annunciation By A ndrea del Sarto . in the Stanza ofJustice . By Raphael . 130 in the Hall ofJupiter Conspiracy of Catiline By Rosa . 186 Detailfrom the Deposition. in the Hall ofJupiter Madonna of the Chair Hall of Saturn 160 Madonna del Granduca By Raphael .. del Sarto . Jerome .... 212 218 By Biliverti .

. Pallas and the Centaur By Botticelli . with Canova's Venus Allegorical Head Bj' ix PAGB . The Amphitheatre. * . 366 372 Royal Apartments . 336 347 Furini .%iBt ot iniustrattons Stanza of Flora. Boboli Gardens • . . in the . . in the Stanza of Flora .

Corridor of 1314. Stanza of Justice Stanza of Flora Stanza dei Putti Galleria Poccetti . 2. Hall of Venus Hall of Apollo Hall of Mars Hall of Jupiter Hall of Saturn Hall of the Iliad Stanza della Stufa Stanza of the Education of Jupiter 910. Bath-room Stanza of Ulysses Stanza of Prometheus II. 345- 6. 15- Columns 16.PLAN OF THE PITTI PALACE I. 7- 8. 12.

from the sweet. Guido Reni. from the time of budding to the period of decay .(The Hrt of tbe pitii palace CHAPTER LUCA PITTI I. and usually . but of all grades of artists represented in this assemis bly there some example of I interesting. AND HIS PALACE its There is no gallery of size in the world so replete with gems of art and acknowledged masterof painting in Italy as the pieces of the Golden Pitti Palace. It may be here observed that art is seen in the Pitti in all stages of its flowering. and Carlo Dolci. pure lights of Fra Angelico and the moth-wing tints of Botticelli to the somewhat degenerate art of Salvator Rosa. Age One cannot but wish that there were repre- more of the masters of the Early Renaissance sented. and it is true that there are no examples of mediaeval devotional art.

The is style of interior decoration in the Pitti Palace objectionable ceilings of an late-Renaissance type. and might be trying the pictures themselves were not of such absorbing interest that the visitor does not have much time to consider the surroundings.2 xtbe Htt ot tbe work. and by many succeeding all Nearly the schools of Italy are represented. poetic. Here we may revel in the ideal real- ism of Raphael. called the " faultless painter " the quaint worldliness of . Fra Filippo Lippi. from the fifteenth century forward. the devotional seriousness of Fra Angelico. Perugino. rippling smiles There are also many noble examples of the Italian portrait. The setting for the pictures if is florid. IPtttt palace typical. Titian. tury. and Botticelli. culminating in the rich glories of the great Venetians. the soft glow of Murillo. and Tintoretto. and exhibiting what Browning calls " stucco twiddlings everywhere. gilded bossy ornamented with indifferent frescoes. Pinturicchio. here are spread before us the beautiful Madonnas of Andrea del Sarto. by those ** whom Ruskin terms patient. powerful workers " of the fifteenth cenportrait painters. Henry James speaks of these apartments as Pitti. Veronese. " those dusky drawing-rooms of the Palazzo to which you take your way along that tortuous ." The rooms are named in romantic taste after various persons and attributes of classic times. and the of Leonardo.

The latter may be called The Golden Age had preceded it. Del Sarto — these need no is ogy of — even mediaevalists can appreciate these un- deniably great painters. to look at pictures. and is supported by the little goldsmith's booths on rich the Ponte Vecchio. Pitti and the very best of them. Age. While there obvious decadence. While there can be no question that the pictures in the Stanza of early Prometheus are vastly more interesting and satisfying than the works of it the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries^ would be very narrow to say that all art during these . hang Palace.Xuca ipitti an& tis l^alace 3 tunnel that wanders through the houses of Florence. you sit in damask chairs rest your elbows on tables of malachite. and produced significant pictures. They have never been given is their is due. later Renaissance and decadence are typical of the people who lived in these periods. apol- Titian. but there a vast horde men who came after them. not worthy to be named with them. In the and is and insufficient light of these beautiful rooms. but they are just as historically true to their day as are more pleasing Gothic and Romanesque This late interiors its still to their time. These in the pictures. there also decided merit to be seen. and yet who possessed fine qualities. the Gilded Raphael." There no denying that these in rooms are gaudy and meretricious the taste. Leonardo.

just we make allowance for the technical imperfec- tions in the older masters. Salvator Rosa. because failed to interpret the sacred legends as spiritually. if stagey and artificial. as certainly obliged to do. and even Carlo These men exhibit a marvellous technical they approach nearer to the outward appear- ance of natural objects in their drawing than did the early religious painters. We all can make we as care to do so. and are culture has made and it far more interesting to superficial students of art to rave over anything that has to be explained interpreted^ than to admire the works of an age which was less intellectual and dealt less with . such men as the Guido Reni. even if they are often allowance.Hbe art centuries of tbe pttti palace it was bad. we rejoice The rage for to. Dolci. skill. to admire the earlier happens to be the fashion now fascinating ters. or to portray as archaically. as did Fra Angelico It them and Fra Lippo. But we cannot overlook the fact that we force ourselves into an unlater necessary ignorance of two whole centuries of art if we fail to perceive the excellences as well as the defects in the pictures of Caracci. immature conceptions of the mas- It is much easier for us to appreciate and love the works of these cloistered souls than to admire the works of the men who lived in conditions more like our own. for these shortcomings.

with no consideration of the decorative quality. message and yet which subject. medium of The Florentines. the idea of decoration. and the Venetian. will serve its turn On the other hand. were also sculptors. the idea of illustration. and the other. Art may be roughly subdivided into two ples: princi- one. conveys is not intelligently conceived as a artistic no more complete It than does a kaleidoscope. in which religious . feeling and grace are the predominating features.Xuca legends. cheerful facts of The three most prominent schools of art in Italy were the Florentine. which was famous for its comprehension of form the Umbrian. iptttt an^ Dts palace 5 more with the glad. The purest combination that of a great subject treated in a real way. incom- If a picture consists of illustration simply. — the school in which colour played a greater part than in either of the others. their art recognized fewer rethe Vene- strictions than that of the Umbrian and tian schools. a newspaper cut or a photograph as well as a painting. does not instruct the mind. and art is inis tended to do both. in which the facts are portrayed through the beauty. a painting in colour which has a beautiful harmony and form. Either of these principles is developed to the exclusion of the other plete. besides being painters. hence their paintings took on more of . but it may please the eye. arid life.

to recognize individual and to depict rather than to design. in trying to catch these in- The Greek ideal of beauty . whereas Leonardo and Durer spent days dividual touches. in : the passage which here quoted When you are well instructed in to perspective..6 XEDe art ot tbe Iptttt palace was often of the the relief of sculpture.. Many most pleasing pictures by Tintoretto are technically faulty in drawing. delight to observe and consider the different actions of men. ideal before the schools of the Renaissance. And would be well if all persons would cultivate laid their perceptions by the simple means " down by Leonardo. Be quick in sketching these . as with the Venetians. is as^ for instance. had been to present abstract perfection ideal the Renaissance was to show the variety in personal attributes. not to be confused in any one type. all But there was one united. as Types were no longer the with the Greeks. one principle to portray in which they all That was. Colour was never. all little Apelles would have smoothed away per- sonal irregularities in his subject. and know perfectly how different forms. . ideal. draw the anatomy and . these men it of the later Renaissance had Leonardo da Vinci's priceless advice to help them in their labours. it . In place of the old Byzantine Guide to Painting.. should be your .. with them^ the chief consideration. . . things as they actually were peculiarities. and their sculpture pictorial.

When it is take another. . . that memory is not able to retain them therefore pre- serve these sketches as your assistants and masters. because forms and motions of bodies are so the infinitely various. — and is gloom — wrath is . as Mr. which full." Equally true is it Tintoretto the that there are artists for some artists represented in the Pitti Palace who be appeal only to sentimentalists. which some people. for these are not things to be rubbed out. un- questioning religion of Fra Angelico differs essentially from the intellectual appreciation of Leonardo da Vinci. A majority of the pictures in the gallery is. owing to an ignorance of the legends of the Church." It is said that " Titian and Raphael are the paint- ers for women. Many deal also with the semi- mythical acts of saints. B. Michelangelo and men. . the key-note of his religion sordid duty presses it. Rose exwith the "his soul really Hebrew prophets " he has not read aright the Revelation. may said to be religious. G. find it a little difficult to appreciate. should always be about you. . unsympathetic interpretations of Michelangelo. that they represent some subject vitally or apochryphally connected with Biblical teaching.Xuca with slight ipitti and Ibis ipalace 7 strokes in your pocket-book. and as widely from the stern. but kept with the greatest care. . There is no cheerfulness in Michelangelo's portrayal of spiritual emotion. But the calm.

conscious that I my it eye is forming and perfecting. and yet her choice of the greatest pictures in the Pitti collection includes Guido Reni's but Cleopatra. Raphael's toretto's Donna Velata. and the conduct of to have dwelt in such an atmos- phere and It is felt such an influence. and my I good feel I have any. Jameson. when they exhibit any salient quality. are invigorated. and Allori's Judith. This quality may be spirit either disliked or admired exceedingly at various periods. who : notes in his diary during his Italian travels " Spent the morning in the Pitti Palace. and Salvator Rosa's Cataline! Good enough paintings." unfashionable just now to admire Domen- . and know that must be a benefit to us. all these.s Ubc Hrt ot tbe l&tttt palace matter of taste Fashions change so in art. as regards writing life. TinLippi's Venus and Vulcan. Mrs. who to-day would select them and say nothing of Giorgione's Concert. I seem to have breathed a all atmosphere. that it is much in the impossible to say always what will be the future standing of certain works. was considered a woman of taste in her day . according to the way in which the of the time determines the standard of excellence. for instance. the place finer all in I go away from feelings. and Filippo appealing little Madonna! effect of this gallery Particularly exhilarating seems to have been the upon Horace Bushnell. if a glow.

Caracci. ralistic Ruskin angels particularly irritated by the natuhe inveighs which they painted. by Bili- and Guido Reni's his usual Bacchus (which is free from mannerisms). And yet. why should one therefore shut one's eyes to the manifest grace and loveliness of the picture by Annibale Caracci in the Pitti. granting all this. a leading politi- . ambitious rival of the Medici and Strozzi. One should be broad enough to see and recognize it merit wherever exists. —a successful merchant. ipfttf anb Ibis H^alace 9 and other is late men of the Renais- sance. whether or not it happens to be in one's special line of preference. — offensive studies of barelegged howling and kicking in volumes of late smoke. " and he remarks with a sigh that the painters do not seem to know the difference between angels and cupids. The Pitti Palace stands on a slight eminence. Mrs. of a natural depression in 1441. Jame- son is is right when she claims that the Pitti gallery rather a selection than a collection of the most valuable gems and masterpieces of art. " a against what he calls sky encumbered with sprawling infants children. proud. as in a hillside. It were. and such pictures as the delightful and too verti. little known Tobias and little the Angel.3Luca ichino. it the upper ridge. was begun by Luca Pitti. entitled Christ in Glory with Saints. a wealthy.

Gonfalonier. would have been a credit to the best of men. Constantinople. Ambassador to Rome. trading-vessels to He those sent out ten England. which was two months. He felt early the lust for power. While he was Gonfalonier he undertook a certain business it must be admitted. who. a vain tyrant. though overbearing and determined in attack. in Milan. and presided ovef Tlie city by a Gonfalonier of the Signoria. which was once written by some keen observer on the margin of the Sumptuary Statutes " If there is a person whom you hate. Send him to Florence as officer of State/* was governed by the Priors of the Arts. a company of eight men selected from among the members of the guilds and crafts.: 10 Zbc art of tbe ipitti lC>aIace cian. proved weak and irresolute in his final defeat. as a merchant. there is was not a peaceful at best: an old saying. such expeditions days . which. Justice. This body was called public and lived at charge in the Palazzo Signoria for their term of ofifice. — also Ambassador and he was most enterprising venture. Luca the first' Pitti is declared by Guiciardini to have been citizen of Florence. positions : Luca Pitti had held various of these to Sforza. he was Prior. and entered public It life while he was life very young. in and were Barbary.

Wishing to appoint his own he determined to oppose the Medici. gave Luca the very chance he had been looking meeting of the Signoria This occurred when. and Florence was the florins richer by over one hundred thousand through his boldness. Cosimo de Medici. and to reign in their stead. By such means he managed to get the confidence of the Florentines. citizens to The Balia was a board of whom was . gifts and showered upon him in gratitude. not personal ambition of in the least suspecting the Pitti. but that he was able to keep his head up as long as he did. as usually does who are bent upon evil.Xuca hazardous. it His opportunity soon occurred. made useful as a catspaw for the Medici. and he undertook to oppose the liberal movements for those in the government. and the only wonder is. This was a bold project. The people imme- diately recognized their indebtedness. he called a in order to change the Balia. pltti anb Ibis palace " the fact But whether he was blessed by Providevil. decided that he could be so he for. He had all the vivacity of ambition necessary to a party leader. not that Luca Pitti was ultimately defeated. the peo- ple ran unsuspectingly into the snares laid for them. dence or assisted by his familiar remains that his ventures were lucky. as Gonfalonier. officers. so that when he decided to spread nets for their entanglement and for his own advancement.

12 Ube Hrt of tbe pitti palace given the power to levy taxes. their interests and that the best course for a Parlamento. the recognized signal for such on the 9th of August. so that after the voters all had assem- bled they could prevent entrance to or exit from it the square. 1458. post six thousand foot-soldiers and three hundred mounted guards. When Pitti nominated his made own men his son for the Balia. who. Cosimo de Medici. refused to appoint a new Balia. when the Signoria. he and Cosimo decided call to ignore the action of the Signoria. Balia. and so. and to perform other municipal functions. This triumph he achieved when. thus warning Cosimo that would be vain to thwart any proposals which might be by Luca Pitti. was to namely. a Pitti's ambition was to have new Balia elected from among his adherents. the ringing of the great bell in the Palazzo Vecchio. and his by a coup d'etat to elect a Balia composed of own conspirators. with . contented with the existing conditions. lace Cosimo had agreed to overawe the popu- by having two thousand of his soldiers on Meanwhile Pitti had secretly arranged to guard. a general meeting of the citizens in the Piazza Signoria to vote upon names which were proposed for a new Up to this point Pitti had appeared only the interests of Cosimo. the Parlamento assembled in response tO' a meeting. to consider but he was quietly scheming on his own account to surprise his ally.

surrounded gnards.. and when this unanimous assent was In order to give a affair. The people. So the withdrew^ not suspecting that they had now passed under a new regime which should some time to come. with the picturesque Signoria mounted on a platform. . result in their oppression for For no sooner did Luca Pitti gain the supremacy than he started an unmerciful system of taxation. obtained. high-toned and religious aspect to the whole a solemn procession evacuated to citizens was formed. motley-coloured throng. old. and that the balance of power had Cosimo dared not oppose such a formidable array and the people. and the square was the sound of the Te Deum. many of them of the lower general cheerfulness of classes. been a gay sight. the show was over. making speeches and smiling in an ingratiating if not a sincere way. Cosimo de Medici was now growing less and was keen and less strong physically than he had Luca ruled him with the iron hand of one who has attained his power through his own cunbeen. — the For it must have and there. Xuca Pietro. lC>itti anb 1bfs palace 13 by his was within the Palazzo Signoria. reaHzed that he had warmed a viper. shouted their approval. pleased with the attractions of the pageant. probably would have agreed to anything out of spirit. shifted. with the armed men interspersed here seen against the cold gray walls of the venerable palace.

14 tCbe art of tbe Ipttti iC^alace ning." making him presents for its Possibly this means that they were unlawfully taxed. as Machiavelli expresses ** through the people's completion. : and I lean I them close to earth. to exiles and thieves within its his palace. and protection adornment. in " Pitti's The Lamp of Power. until the old man's death. During Pitti it. satisfied to let his prosperous rival . who gathered to him- a great fortune by knavery and maladministralittle tion of justice. and the Palazzo was built. and." He stood aside. its provided they could assist in building and Ruskin. — " This rapacious gentleman. Another means of completing and enhancing the richness of the work was employed Pitti would offer refuge . whom he induced to make presents towards its completion and decoration." sums up Luca self method in his drastic way. You lay your ladders in the sky. built this as his literally town-house. lest I may fly so high that may fear to fall. never ceased to oppose and govern the Medicean faction. and I the finite. this period of his success Pitti began to think of erecting his great residence. or possibly that they were so under the spell of this popular leader that they en- joyed paying this tribute to his success. out of the spoils of the people of Florence. — largely. aged and weary." Cosimo's famous words were probably spoken to Luca Pitti when he said " You follow the infinite.

sword hand than to permit a tyrant to be raised city. For in planning to another Parlamento. suit. each passes on his way. while he prepared to call strike. When Cosimo died. saying " You and I are like two great dogs who rush at each other and then pause and sniff. who was a those quiet. decided upon the overthrow of Luca As a guileful opening wedge with which to Pitti. with unwonted fervour. Pietro encouraged the playing with his foe. Look to your own business. exclaims. Even Cambi.Xuca go his ipitti an& : Ibis palace is own way. As both have teeth. gossiping writer of the day. Pietro knew that the Signo- ria were too wise to back Pitti a second time. commence and even his Pitti his work he introduced a friendly sug- gestion that an alliance between the houses of Medici would not be unattainable — so that Pitti made the proposition of a marriage between own daughter and young Lorenzo de Medici. his son Pietro. Better to die and never to allow a Parlamento. younger and more active. because Luca's palace stood on a while the Medici were alluded to as Del Piano^ because their palace was in the plain below. hill. seeing the plight into which his faction had fallen. and I will attend to mine. " Let who in read this learn never to grant a Balia." The followers of Pitti were called Del Poggio." up over the .

Niccolo Soderini came to him. and rest will I shall lose my property." . fair how to get the last promises to the and a placid condition of pseudo-friendship. the force of his own With example. in his turn. and the be banished. Meanwhile. Medici he had called a Parlamento . and lo'! applied the old proverb. and tried to induce him had to guard against the treachery which was soon to be practised upon him by the Medici. for he was hoping for further reconciliation with Pietro through the fact that one of his nieces had married Giovanni Tornabuoni. of This its resolution liberty. and were B}^ only too ready to restore the Medici to power. but I can foresee the evils that will befall her. " A villain must be beaten were the with a villainy " for there in the square to enforce the body of armed men ready rule. " I can do the city no good alone. and he counted on this fact. but Luca practically deserted his own party. to cement the friendship of his opponent. Pitti's friends had seen that he was about to be tricked^ and had tried to warn him. Niccolo pleaded with him in vain. yours will rob the country of will lose the you government. exclaiming. together with his projected alliance.i6 Ube art The ot tbe pitti palace people were tired of Pitti's rule. Luca Pitti had inad- vertently taught Pietro de Medici better of him. just as Medicean they had been formerly a host to sus- tain Pitti.

in the Certain propositions were made. Luca Pitti had made no Balia. although undeniably the ringleader. so that by the time Pietro was ready to act. effort new in fact. fact that own he himself. without much oppoof Pietro de Medici. at ill was too to lay ratified to appear. which the Luca is reported to have wept The Medicean Parlamento was to thwart the proposals for the held on the 2d of September. seeing that his glory to save his had waned. and that was ready that he had trusted his enemy now had him on the scruple. betraying his party safety. 1464. sition. some historians affirm that. fell mistook his fear for a conscientious and an easy prey.! Xuca pitti anJ) Dis palace 17 And Soderini proved to be somewhat of a prophet. anxious own The neck. and these promises were to the sick-room. the victory of Pietro a positively courteous plan. seeing at last not wisely but too well. by protestations of undying friendship! Then was conducted terrible and he in and Pietro had quite a sentimental interview. to his hand. the material for his triumph Pitti. had gone with compromises to in order to ensure his Pietro. Luca. Pitti was conducted on The Priors invited which Pietro Pitti faction and his friends to a meeting. When Luca Pitti's adherents found that their chief was on the verge of defeat^ they began deserting to the Medicean side. . resulting promise of the down Pitti their arms. hip. to the plots In fact.

Pitti wished to outdo his rival. assuming that they had been but loans. and his friends turned against him. with . which has always borne name ument which city. gives colour to this theory. is was This monit the Pitti Palace — that building in Florence exhibits. and the elderly man. the Medici. must be confessed that he succeeded. He was then a mature man of sixty years of age. the great Florentine. Luca day — Pitti had employed the best architect of his Brunelleschi. lowers of Pitti were banished receiving . in spite of the fact that for centuries the property of his rivals. he his succeeded in leaving behind him as a symbol of his power one monument. de Medici had employed Michelozzo in erecting his palace . and began demanding the return of their gifts. and power. sank away out of public is and there no further record of his career. who had so gloried in his vanity life. although the no sentence. Brunelleschi re- ceived the commission for the design in 1440. was practically ruined. is Though the ultimate fate of Pitti unknown. among the numerous palaces of the the special feature of the feudal survival in the early Renaissance.1 8 XT be Hrt of tbe pitti palace in his party to escape specific was the only man punishment. who had Cosimo It built the dome and of the cathedral in Florence. marriage between his daughter and Lorenzo de Medici was broken off. The fol- he himself.

the criticism gifts of abated. Luca in the selection of a showed much foresight noble situation. a Monna known family of Rossi^ member of who owned some Ponte Vecchio. Luca made a boast "windows of his to Cosimo de Medici that the larger than new house should be . side of the Then he bought the piece of land now occupied by the Boboli — then called Bogoli. wisdom of a long and useful When Pitti purchasing the land for his palace. Also he had to pay indemnities for many houses which had to be destroyed to enlarge that the new mansion^ so undertaking was a costly one. to one He bought a house and vineyard belonging Bandecca. arranging that each guest upon this occasion should have for his seat a large sack of money. Luca met their objections by inviting about one hundred of the chief complainers to a great banquet. the well- dwellings on the other Gardens.Xuca much lC>itti an& t)is iC^alace ^ previous experience to guide him. The the space for his whole people also exlavish pressed some disapproval of this outlay. — for which he gave 450 florins. his friends hastened to make him propitiation. and airing their discontent at his extravagance. After this. to display to the best advantage the magnificence which he intended to lavish upon his house. claiming that he would ruin himself. so that he this brought to bear upon work the accumulated life.

Vasari relates that Strozzi that he Pitti also boasted to Filippo would build a palace large enough its to contain the Strozzi Palace in this courtyard.20 the great it trbe art of tbe pittl I^alace doorway of the Medici to Brunelleschi Palace. so cellis in it is was undoubtedly begun by later Vasari alludes to him as probable that there were two Fan- Florence. Simplicity and richness of material (not the building. it Only the central part of the palace as is / . but as Luca Fancelli was born in 1430. By to its the time Brunelleschi died. for the Strozzi Palace built was not until five years later. Silvestro. the palace had risen second storey. No doubt gave pleasure (who had not won the commission to build the Medici Palace) thus to outshine his rival Michelozzo. and his final design could be Solidity of scale traced easily in the completed part. Vasari also says that the plans of Brunelleschi were carried out by Luca Fancelli. structure on a very grand and imposing florid taste of was the chief concession which the great architect to the made somewhat Pitti. he would only have been about ten years of age at this time — so. intended to be three stories high. the building another Fancelli. but cannot be a true story. in detail) characterized The original design was compact and to-day good proportion. unless he was an infant prodigy.

another is a picture in the Church of San Spirito. Professor three suggestions and other material which has been Cosimo Conti has proved that first the design of the palace. is nO' characteristic of Doric archiit is tecture about it except that massive. Almost the exact intention of the been discovered through three sources of information on this subject is architect has : one source is a plan. as a filling for the plain round arches placed there by Brunelleschi. but were added in late Renaissance times. . which now in the Uffizi . and the third in the portrait of a lady.Xuca pttti an^ Ibis palace 21 appears in the original design. in which the fagade of the is Pitti Palace ap- pears. The wings were added later. writers speak of the Pitti Palace as being But there it. By means of these discovered. proportionate features Many of the somewhat diswhich now exist are not due to Brunelleschi. an altar-piece painted by Alessandro Allori. An exam- . probably some member of the Pitti family through an open window in the background of this picture the Pitti Palace may be seen. windows in the There is no classical detail about the fagade except pediments on the lower storey — and those were ' not in the plan. as planned. called for three central arches in the basement and a row of seven windows above. Many Doric. but were later additions. in which more resembles Etruscan work.

There are balus- trades which run at the top of the three stories. which appear in proportion to be hardly more than is string-courses. of the single blocks among those which help to support the terraces are monoliths as long as five sistent They are as little worked as flat is con- with an approximately surface. enclosing three balconies. the The whole front as it stands to-day 475 feet long. but placed as on an eminence. is its profile is majestic and stern without seeming too forbidding. For its size. unornamented." This . in the building as it Leader Scott remarks that " now stands there length.22 XTbe Hrt of tbe ptttf palace it ination of the palaxre as this. that they do not strike the beholder as presenting more than a good bold surface. the palace stood in a narrow street. but there are so many of them. it is The separate stones of which built are enormous. The has immense in proportion to its height. disastrously exaggerated the horizontal lines. they were hewn roughly from the quarry. Some men. this impression is might be justified. the distance from the centre of one centre of the next is is window to the The fagade twenty-four feet. the ruggedness not too pronounced. is Their colour effect of is dark gray. now stands will prove Some persons consider that the facade if is too much it like a jail. great want of balance. which adds to the rugged pile.

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in 1549. May The building which to the original Ammanati added about 1568 structure was the whole cortile. was living but.Xttca IS IPitti anb Ibis iC^alace «3 owing to the later additions to the plan. By the palace had passed into the possession of the Medici. and several large farms. Buonacorsi Pitti^ a grandson of Luca. So Cosimo I. and I . Each storey is forty feet in and the arches twelve feet across. it Judging from was to have been built topped with an open loggia. 1550. he decided to sell the place. — what Ruskin calls " a solemn frown of projection." Brunelleschi's sketch. indicate. being there in 1529. heavily in debt. who the bridge to continue that time known as Ponte Trinita. on IS. de Medici bought it for his wife Eleanor all its of Toledo. as in the Palazzo Vecchio. an into orchard. not a scowl. Bartolommeo Ammanati. with his family and his court. In the facade are no vertical divisions except such articulations as the constant repeat of the round-arched windows height. was engaged the building in the sixteenth century. He moved the palace. together with grounds. and has ever since been the royal residence in Florence. as head of the family. These three storeys should properly have been surmounted by a heavy cornice^ as is the Strozzi Palace. however.

which advance far into the open. the fit reigning grand duke evidently thought also to do away with certain feudal expressions in the about the house: ground floor.24 Ube art of tbe »itti palace to the second the garden front^ floor. especially Grand Dukes Cosimo and Fer- dinand IL. but was a simple. round-arched windows were introIt is quite duced at intervals. The back of the Pitti Palace displays the first use of the style called " rustication. fortresslike structure. by the architect Poccianti. giving a peculiar effect of reticulation to the edges. between 1768 and 1839. who inaugurated several changes between 1620 and 1631. first a large and then a small one. the palace. straight wall seems to have succeeded. under the auspices of the Lorraine family. and also the wings continued to Succeeding owners enlarge II. While Bartolommeo Ammanati was building the cortile. remarkable that this proceeding did not weaken the superstructure. which had never had any windows. Giulio and Alphonso Parigi designing palace the continuance of the fagade. but the effort to relieve the gloom of the bare." free-stone blocks are placed The gigantic in one above another the pilasters. The wings. The until was not extended to its full length 1640. . crater-like piazza in front of the house. were added.

the stones of the foundations of the Pitti Palace." George Eliot speaks of the regularity. celled in majesty of Ruskin^ who greatly detested most of the forms in which Renaissance architecture chose to disport self itself. as." This Pitti Palace as " a won- derful union of Cyclopean massiveness with stately is a very apt expression regarding the facade. " As in higher works of the pleasure of their hasty or imperfect exeis cution not indicative of their beauty. saying.'' which may be op- posed to both " the useless polish and barbarous rustications of principles modern times. as Fuseli hath to purpose is the shadow of energy. the whole stateliness of which.' Sufficiency . " His eye must be delicate indeed to see the Pitti alludes to its who would ! desire Palace polished " and again he " noble rudeness. but of a sturdiness which defies elaboration and has never been exeffect. aside ." Ruskin outlines his on the subject oi these stones passage : in the Pitti in the following art. expresses him- most warmly in admiring this noble pile. not always the ideal arrived for instance. To an extent this form of treatment might it is be regarded as decoration. are usually smooth and straight. but of their majesty and fulness of thought and vastness of power.Xuca iC^ittf anb ftfa iC^alace 2^ which. is the test of some forms of work beauty at. * is only noble when it is. Negligence it. in lines of support.

with pediments^ soles. the exigencies of unfortunate that necessary to fill modern conditions have made it the dignified arched windows all Brunelleschi had planned to have over the fagade with hideous square inner case- ments and panes. between which are carved heads of called " with what are usually reality ducal crowns " (but which are in their heads. for they are of a thin Renaissance design. each large arch subdivided and filled with two is smaller ones. with a column in the centre as in the Pazzi Palace. and are supported on conlions. which is amounts almost to a decorative motive. These bold arches over the windows conimpression which stitute the leading feature in the is carried away by most observers who have floor not been specially trained to a study of architecture. caps) upon From the open mouth of one of these lions flows the purest water in the city. it comes from the far-away It is also hill- country of Pratolino. seen Professor Conti has discovered also that all the . lies in well-proportioned arches. One striking feature. spreading so far on either side that they nearly meet. the extreme depth of the vousthe great wedge-shaped stones soirs of the arches. The is taste displayed in the ground windows not pleasing.26 Ube Hrt of tbe lC>itti t^alace the solemn from the consideration of repeat of its its size. are arranged like gigantic fans over each window.

tii u < < Pi H H O H O I &a Q <: .

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Among the tests which he applied was that of observing the ceilings in the interior. or garden-front. which the hinges of the doors used The three balustrades across the front based Ionic capitals on each baluster. of the Pitti Palace. In the back. lie beyond. It would seem enough as if the front of the palace were lavish in its use of large stones. like that at the Farnese Palace in Rome. The rooms between these openings have vaulted ceilings. On the may still be seen the iron staples on to swing. it owing to the length they have to travel. show deBelow the which great balustrades are heavy moulded string-courses. showing that doors had been used to give ingress to them direct. is This is the and part of Brunei- . or cortile. as it is often called. outside. while those into which the openings were cut have plain barrel-vaults. serving as a connecting link between the palace and the Boboli Gardens which largest cortile in Florence. and this is surrounded on three sides by the building. extensive spaces are laid out and enclosed by the great walls of the building. while on the fourth side is a stone terrace one storey high. but. is is hard to realize how really their projection. but on the other side they are almost as numerous. too. Here is a great open square courtyard.Xuca pttti an5 Ibis palace 27 arches of the basement were originally doors instead of windows. which cast some shadow.

in alternating so that the feeling of vertical rib-support usually given by The heavily projecting string- courses continue the horizontal effect which pre- dominates on the other fagade. to the fact that the rustication is carried on up and down courses. On the keystones of the arches are carvings in the spirit of Renaissance grotesque. it would . and is the first obvious quality in the work. considered in detail. of piled-up cushions. and the third. just as the deep voussoirs. practically lost. however. is on the second and on the Corinthian. were the leading characteristics of the faqade. The owing effect of columns. on a flatter plane. On the basefloor. capitals are Doric. The reticulated effect of the rus- tication here predominates. storey. On the second floor the stones of the rustications are cut square.28 Ube art of tbe pitti palace although added to later leschi's original building. The three storeys are ornamented with applied orders and repeating arches. they are elab- orately rounded off is the effect of the second storey that of piled-up boxes. each stone showing a shield or some pseudo^human device. ment the Ionic. On such an enormous scale these features but. on the third . third. the shaft. square and round. The windows set within heavy arches are headed alternately. reducing it to a vertebrate pile of small and large stones pilasters is lacking. pass muster. by Ammanati.

In the midst are some strenuous sea-gods and mer- maids writhing smaller flat in the effort to sustain a series of stone basins. But the garden front usually appeals more to the popular idea of grandeur. the terrace is a handsome and showy founis the ample basin of which surrounded by those mythological beings usually denominated " putti." describe a mule in black marble at one end of the surrounding colonnade. detail. The usual allowance of dolphins may be detected in in this design. Eight of these are here to be seen perched in Delsartean attitudes around the edge of the basin." — figures of perpetual youth. which is restless and inadequate and yet has withal the general large is effective- ness which so characteristic of the developed Renaissance. into which the water plays. raised This fountain is on several steps. in their delightful " Walks in Plorence. and is octagonal in shape. and must have puffed up mightily the soul of Luca Pitti. the first is so far superior both in sincerity of intention and in proportion. saying naively that it is supposed to commemorate the animal who .3Luca be difficult iC^ittf anb 'tis l&alace 29 to decide which was worse. The Misses Horner. masquerading as infants versed in worldly wisdom^ a cross between a cupid and an infant prodigy. On tain. There is no comparison between the masonry of the main fagade and that of the garden front.

and the present day^ it is hardly correct to as a com- plete whole. It is interesting to note what various appreciative men have ods : written about the palace in different periclerk of the English Privy James Howell.. There are some beautiful palaces in Florence and. If a single mule was responsible for the conveyance of these stones^ he certainly deserves recognition Considering hov^ on the Pitti many hands have been at work Palace. not unlike that of the built Luxembourg at Paris. the architects always take care to give them a place in the great edifices that are raised in Tuscany. and how many heads have its contributed ideas and designs for in the centuries amplification between its first erection call it. . the great British in his " essayist. " so spacious occupieth the room of fifty houses at the least. the work of Brunelleschi. as Tuscan pillars and rustic work owe their origin to this country." says Howell." Joseph Addison.! 30 XLbc art of tbe lC>itti ©alace carried the materials for the building of the palace. II. built after this manner. and Joseph Addison. who was is there in 1702. " that The it duke's palace. says Remarks on Italy " : " : . the Council. who saw it under the reign of Ferdinand in 1 62 1. which was by Marie . which makes It is look extremely and majestic. The solid duke's new palace is a very noble it pile. .

the work- men fell into the Tuscan humour. .Xuca ipttti an& tie palace 31 de Medici. perhaps. by the hands of the greatest masters. There are abundance of pictures the several apartments. in . ." . and for that reason.

3* This . The first stage in the growth of the collection was begun when the palace passed from the hands of the Pitti family into those of the Medici. to time that at last the palace art hardly second to became a gallery of any in At first without deliberation. it was to be his private residence made beautiful and attractive for his personal use. THE GROWTH OF THE COLLECTION When tion of Pitti built his palace it it was with no inten- making the home of a great collection of art treasures. different owners gradually added paintings that apthese accumulated in pealed to their taste. then con- sciously. with the aim of making a great collection. The significant pictures which have survived. such numbers from time Europe.CHAPTER II. he added no The growth of the collection of paintings which now adorn the palace was a process of generations. Beyond the decoration of the rooms. the palace was developed into a treasure-house of artistic excellence.

but none more cowardly and heartless than this act. Cosimo I. Universities and academies were he patronized built and endowed by him. it must be remembered that its Florence owes much of outward beauty to the direct influence of this powerful warrior and aesthete. finding himself without the wealth necessary to maintain so vast an estabhshment. and a leader He is re- membered dering his for the most brutal crime perhaps that any of the Medici ever committed: that of mur- own son in the presence of his mother. was a great all philanthropist. however. acquisition of the property marked a strange combination of artistic sense with glaring which characterized the subsequent occupants of the palace. sold it 1549 to the first Grand Duke of Tuscany. would never have been able to leave so great a mark on the art of his time if it had not been for the generous friendship of Cosimo. His virtues. who appre- . 33 was made when Buonacorso a grand- son of Luca. Cosimo I.XCbe transfer Growtb of tbe Collection Pitti. in Eleanor de Toledo. de Medici (1519-1574). whatever they were^ must pale before this supreme act of his evil life. and Benvenuto Cellini the liberal arts. de Medici was a great patron of art in all but ethical matters. Cosimo I. There have been many episodes of horror connected with the Medicean rule. The Medicean immorality. for his wife.

but he art. which he recognized some- The Palazzo Vecchio owes and loggias in Florence: much of its solemn grandeur to Cosimo's additions. A and student of art many his love for letters was one of an expert the ruling passions of his life. state his labor- the Uffizi . may be said to have begun the collecit. as great a He was not man as his father. protected from the glare and heat of the sun. From father to son blood seems to have been one of the inheritances of this terrible family. father as second grand duke. Francesco succeeded his I. who founded atory. found son. having bought he bequeathed it to his successors^ who carried out his ideas in the accumulation of artistic things. and frequently received his secretaries of when he stood before the furnaces in It was Francesco I. as well as their keen appreciation for the beautiful things of life. for. was equally famous as a patron of sciences. He was chemist.34 Zbc Htt of tDe ©itti palace in dated the wild nature thing akin to his own. Cosimo I. (1541— 1581). the son of Cosimo. and con- tinued to reign in the Pitti Palace. He for built various arcades those public shelters where the citizens might meet discussions in the open air. tion in the Pitti Palace. it in his heart to And yet this man murder his own son. had shown possible for make it have murdered his own itary taint to this lust for him already to brother. This sufficient hered- though but a youth.

named Tacca. particularly associated with the history of his life trait of one the por- Bianca Capello. which now stands in the Boboli Gardens. Pietro Buonaventuri. This statue a monupor- ment trait to the unfaithfulness of Francesco. . this was Bianca. for who executed him the celebrated group of the Rape of the Sabines. romance of Francesco's He was already mar- rather plain Austrian wife. The of Bianca. He fell violently in love with her. but when the fickle grand duke met Bianca. chance he was passing through the Piazza of Marco and saw a very beautiful woman looking out of a window. under the name of Abundance. when by St. The statue of Johanna of Austria. and the other the statue of his Archduchess Johanna of Austria. he countermanded the order. he married her.tCbe (Srowtb of tbe Collection 35 Gallery and encouraged the rising artists of his time. Besides the other additions made by Francesco two are : to the art collections of the Pitti. which now stands in the Loggia di Lanzi. which hangs in the Pitti Palace. after the death of his wife. especially Giovanni da Bologna. made by Giovanni da Bologna. The name ried to his of Bianca Capello suggests the chief life. and the statue was left unfinished until Ferdinand had it completed by a pupil of the is really sculptor. the wife of a young Florentine. and. was begun by Giovanni da Bologna at the request of Francesco.

(1590—1621). birth. for no sooner had the Medici turned they died out. the seems to contradict dogma of heredity. The ramifications of family murders among the Medici are as numerous and as involved as their genealogy. (1549— 1609) proved to be a better man than the outset of his rule indicated. his career whole was a benefit to Florence. This kindly . and typical of the exotic. He married a princess of Lorraine. evil — Murder was as common with them as more common than natural death. but was parallel to the swan-song. Ferdinand became the murderei* : of his brother and his sister-in-law. and improved the inheritance. The Niobe strain into group was bought by him. This in- heritance exhibited itself in the negatively good but invertebrate Cosimo II. who immediately ascended the ducal throne so. artistic treasures Many he brought to Florence. The finally and cruel tendencies of the family seemed to pass away. probably poisoned by Ferdinand.36 Ubc art of tbe ©ittt lC>alace she and Francesco died recalls the further fact that on the same day. by common report. and housed them in the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. On the He was of his the purchaser of many valuable works of art and the founder of the Villa Medici at Rome. for the latest members of the family this it were comparatively moral. into an honest family than Ferdinand I. and thus introduced a new the blood.

the Princess Vittoria della Rovere. and had Pitti. The Grand Duke Ferdinand Cosimo 11. 111. Italy These paintings had hung. among others.. whom the Pope his and inquisitors had attacked. in the Uffizi.. II. the son of Hved between 16 10 and 1670.^ He was of the followed by Cosimofull who had hands quite enough in repairing the ravages war and famine of his father^s reign. He was also a collector of paint- which came finally to the Pitti Palace. all of ot tbe Collection 37 turned his attention to crusades out of season. in these troublous times. II. invading Italy for the purpose of settling their own disputes. born in 161 3. He mar- ried his cousin. result. Galileo. and through her endowed the gallery with great collection of her father. Urbino. a son of Cosimo. Ferdinand did what he could to protect the arts befriending. Matteo de Medici. who indulged in wars and rumours of wars with unceasing pertinacity. Zbc ©rowtb man with small ings. like some other pious people. was a great general apartments in the in the Imperial army. he succeeded in antagonizing his wife to such a degree that she . and also gave the collection of Cosimo his father. . Spaniards. During the reign of Ferdinand field was selected as a battle- by the French. all the Duke Federigo of 11. for the same purpose. up to this time. Although. and Germans. and collected art treasures with which he enriched the galleries.

from which niaturity one was intended to infer that great majesty was the Hall of Saturn. Thus^ one hall was supposed to symbolize another. and his reign was on the whole gentleman a peaceful one. dedicating each in the flamboyant manner and style of the day to some divinity of Olympus. and through various other political complications. Palace was finally organized as a rec- ognized gallery about 1798. in 1718. of Lorraine. which are aside from our purpose. decorated five halls. had been chosen as being accredited to typical of some was virtue called Cosimo I. and . . With the son of this philanthropic the family of Medici became extinct.. in Under Francis and the Pitti II. which. but they were probably tired of rebelling against imposition. twenty or more of the salons filled the Pitti were rearranged and with pictures.38 Ube art ot tbe pitti palace in France. By the Treaty of London. the Grand Duchy of Tuscany passed into the hands of Francis II. Yet withal he levied fearful taxes upon his subjects. the Hall of Jupiter. in turn. returned to her home he was nevertheless addicted to good works outside the immediate family. superintended in their work by Michelangelo' Buon- Younger. The decorations of the various salons had been progressing since the days when Pietro da Cortona commenced work arotti the in the Pitti. He and Cino Ferri.

subject it is probable that the was left entirely to the painter. 39 an attribute of Cosimo. But son. expresses " There is more fancy than taste displayed in those paintings. supposed to convey the suggestion of sweetness of disposition (regarding which attri- bute there might be a difference of opinion) . John Moore." The : quaint doctor goes on to speak of the subjects chosen.Ube Ctowtb of tbe Collection after that. that enchanting old writer it. the Hall of Venus. Dr. Francis H. or some the other memorable instance of continency. the Hall of Apollo was painted to typify the splendour of Duke As CosimO'.. afterwards the duchy and married Maria Theresa of Austheir in thereby becoming emperor consort. of the family of Lorraine ruled Flor- This first duke. left tria. As Medici family have been more distinguished for the protection they afforded the arts than for the virtues of continency and self-denial. returned to govern Florence 1763. symbolizing energy (which none will denyto have characterized the first grand duke) . living to . treating them in his usual humourous vein is " The subjects are different from what naturally ex- pected from the name of the room^ being representa- tions of the triumph of Virtue over Love. Pietro Leopold. which he certainly held unchal- lenged." The dukes ence wisely. the Hall of Mars. and traveller. and proved to be a great reformer.

" He has made sad work. His arrangement of the first pictures to make it depend upon the fresh- ness of the gilding upon their frames. in his Walpole. Sir Horace Mann. as not worthy to stand in the presence of so orthodox a prince as is coming here! shows His mother (Maria Theresa) naked leg or an arm! will not Jallow any picture to hang in her department that either a This ill agrees with the Medici taste of the collection they have left. Imagine that grave matron running the ! gauntlet of the gallery " Later. 1763." Mann remarks. inveighs against this really only the natural reaction strictness. " A famous picture by Titian was turned out of the room where the canopy is. which figures must not turn their backs upon the throne Calvin and Luther. and is " with the palace. Tuscany became under his rule an Austrian province. spoiled rather than improved the Pitti Palace. tO' have had rather stern and Puritanic letters to tastes in art. because the figures almost the picture of Calvin and turned their backs to it. which was libertinage from the the which had so long been in the ascendency.! 40 trbe art Of tbe IMtti palace the end of the eighteenth century. He and his mother appear. were turned out with the most impious contempt. by Giorgione. Mann writes. and who. however. . He writes of the ill-taste of one Botta. and then upon the position of the figures in each picture. this who was in Grand-Maistre at period. in the garden.

Zbc (Browtb no of tbe Collection 41 Luther has been dismissed with Catholic fury. For some reigns there added in the salons. we must perforce admit activity. according to the Abbate Luigi Lanzi. had been no special decorations but now. I fear." If we do not agree that this was an this age of great progress it in art. ill-painted hall at the end of the apartment. a Pietro Leopold came to the new era began in the patron- age of the arts in Florence. the liantly . Later. and also some French ones. and added many Venetian pictures. and. also protected the arts after the manner of right his taste. flourished still more bril- and Lanzi as a contemporaneous event. He finished the wing of the Pitti Palace. under the regency of the queen mother. was a time of great industry and is prince lection. Marie Louise. will find better place than in that horrid. and according to the light of the generation in which he lived. painting was continually promoted. reported to have " weeded " the Pitti colto and have added many new gems in place of those which he had discarded. and. Ferdinand III. that see the young prince may how " ! the enemies of the Church ought Pitti to be treated When Grand Duke Palace in 1765. arts tells. " the palace and royal villas were repaired and embellished. how " Canova has been requested to produce a new . amid the succession of undertakings that attracted the best artists.

interested in the arts and sciences. and fleeing again. In " Casa Guidi Windows. a famous collection of paintings. enough stuff to cope with Tuscan The people became disit contented. Leopold II. gems amount of These additions sugin the Pitti Gallery. In 1 8 18 the Galleria Gerini. a model of the Medicean. and such materials. saw a grand Tuscany's duke fleeing. after all these vicissitudes. porphyry. as the popular feeling urged him. and Leopold seems to have thought better to leave them than to argue with them. living opposite the Pitti Palace. By 1815 were returned. returning." During the Napoleonic wars from the gallery. and twenty-two fifty-six of these tables of malachite. Finally. mild and fluctuating principles. Browning..42 XEbe art of tbe ipitti Ipalace lost to statue of Venus. had been taken to Paris." Mrs. dispersed. sixty-three of the choicest pictures not to mention the statue of the Venus de Medici. It the Pitti Palace saw a marvellous change. Leopold was a man of rather grand dukes. the public in 1833. but not of stern politics. relates much of this strange . gested the need for more room and in 18 19 the Hall of the Iliad was decorated by Sabatelli for the purpose of enlargement. us by chance of war. The last of came to the throne in Under him the Pitti was thrown open to 1824. was and purchases were to the made from among fifty-two thousand these francs.

I beheld the long-drawn street full in Live out from end to end the sun Austria's thousands. The forehead's build Has no capacious genius.'* . studious not to add A burden in the gathering of a gain. . The regular tramp of horses and tread of men Did smite the silence like . he fled ignominiously in 1848. care that wraps and make mad. — not with stifle and sad. yet perhaps Sufficient comprehension. whom " From Casa Guidi windows gazing then I saw and witness how the Duke came back. guarded by Austrians. She describes his face. And careful nobly . to But the duke was ities " vacillating and weak. The Duke had fled before the people's shout f Long live the Duke ! '* ' Perhaps the crowning disappointment leader in this volatile was experienced when he returned in a year.Ubc (Browtb the grand duke: " I like of tbe Collection 43 transition period in Italian history. Again looked." Self-loving hearts. and beheld a different sight. I From Casa Guidi windows looked out. But careful with a care that shuns a lapse Of faith and duty. And so God save the Duke. afraid to face the people he had wronged. I say with those Who that day shouted it. mild. an anvil black And sparkless. Then With gazing. and the Frightened responsibil- at the expectations of the people of his office. .

found the valuable Academy del Cimento. Borelli. rather. Corteccia. or. claim to distinction to-day is an artistic rather than an historic one. a scenic performance in the line of opera. the acad- emies in France and England were commenced. April. In 1600. Tuscany i860. Italy in Tuscany became a part of United But the Pitti Palace was. by Francesco sented. After Leopold. Encouraged by his brother.44 Ube Htt pitiful of tbe pltti palace for A ending to a grand duchy. and still is. were Pitti. under the guidance of the Cardinal Leopold de Medici. Torricelli. Rucellai. Ferdinand II. was prefirst This is considered to have been the combination of music and acting in Europe. never accepted another grand duke. in 1657. When Cosimo married his daughter Lucrezia to Prince Alphonse d'Este. In the Pitti Palace. when Marie de Medici married . the celebrated Platonic Academy was refounded. and other noted men of the day. this prelate interested the grand duke. to the success of this undertaking. the original founder hav- ing been Lorenzo the Magnificent. the royal resiIts chief dence whenever the king goes to Florence. The meetings were held in the royal apartments of the Pitti. It is said that through the in- fluence of their experimental philosophy.. a drama with music. Viviani. Many famous given at the spectacular entertainments I. and among its members were Magalotti.

Ube (Btowtb '* of tbe Collectiort 45 Henry IV. proved to be first the birth of Italian opera." written by Octavio Rinuccini Peri. introducing for the It is interesting for music- lovers to connect the Pitti Palace with the originals of Italian operatic art. literally and composed by JacopO' time the Recitative. a second entitled spectacle with music. of France. Euridice. .

Veronese. The official catalogue gives the Hall of Venus . as the first room and. and facilitates the systematic inspection of the whole gallery. as must it there are fourteen separate apartments^ has the advantage of detaching a few masterpieces from the others so that they may be seen in a measure by themselves. the Hall of In Venus we are confronted at once by two of the great Venetians of the Golden Age Titian and Tintoretto. THE HALL OF VENUS The Palace best is way to study the paintings in the Pitti to examine them room by room. Titian 46 . since still this plan of grouping the pictures is moderately sized rooms often arbitrary. — The names: school of Venice Titian. was dominated by three and Tintoretto. though this it is not the room usually entered at once. in it Though be.CHAPTER III. serves the purpose of introducing the visitor immediately into the presence of several of the greatest paintings.

" Milo is nude. yet the whole effect. Kirkup pronounces sentation of the this " the most perfect repre- human flesh which the art of paint- ing has produced. and semi-opaque darkness." Veronese supplemented this sterner stuff by " ele- vating pageantry to the height of a serious art. Mr.Ube livdd Iball of IDenus 47 from 1477 ^^ ^S7^y Veronese from 1528 to 1588. although is nude. while Tintoretto was not born until 15 18." Thus these three together show all the excellences of the magic spell of Venetian art. luminous half-shadows. living to a ripe old age. that this perfection. Human has never been more perfectly painted. thus outliving the other two. is and Tintoretto in his full so little seen outside of Venice. The as the Pitti Palace is fortunate in having so repre- sentative and so satisfying a picture by Tintoretto Burckhardt " Venus and Vulcan with Cupid. is Venus is nude as the Venus de While it might be conceded that with her Venetian the head hardly ideal enough for the goddess of beauty. died in 1594. picture flesh will repay the most careful study. he expresses. the recumbent the figure of woman is delightful. The " Italians called Tintoretto the " thunderbolt of painting. . " moods of passion and emotion by brusque lights. and. without a sugit gestion of nakedness. it is says that "hardly to be matched in Venice. as Symonds points out.

in this case the more woddly- wise of the family holds in her right hand a quiver of arrows. great geniuses He was one of the few who could afford to slight the tech- . is Tintoretto was also called " Furioso. pleasing. instructing in his hand. is is one of Tintoretto's in his earlier works^ and the colour most cheerful vein. betokens a positive rage of —a rapidity of execution born of impatience to see the whole effect a willingness to leave the effect to do out any further attempt to finish a great work withor polish. represented as the proud father. The is almost domestic." for there that in the quality of his work which sometimes zeal.. which she is about to entrust to the keepfirst ing of the child. A charming This landscape background completes the picture. effect was sometimes achieved at the expense of accuracy. The crouch- ing figure of Vulcan. and the green glow of the with stuff on which Venus scene reclines is in fine contrast the rich flesh-tints. picture is The is full of noon-light. 48 Ube Hrt ot tbe pitti palace is hair-ornaments of pearls. him and He has a little bow appears to be listening to the maternal advice. presumably in his duties. outside of which the family has gathered. is beautifully handled. The father is bending over the mother and child with affection and true solicitude. Phoebus's chariot seen in the clouds nearly above the tent. He was its Modem.

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their He combined the great generous mode of treatment with the mediaeval purity of intention and love of art for its own sake. as too many men imagine do to-day. Milton. His poetry expressed in great in word-pic- masses of light and shade instead of tures. His position was similar to that occupied the literature of our is day by Tolstoi. and degree. true he is son and Longfellow were poetic. having .Zbc nical Iball of Denus 49 in requirements. so that his women in are often slight and — less Junoesque than those of Michelthe art of his age in angelo. however. In treating the human into form he combined a feeling for the a spirit of refinement which colossal with was then coming fashion. Browning were poetic. women shows for he that his nature refined types was not volupverging rather in draws on the masculine than on the feminine proportions. according to the mood inspired by his subject. and he paints sometimes warm glow. imagination It is sometimes said not not poetic as Tennybut as Dante. for was as subtle as his feeling in a glad for form. graceful. their conceit that they can His paint- ing of tuous. his colouring not sharp. in a marked was Tintoretto. so. Tintoretto's colour his feeling for colour is difficult to characterize. is As a general thing. is Tintoretto's to be poetic. and sometimes in sombre shadows.

They were painted. one might say that employs chiefly. In his handling he varies as much as in his colour. numerous observable. or flesh-tints. he is closer to actual nature than the other Venetians. in a letter from Venice written to . There are instances of having painted trees in five strokes of the brush. for he whether in his landscapes. result of painstaking The original inspiration was usually carried out before the spontaneity had waned. while the mood was on him.50 XTbe Hrt ot tbe in iplttf palace In the shall a low key preference to a high one. Annibale Caracci. and there are and elaboration also instances of his painting a series of beads in a head-dress with as as Raphael bestowed much finish upon the necklace of the Donna Velata. using every style of treatment from delicate perfection of detail to the boldest sweep of a broad his brush. and were not the after-elaboration. figures. His compo- sitions seldom strike one as intentional harmonies in colour. The cution facility and rapidity of Tintoretto^s exe- was one of the chief reasons for his pictures preserving a harmony of action and feeling in all parts. this trait of neutrality is Usually his colouring does not obtrude in this upon one. portraits by Tintoretto which we find in the Pitti Palace. such colours as one commonly sees or fails to notice in the average scene. generally.

placing the ing. replied. with a thick background and surroundings of trees." Evidently his rapid work and impulsive rendering of the passing emotion sometimes led him astray. and painted a thick growth of foliage over the figure of the saint. then. to have had a playful A patron once ordered a "St." and Tintoretto painted it in a some- what usual way. too. as you requested." replied Tintoretto. left change the composition in the captious customer had So when the studio. Jerome in the Forest. I think Whereupon you had better take Tintoretto. and asked Tintoretto to this particular." sponge and washed of^ the superincumbent bushes. took a him out again. Jerome? " asked the surprised man. with more humour than one would have credited him with. Tintoretto mixed some tempera. The Thunderbolt seems streak. laughing.XLbc Iball or Wenus s^ his cousin. says that " he had seen Tintoretto sometimes equal to Titian^ and at others much below Tintoret. Jerome was not actually the woods. " In the forest. leaving the picture as he had originally planned it. When in came to look at the pic- he criticized the fact that St. " Well. Here we make our first acquaintance with Titian . the patron. ture. When his patron " came is Where the saint was not visible. such as saint in a slight clearselect for devotional one would be apt to the patron purposes. St. again. Louis Caracci.

This picture goes to bear out Ruskin's statement that Titian rarely paints sunshine. is Marriage of Cath- much the same treatment of the subartist in the ject as that by the same National Galare in flower. who kneels in the foreground and body with her arms. would be overcharged with green and blue. Mary is plucking a while the infant^ with an apple balanced on his upraised hand. He says that while Titian sometimes conceives a subject imperfectly. taken as a painting of nature. relieved by the red robe of St. encircles his little St. John. the landscape.S« Zbc Uxt This of tbe lC>itti palace St. and gold are the key-notes of colour in this picture. but instead a certain " opalescent twilight " which has " as much of human emotion as it. While . was the greatest of the Venetians. in the beautiful canvas. although Ruskin considers Titian a ^greater painter than Rubens. throws himself back in the embrace of St. Green. if we would understand the difference. the central The Madonna and Child position. blue. with an ineffable expression of love and wonder on his face. the erine. lery in London. Ruskin thinks that if it were not for the flock of sheep and the figures in this work. yet his " glory of hue " always redeems Titian it. Catherine." of imitative truth in and he bids us contrast this picture in the qualities of its lights with the glowing Rubens near by. The young John kneels near by.

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the hills of Cadore. it Iball ot Denua S3 is is thrown upon the authenticity of sufficiently characteristic in most short respects to warrant our pausing to make a study of the artist whose works we shall so often meet at various points in the Pitti Palace. Noble palaces are in the neigh- bourhood. but prettily is laid out." It is not remarkable that Titian had all his life a keen appreciation for the romantic and poetic in landscape.Zbc some question this picture. rapher thus " The famous Titian was born the principal castle of the country of Cadore. Rus- kin remarks that Titian and Turner are the only two . where he was born. a castle reputed impregnable. a place of small circuit. foot of the fortress lies the in At the town and the palace which the Vicars chosen by the council of Cadore It is reside. — a mountain district." In criticizing landscape painters. Although a way. for his earliest impressions were formed among atic. this is a picture which may : be criti- cized as a religious subject treated in too naturalistic we may quote Ruskin in reply is " The relig- ion of Titian like that of Shakespeare. occult behind his magnificent equity. is : between the Alps and the Adri- which described by Titian's anonymous biogat Pieve. resting on a very large to which ascent is hill by a single path surrounded by broken rocks and inaccessible precipices. In the centre of the piazza a fountain of limpid water.

The . He says that he first. he had reached the next stage it away again. the spell of which entered into his veins when he went to paint there in his maturity. or scrape away an excrescence. There by Palma Giovane which tells how the master handled his pigments.. in a spot of colour — it dab put with his thumb. Every now and then he would bring add a touch. a treatise was original with him. He literally painted with his fingers almost as much as with his brush.. out. the canvas was turned with face to the wall for months. and. though common to many is later artists.54 Zbc Hrt ot tbe ptttt palace men who ever really drew a tree. The uttermost that can be reached by colour Is here accomphshed. or from sunshine through a shower On the lagoons or the broad Adriatic." His colours have stood three Titian's centuries. method of painting. But more than the influence of the Cadore scenery was that of the lagoons of Venice. painted the entire surface of the canvas as a bed or substratum for the other colours to rest upon. lights After this foundation (in which the merest and shades were indicated) was its laid. when in the composition. Longfellow has put into the mouth of Michelangelo some words about Titian's colouring: " You have caught These golden hues from your Venetian sunsets Or .

He then brought out one of his it glossy pictures to demonstrate to them that was not from the lack of ability that he no longer chose to paint in this way. with sleeves of deep . detail of Crivelli or He could paint either with the with the breadth of Velasquez. was the life. embroideries and pearls. The rich clothes which she wears are not at strange to her: she is home amidst precious stones and filigree.ttbe Ibail of IDenua finish ss which was applied at the last was smooth. Later in work grew much travellers A story is told of some German one day. also in the Hall of Venus. who visited Titian's studio These gentlemen ventured to remark that they thought there was only one master that who It really understood finish. broader. and it was filed and rubbed down until the gloss was almost like porcelain. in an easy attitude of stately grace. To this Titian replied that if he con- sidered extreme finish to be the end and art he aim of early might easily have fallen into the errors of Durer himself. Titian's Bella is is and one of the finest portraits that has ever been painted. pictures seemed to them that the Vequite netian never attained to Durer's smoothness. Titian of any time. She wears a decollete dress of blue. and was Durer. Aside from the question greatest brush-worker his of inspiration. This beautiful Venetian aristocrat stands three-quarter view.

with the same arrangement of Vene- tian beads made She is familiar by Titian. It was among those taken century. blonde. and a bewitching curl seen lying on her shoulder. When the . rich textures as could have been displayed by that other great luxury-loving Venetian. She wears earrings with long pendants. Tintoret. tones being harmonized and appli- thrown into keeping by a most varied use and cation of glazings and scumblings. Veronese. He was by choice a painter for for the populace. A long chain hangs down from her throat. Titian died of the plague in 1576. for is the same face as that in her authentic portrait by Titian in the Uffizi. slashed with tiny white puffs.'' ground. The details of her dress are rendered with as much love for the numerous Veronese. '* Nothing can exceed the delicacy and which the " the flesh subtlety with and dress are says Crowe. It was painted in 1535. to Paris in the eighteenth on which occasion some blunderer em- braced the opportunity of painting in a new backpainted. trait of the The picture is thought to be a porit Duchess Eleanora of Urbino. but a warm is blonde — not pearl and a pale one. Paul She is playing in a very natural way with her girdle. is Her head-dress charming. a richly wrought bauble. In a portrait of this kind Titian was thoroughly at — not home.S^ tEbe art of tbe l&ftti iPalace Titian red." aristocrats.

exe- cuted. In Venetian art Titian stands at the very head. rich clothed room beside as actually nude people would is finely the painting. stiff conception of Adam and Eve How ! different a treatment of the nude form to that in Tintoretto's picture! But we must try to see what us best. though hard. all these qualities. whom crouches a stag in sub- jection. colourless. could combine Titian. What a cold. Adam. broad daylight. and Durer can tell So we will look at Albert Durer's Adam and Eve. His figure is much better . Bonifazio is brighter. holds a is branch bearing an apple. With a sudden sensation of contrast we turn to examine the work of Albert Durer.trbe 1ball of tDenus 57 news of his death spread. Still. which he just about to pluck. who seem as much out of place among the glories of this be. the authorities set aside the regular law that forbade any person dying of the plague to be buried within the city. is sometimes more luminous. and VeroIf any one man nese more formal and stately. the schools of the North were doing in this great Golden Age. he in was taken there in solemn procession. Tintoretto more startling. Since the great artist had desired to rest in the Church of the Frari. he would surpass But such a man has never arisen. all such was the desire of the Venetians to pay honour to Giorgione is their greatest citizen. in defiance of danger and law.

asked Durer to . would be a boon to well as to the spectator. s8 tbe art of tbe ff>ittt Jbalace modelled than that of Eve." is Michelangelo reported as having said that he if admired Albert Durer so much that he were not Michelangelo. They may have been intended as side-panels on a great reredos which was never riously minute. Her figure is not so well painted. even one composed of leaves. and were then absorbed into the collection of the Emperor Rudolf. trial At her feet The Terres- Paradise looks a feels that little chilly and unpropitious and Eve as and one any garment. being much struck by the delicacy of his lines. whose shoulders slope in a most pyramidal manner. some quail. She is looking at Adam in a way which Durer undoubtedly intended to be alluring but tastes differ. he would rather be Durer than the Emperor Charles V.. Ruskin speaks of Durer as having been " glo- and accuses him of being " intense detail painting of he commends the the little branch which it is Adam holds in his hand. They were the Hotel de Ville at Nuremberg. and a parrot. Bellini visited Durer one day. are a lioness." in trifles. in Adam in These pictures were painted originally 1570. — She is taking an apple from the serpent at the right of the picture. saying that " full of the most exquisite vitality and spring in every line." but finished. and.

have not seen any other instance of Salvator's painting water with any care." The author of an article in the Edinburgh Review for July. Durer took out several ordinary brushes. saying. 1861. " to keep the his Easter in New Jerusalem. One of these." brush you use to paint long slim Durer took one of the brushes." Durer was one of those priceless characters. Albert Durer Lent. '* No. in the words of A. and displayed The Venetian said. as he He away during had prayed that he might. no lovelessness chills^ no evil overcomes. . could not have believed had I not seen it. the sunrise which " a passage of sea reflecting thoroughly good^ and every way like Turner it. views example of the look at the art of the extreme South. in which enthusiasm never withers into fanaticism. says: "He passed possessed the hands of a craftsman and the soul of a king. it. the rest of the picture. I want to see the lines. Owen." to turn to an Now. sort of a brush he used.XTbe Iball ot Denus 59 show him what them. Ruskin says. yet conventionalism perhaps more tolerable in water-painting than elsewhere. by Salvator Rosa. And if . C." died in 1528. whom. and drew a line so long and straight and " I fine that Bellini marvelled. as the one I opposite to utterly virtueless. It is usually as conventional as the rest is of his work. we may is two great marine Number 4 and is 15. " no sorrow embitters.

and a buffoon. he has a way of allowing the whole canvas to be in dark shadow. whose more important Vow lived of Catiline. Ruskin remarks upon Rubens's feeling for nature. He speaks thus of the two landscapes ." The two landscapes by Rubens. shows a man with a mask. one. interesting specimen of his art. His colouring subdued but lurid. Number 9. except for a few strong rays of central light. qualities of great But as ex- amples of his treatment of landscape. dissipated man. Number It is 2. He had in a grim sense of this picture. a satirist. jesting. Number 14. the Salvator Rosa." Salvator Rosa's Duplicity." picture. from 161 5 is tO' 1673. will be found in the Hall of Jupiter. is gloomy which appears " In such laughter the heart of is man sorrowful. this and hardly exhibit the best Flemish master's work. they are both interesting.6o his trees tlbc art of tbe pttti palace and rocks had been good the rivers might have been generally accepted without objection. —a manner which seemed to him to suggest mystery and " Sturm und Drang. It was painted by the order not an especially Salvator was a of Cardinal Carlo de Medici." Ruskin alludes to certain qualities in his work which he calls the " Alsatian sublimities of Salvator. are both wooden panels. and the end of that mirth heaviness. and one representing Ulysses on the Island of the Phaeacians. He was a Neapolitan. with peasants.

Number a thoroughly disagreeable subject. the real artist purpose of the objects. healthy. In the picture motive. he holds a staff which . . having seen that a ship has been wrecked. is Number 29 a quaint of St. and refreshing. forcible. and a waterfall. is Marsyas. Often condescending to detail : minute and multitudinous it always. unaffected landscape. the whole pic- ture too cruel make it a desirable possession for any one. The action tO' is too savage. Why is this subject was ever chosen interpretation for art purposes a mystery. His treatment is manly. but well handled. flee in terror. all hill. by Guercino. Number arid 14. . being to give these natural he adds the necessary human touch by relating a story while he displayed his rural tastes. and rational.ttbe 1ball of IDenua under consideration us with the first : 61 " Rubens perhaps furnishes instances of complete. he is actuated by the same The Apollo 8. also by Guercino." Ulysses trying to hide himself Number 9 shows behind the bushes. Joseph. and is looking for the castaways. pure. — and a chateau on a introduced into this paint- ing. consummate in composition and marvellous in colour. has raised her veil. while Nausicaa^ the daughter of the king. The figures are simply accessories. . unconven- tional. as far as goes. while the other companions a little There is town on the seashore.

in Florence in 1576. Ribera has painted Bartholo- mew some saint just being tied to a tree. like that of his master. very few . Number 6. in the grueact of holding is up the knife with which the to be slain. He could not resist the disagreeable subject of Apollo and Marsyas. style Cigoli. . dictive spite. The Hall of Venus seems to be full of flaying episodes! The martyrdom of St. hanging same hall. one is fain to admit that lightning does sometimes strike twice in the same place. evidently a regular day for martyrs. The knaves lies are enjoying their diversion on the ground It is a severed head — very Greek in aspect. It is interesting first for being a natural episode well painted. Bartolommeo Manfredi's Fortune Teller hangs here.62 Ubc art of tbe pitti t>alace has budded in a perfectly symmetrical ventional foliage. When one sees the vin- god taking his pagan vengeance with such in the on two canvases. by Ribera. while his executioners are laughing. He is represented as a very old man. way intO' con- He lays one hand on his born breast. one of them. Bartholomew. in his turn. Biliverti was a pupil of His work. his was extremely ornamental. is un- equal. at the right. confronts us when we have already had enough of this sort of thing in the two studies of Apollo and Marsyas. and also because the work of this artist is exceedingly rare.

The picture has a foreground crowded with fragments of wheels. with a studied inno- cence of expression. by Bassano. Catherine. heedless of the fact that the old crone. living only from 1580 to 161 7. The young gipsy is clothed black. upturned. Number is is a St. with an equally gleeful smile. while. pointing to a line denoting brilliant fortune. but is effective. The central figure bound to the wheel upon which she suffered her martyrdom. setting off her swarthy complexion well. any example of He is died young. up and balance the 11 rest of the picture. The soldiers and populace standing about are overcome and alarmed at the sight. a good composition. his who has undertaken to read palm and is holding his hand lightly. and lacks atmosphere. fellow is The foolish laughing with delight at the joyful news. and passes well among in in more ambitious rivals the Hall of Venus. and a vision is Her eyes are vouchsafed her of an angel bearing a crown. one a young handsome woman.tEbe t>aU of collections possessing Wenus <3 his painting. . rustic has been A waylaid by two gipsies. while another angel carries a naked sword. the saint. is picking his pocket is all the The treatment of this picture it rather smooth. which upon the whole. The maroon vest of the victim and the white head-dress of the old light woman is. with red sleeves. a white cloth bound its about her head falls to her shoulders.

giv- ing praise to Heaven for the miracle. all from a if central point. Number sitting 12. in a yellow tunic. In the lower left corner are two people whose backs only are visible. but with jewels. Matteo Roselli has painted a spirited picture. sit at the right. . In the centre. in gala dress. They are dressed superbly in all the trickery of the bridal. the heads lack virility. whose nuptials are evidently being celebrated. David. makes a delight- as the group were sitting around a In the Triumph of David. The chief couple.64 XTbe Hrt of tbe pttti palace dying humanity. saint rises triumphantly The above all this disorder. the youth wearing a hat with feathers. advances. but The fresh figures of the women are graceful. The turn of the girl's head and the upturned face of the youth are very charming. They Other couples are seated about. and a confused heap of men. with left. and and beautiful in colour. Hymen's torch. looking about among his victims : he is a thoroughly sympathetic guardian. none so festive as these two. looking extremely con- tented with one another. it is It is full of action. at the around an apartment. Four happy couples are lighted only by raised torch. Hymen stands. being thrown on ful effect. fire. by Manetti. The light. There is something very alluring about the Spon- salizia (espousals). and the bride a turban covered are clad in brocades and satins.

NumRembrandt is always original in his porber 16. and he seems thought. positions of St. by Pietro da Cortona. giant is the sword of the is in his other hand. is all directions. The are lightning is descending upon the idols. of an old man. full is a thrill- ing composition of events in virgin. and upon . Martina. lost in The eyes are cast down. St. in a very natural It is one of the most easy and masterly comits class. with a real expression of surprise and awe upon her face. The lightning came from heaven and saint is seen in the centre shattered the temple. over the idols Roman There in the martyred under Alex- a legend that she triumphed Temple of Apollo. who falling to the ground from their pedestals.Ube Iball of Denus 65 carrying the head of Goliath. The of the picture. where they to had taken her with the intention of forcing her sacrifice. His hands are and the way. being no exception to the rule. Next we come upon a fine rich Rembrandt. bearing musical struments. is unconscious that any one in front of him. traits. have seen him. this one. fingers locked alternately. He conducted by in- maidens dancing before him. observing him. her eyes rolled up. Martina was a ander Severus. Matteo Ro'selli was born in Florence in ability 1578. he looks just as his family must sitting. He had not the originality nor the to imagine or to carry out any great conception.

the lord of the vineyard in a comfortable armchair out it in the street — at least appears to be the street^. in very late decadent Renaissance the death of the Magdalen. ico Feti. or else if overturned. heavily. Rustici. The is falling temple is seen in the near background. by Domenico In the sitting painting before us. one of her with a cross. on the right. whom airily presents The picture. Number is 26. stooping low to . little She few is in a vast cellar with furniture. representing the Parable Feti. are seen an obelisk and a circular temple supported by columns. leaning on his spade. is also is by the hand of Domen- The woman looking for the lost coin. and what bits there are are grouped at one end. a young Sienese artist. who is died in 1625. he waves his hand in argument he ex- plains his theory to the labourer who stands before is him. Number 30. is of the Vineyard. The woman is alone in the middle of the room. is There a confusion of fallen figures. Mary seen repenting supported by two angels. just as they would be one were search- ing for anything in an apartment. At the right another man who might be called an idler in the market-place. has painted. as there are houses as about.66 XTbe Htt ot tbe pitti palace the evil men who would injure the beautiful girl. an illustration of the Parable of the Lost Piece of Money. style. and there In great animation in the general composition. the distance.

in small against the wall Her shadow is cast up darkly behind her. carrying towns her hand a still lamp of the same pattern as those used in Italy. when it Peter sees the risen Lord upon the shore.Zhe IbaU of tDenus in ^7 little examine the ground. he the other disciples girt his fisher's coat unto him. and. . for sea. Cigoli. " When Simon Peter heard that was the Lord. The strong contrasts of light and shade in the picture are very well managed. has painted a representation of the incident related in St. and did cast himself into the And were came in a little ship. as the apostle relates. dragging the net with fishes. in Number 27. for they not far from land." Christ is on the shore and Peter is just stepping from the water. he was naked. John's Gospel.

when he turned his glance inward and painted what he saw in his own imagination. 68 . he painted her as she was representing a if he was handsome man. But is in his portraits the ideal is thrown realistic. he transcribed exactly what he either the actual flaw of nature. He was an idealist because he was so much saw. Titian glorified the physical. maintained the golden mean. — He pitilessly Raphael always painted what he saw. aside. The key-note of his picavoids extremes oi a cheerful serenity. — of a realist . Leonardo leaned to the intellectual and the Raphael psychical. he was equally true to nature. or the actual spiritual vision. is probably the most generally be- who ever lived.CHAPTER IV. and painted in his creative work the real with an ideal touch. although only as a portrait-painter. he was a great idealist. He kinds. If his model was an . absolutely exact. ugly woman. THE HALL OF APOLLO In the Hall of Apollo we Raphael Sanzio loved artist tures all is first make the acquaint- ance of Raphael.

ANGELO DONI By Raphael. in the Hall of Apollo .

.

eyes and the delicate shape of the face are strong and left refined. clothed in black and red. stiff. subject. The portrait . especially that of Angelo. painted. The trifle picture not idealized .XLbc Iball of Hpollo 69 The portraits of the earliest Angelo and Madelena Doni are painted by Raphael. Angelo Doni was a great friend of Raphael. from which the chestnut hair falls thick and short about his neck. a test of greatness when this is the case. Madonna with of the pencil is is eyes which do not match in There are a few great pictures not really which a slight error It felt to be a blemish. and dis- counts all other beauties cf technique. The The is short fat hands are well and the rings which adorn one of them are expression of the fine beautifully rendered. They hang in the Hall of Apollo. like most works of the Umbrian Angelo. numbered 59 and 61. and if it. one pardons Botticelli one does when paints the most lovely at all. the as eye is a out of drawing. and are on wood. for as a first rule the drawing is of the importance. with a double golden clasp at his throat. They and have a slightly wooden and varnished school. being perhaps more interesting-looking as a man than Madelena was as a woman. expression. is the more pleasing He is represented in three- quarter view. They were These executed about 1505 in Florence. and a black beretta on his head. portraits are among the best that Raphael has are rather painted.

A pinkish stiffness. The flesh-tones in this face. and yet the effect timidity of inexperience is not petty. the clear tones merging into the delicate gradations of greenish shadow. " Madelena Doni was one of the famous family of Strozzi. both in the Pitti).7o is Ube Hrt ot tbe . however. The finish is almost like an observes. iplttt palace most minutely painted one can almost detect the is separate hairs. Madelena sits turned towards the left. by blue velvet trimmings. which is held in place dress. and also recall the work of Ghirlandajo. The They in both portraits but the promise of the master touch predominates. show some influence of Leonardo da Vinci (compare them with the Monaca and the Goldsmith. so that the two is portraits might be hung as companion pieces. has enough white to redeem is it about it from actual The the little position not unlike that of Leonardo's the hands are in stolid face Monna Lisa in the Louvre: much has same position. . as difficult Muntz it is to believe that the noble blood of the Strozzi circulated in the veins of this bourgeoise. enamel. are sitely most exqui- handled. as Angelo has turned towards the right. on the brow by a black relieved ferronniere. The shad- dows are luminous. in common with Leonardo's sprightly model. closely confined Her by a uninteresting blond hair net. fac- ing one another. but the heavy." Of the truth of the likeness in the portrait of . but.

the Iball of apoUo it Pope Leo X. picture. The pose known to is wonderfully The Pope was be near-sighted. and he may be observed to hold in one hand the reading-glass of the period. fat. Giulio Romano'. wits. turning slightly left (his towards the cardinals. presiding at some debate. Duke of Mantua.'* blind cardinals created the blind Pope.. There was a saying. passed through Florence on his way to visit the Pope in Rome. hideous. he told the Pontiff . the cousin of Leo X.. who assisted in the is work upon some this Apparently the Pope supposed to be cause. the one on the right being Julius de Medici. and was much struck by the nobility of Raphael's portrait of Leo X. current among the Roman " Many X. The is character of sitting in a man is laid bare. who afterwards became Pope Clement VIL. there can be small doubt. of the cardinals in the picture being that same Pope. and on the left. whom he was on his way to see. and Raphael has not the flattered him. Leo There ticity is an interesting anecdote about the authenIn 1523 Ferdinand. When the duke arrived in Rome. right )^ and behind him stand two These are also' portraits. The Pontiff richly carved armchair. squint-eyed. Cardinal Luigi de Rossi. or listening to lifelike. who was secretary to the This latter portrait is thought to be by Pope. A most thick person this. one of this picture. Clement VIL.

but that ! it was not by Raphael.'' replied Vasari. " why. Giulio Romano. " it is a marvel that a ! man " can so flawlessly imitate the manner of another Raphael's original hangs in the Pitti. to greet him on Mantua. so he quietly Andrea del Sarto to make a copy. Not by Raphael " exclaimed the astonished Romano. behold. with true Medicean hired foresight. No one suspected the fraud. for the copy was apparently perfect. had no intention of robbing Florence in order to obey papal orders. At this." said he. however. how much he had admired Pope a and the sent orders to Ottaviano de Medici to prepare pleasant surprise for the duke by having the portrait sent to his return to him as a gift. admired Upon it. too. " I can prove to you. was the sign with which Del Sarto marked interlaced in a all his pictures. " For. Ottaviano. and there." And he turned the picture around. I ought to know. which he forwarded with much flourish to Mantua. however.72 trbe art of tbe pitti iPalace the picture. — an A with a V monogram. and Andrea's . Vasari replied that he. the discerning Giorgio Vasari happened to be in Mantua with his friend. Giulio's expressing a lively admiration of Raphael's portrait. for I can detect " my own " It is brush-marks " ! by Andrea it del Sarto. Giulio was so overcome by amazement that he expressed himself more than ever delighted by the painting. One day.

!

ttbe 1ball of
copy
is

apoUo

is

in Naples.

About 1841 the question arose
;

as to the authenticity of the Pitti original

but, after dull

due pamphlet controversy,
lengthy, the decision

which was

and

was reached

that the one in

Florence was the true portrait by Raphael,
other instance of good coming out of
evil,

— anas is

so constantly demonstrated during the reign of the

Medici

!

Had

it

not been for Ottaviano's deceit,

Florence would not have possessed this treasure
to-day.

was painted after the execution of Cardinal Petrucci, who had conspired against Leo,
portrait

The

and attempted

his

life.

The

features are certainly
it

those of a vital man, with

whom

would be danand
is

gerous to tamper.

It

was painted

in 15 18,

a

good example of the third or Roman manner of the

Crowe considers it worthy to be ranked with the Sistine Madonna and as a technical work of art
master.
;

this portrait is certainly the equal of the great

Dres-

den

picture.
is

A

tribute to the lifelikeness of the

portrait

a tradition that Cardinal Pescia

(who

must have been quite as near-sighted as
trious chief)

his illus-

once knelt before
it

it,

presenting bulls

to be signed, supposing
flesh

to be the Pontiff in the

The
table,

accessories of the picture are

most beautiopen on the

fully treated;

the missal which

lies

and the

delicately chased bell

which stands

74

trbe art of tbe pftti lC>alace
details,

near by, are delightful

and yet are painted

without the varnished nicety of the master's earlier
style of finish.

The

colour scheme carried out, perspirit

haps intentionally, the

of the times and of the

man.

All shades of red, merging into brown, are

fused into an inexpressible harmony, relieved only

by dark white and the tiny scraps of colour
missal.
If
it

in the

be true that there
alliance

is

a language of

colour,

and an

between colour and sound,

then Raphael has indeed

made

a judicious use of his

opportunities in depicting

roundings.

A

blind

Leo X. all in red surman, when asked by Viollet le

Due to tell what was his impression of the colour red, The replied, " Red is the sound of the trumpet."
textures of the varied fabrics and materials in this
picture are faultlessly portrayed.

A copy by
della

seen

Madonna Lucertola, which is in Madrid^ may also be Giulio Romano was the pupil in this room.
Giulio

Romano

of Raphael's

whom

Raphael always chose to carry out certain

parts of his pictures, because his touch

was more in sympathy with Raphael's own than that of any other follower of his school. So it is an especially

good copy of

this picture
is

which we have

to examine.

The
and

painting
this little

on wood.
is

Lucertola means lizard,
seen basking on a broken

emblem

base of a column in the extreme right of the picture.

Raphael's Madonnas, being so numerous, are

Ube

Iball of

Hpollo
trifling detail,

75

usually dominated by

some such

Madonna of the Goldfinch, the Madonna of the Diadem^ Madonna of the Chair, and of the Linen Window; both of these last being in the
such as the
Pitti Gallery.

The
full,

virgin in this picture which
is

we

are

now

considering

a characteristic type of Raphael, with
placid,

round curves and a

oval

face,

in

those days the fashion in beauty.
to be laid amidst the ruins of a

The scene appears Roman structure,

fragments of carved stone occupying the right of
the picture;
St.

Joseph, leaning upon them, con-

templates the other

members of the family

(as seems

to have been his custom, judging from the

number
child

of times one sees him so represented).

The
'*

on Mary's knee leans to
presenting a
scroll,

St.

John,

who

stands by

upon which are the words,
infant Christ
is

Ecce

Agnus
lutely

Dei."

The

turning to look
is

back at his mother, upon whose face there

abso-

no expression to denote any

special

frame of
and
is

mind.

The

child's face is expressive of glee,
full
little

the eyes are

of

life.

At

the Virgin's feet
roll

a charming

cradle,

with a

of swathing
it.

bandage lying half-undone upon the grass beside

Near

by, in the central foreground, a snail

is

mean-

dering.

The background

is

a charming rural one,
left,

with buildings on a

hill at

the

and a graceful

76

XTbe Htt of tbe

ipitti

palace
is

rivulet in the distance.

The

family

grouped

at

the foot of a tree.

We
hang

now come
in the

to a consideration of the great

Spanish master Murillo, two of whose Madonnas
Hall of Apollo.

These two are the

only examples of Murillo's work in the Pitti Palace.

The
is

first,

the

Madonna

of the Rosary,

Number
It

56,

probably an earlier work than the other.
artist Acciaj,

was
III.,

bought from the
his turn

by Ferdinand

for about $1,020 in our money.

The

artist

had

in

bought
is

it

from a Roman picture
It is

dealer.

The Virgin
and he
as
all
is

seated, with the infant

on her knee,
very lovely,
has rather a

playing with a rosary.

Murillo's

Madonnas

are;

but

it

crisper touch than the other picture.

Number

63,

which

is

quite " vaporous " and full of that delicious

yellow light which Murillo knew so well
produce, often considered
artificial

how

to

by carping

critics.

The
eyes.
is
is

child

is

turning to look directly out at the

spectator, with a
It

most glorious pair of
and peaceful.

large, liquid
it

may

not be an intellectual picture, but

strikingly beautiful

The

colouring

mellow and

restful.

Bartolome Esteban Murillo was born
1

in Seville in

6 18, and became, from the most unpropitious be-

ginnings, one of the foremost artists in the world.

As

a youth he worked, in a small, inconspicuous
in

way,

a studio

in Seville,

with few appliances and

MADONNA AND CHILD
By
Murillo
;

in the Hall of

Apollo

tCbe Iball of Apollo

77

no models, except when one of the
to strip

and pose for a leg

was willing or an arm. He had no
class

money

:

being a poor boy, he had to turn his talents

to practical account without regard to

any sense

of pride that he might

feel,

so he began his artistic

career by painting religious pictures for the public

Feria " was a proverbial expression in Spain for a " daub," but the slight
fairs.

" Pittura

de

la

remuneration which these early efforts brought him

was

necessarily

his

chief

consideration,

so

he

" daubed "

away
saints

bravely,

shipping off

Madonnas

and popular

by the dozen, and doubtless bene-

fiting all the

time by the practice which his prolific

pencil gained.

At

the

same time he was supporting
at this

an invalid

sister,

and yet he made enough
to

trade to enable

him

go

to

Madrid

to study.

As

soon as he arrived he made himself
quez, his

known

to Velas-

own

fellow townsman, then court painter.
ability that

Velasquez was so struck with the youth's

he lodged him
for

in his

own

house^ and got permission

him

to copy pictures in the royal galleries.

Murillo, like most artists, progressed
style of painting to another,

from one
as having

and

is

known

three manners

:

his

first,

" Frio," or cold manner ;

his second, " Calido," or

warm

style;

and, in about

1656, his " Vaporoso," or vaporous manner, began,

by which we

chiefly

know

him, and

is

to be seen

7^ in the
in

ttbe art of tbe

iC^ttti

t)alace
less

Madonna and Child, Number 63, but Number 56. Murillo died in 1682.

so

In this hall hang two famous Titians

— the

well-

known Magdalen, and
which
is

the portrait of Pietro Aretino,

numbered
and

54.

Pietro Aretino was a poet and a wit, a pamphleteer,
sensualist,

courtier, with

whom

Titian

was

inti-

mate for more than
person with his
full

thirty years.

He

is

a striking

beard, his accentuated features,

and

his

handsome

clothes,

—a
I.

russet tunic
portrait

and red

mantle, with a gold chain.

The

was painted
as a present

for Aretino in 1546, and given by to his kind patron,
that the

him

Cosimo

de Medici.

The

fact

payment
is

for the portrait finally devolved

upon Cosimo
peculiarities.

quite in

keeping with Aretino's

He

himself described the picture as
;

a " hideous marvel " probably he really considered
it

as representing

him

truly as an engaging

and

dashing man.
pital of

Aretino was born in 1492 in a hos-

Arezzo, of parents whose names are not
his father

known, except that
Arezzo

— who,

was a gentleman of

however, laid no claim to Pietro.
environment, Pietro Are-

Brought up

in such baleful

tino turned cmt to be just the sort of person that

might have been expected.
as " a grand,

He

has been described

handsome

bully."

His

services

were
for

bought by

all

the princes and dukes
articles

who wished

them

;

he wrote scurrilous

about the enemies

Ube

Iball of

Hpollo

79

of his patrons, and was never above smirching a
reputation by obscene doggerel or by " false wit-

ness " to order.

He was

a high liver and a low liver
satiriz-

by turns
ing
all
**

;

he toadied to the aristocracy while

who

did not respond to his advances.

He

was a
result

self-made

man

" in the

wrong
was

sense;

and the

was a

glutton, a slanderer,

and a spendthrift,
for his interest

apparently generous
to be lavish.

when

it

Aretino was so popular and so famous that his face was represented on " pipe-heads and china-

ware "

shops of Venice, but when he ventured to satirize Tintoretto, the " Thunderbolt " got hold
in the

of him, and gave him such practical advice and

such convincing proof of his error, that Aretino
seen leaving the studio in tears;

was and no more was

heard from him in that quarter.
It is

strange that Titian ever became intimate with
still

Aretino, and

stranger that the friendship should

have been of such long duration;
possible that Titian's

but

it

is

quite

main

intention

was simply

make an enemy where the only alternative was to make a friend. Undoubtedly a clever rogue like Aretino was good enough company when he was
not to
well disposed,
bore.

and probably was,

at least, never a

Aretino had made himself indispensable to certain
persons high in authority by learning some of the

8o
political

Ube Hrt

ot tbe pittt palace

machinery of the times.

He

pursued

ai

consistent course of blackmail with those to
interests
it

whose

was

that

no

ill

reports should be spread.

He has
hill.

been likened to a fungus battening on a dungthat he
teacher.

was his boast school and never had a
It
is

had never been to

He was

early

and

thoroughly versed, however, in the study of

men

and morals, which
son much farther.

an excellent substitute for

book-learning, and will carry an unscrupulous per-

He

sat for his portrait to Titian in

1527; Titian,

in that year,

having written from Venice to Marquis

Gonzaga
ness."
Pitti

at

Mantua, "

I

have taken the opportunity
like-

of Messer Pietro Aretino's arrival to paint his
This, however,
Palace,

was not the
times.

portrait in the
lost.

but an earlier one, since
several

He

painted Aretino

Some

ill-natured

people tried to discredit the influence of both of
these

men by
spite.

claiming that Titian could do nothing

but paint portraits and Aretino could do nothing but
distil

The

portrait of Aretino in the Pitti Gallery is

idealized.

The brow

is

quite powerful,
fire

and the large

dark eyes have some

in

them.

The

look of
traceis

cunning and bluster and of effrontery are
able,

still

but they are toned down, and the result

not unpleasant.
blended.

The pigments

lie

thickly
is

and well
and

The

action of the figure

excellent,

XTbe 1baU of
the colouring has great

HpoUo

8i

warmth and depth. Titian made no attempt to discover new and strange combinations in pigments. He used a palette in no way peculiar, but like the great organist who knows how
to elicit unsuspected tones

from the usual stops of
judiciously, so Titian
differ-

the organ, by combining

them

brought results from ordinary pigments very
ent

from those achieved by common

painters.

Aretino died in 1557.
for him, "

An

epitaph

was written

Here

lies

Aretino, the Tuscan poet,

who

said

ill

of every one except of Christ, and he excused

the omission, saying that he had never heard of

Him."
Pietro Aretino received splendid gifts from Francis L,

and the Emperor Charles V. bestowed a great

chain upon him^ which he wears with
portrait.

pomp

in his

In spite of the scurrilous writings which

he perpetrated, he composed a paraphrase on the

Seven Psalms.
In sending this portrait to Cosimo I., Aretino wrote " Surely I breathe here; the blood circulates,
:

and

I see

myself in a painting.

Had

I

given the

artist

a few more crowns, he would have bestowed
dress, the silk,

more pains upon the materials of the
the velvet, and the brocade;
chain, for
Titian's
It
it is

I

say nothing of the

indeed painted sic transit mundi."
is

Magdalen

a picture familiar to us

all.

was painted

for Francesco Maria,

Duke of Urbino,

Perhaps there are no two pictures about which the recognized authorities so disagree as this and the Madonna much of the Chair. and holding her long tresses about her nude form in a rather (if it inadequate attempt at modesty at all). lustre of the skin The and the metallic golden quality of the hair are relieved against one of Titian's dark landscape backgrounds. by Raphael. redfeature.82 zbc Hrt is ot tbe Ipttti palace and on a wooden panel. He sees in her " a stout. and that his best art displayed in calling attention to her faultless anatomy. dull and coarse of much . speaks out with special directness. calling her " disgusting. and that Titian's motive a pure one a — that was not is quite his intention was simply to paint handsome woman. is an attempt Titian boasted that this subject was always a remunerative one. criticism that it bears the marks of haste in execution. always frank. and that he has received two it." with little no apology and qualification. Crowe and Cavalcaselle consider the model too beautiful to be real. weeping. she is The eyes of the saint are turned upwards. with faced woman. How different an impression did the same picture make upon John Ruskin! As to this Magdalen. thousand scudi for Crowe and Cavalcaselle allude to this picture in the most flattering terms. Ruskin. is Crowe assumes His only its that the picture absolutely beautiful. and that too its could not be said in is praise. thick.

Very coy ture is remarks about this disputed pic- La Fontaine." the Magdalen " would have re- ceived her pardon none the less quickly because her wit was none of the readiest.ttbe <)aU of tIpoUo 83 of the animal even in her expression of repentance. "These newly-made are . " grosse et grasse " and very agreepenitents adding. so far as I remember. I best to quote directly. of Titian's painting a woman markedly and entirely belonging to the lowest class. ^^ ^^" serves that she able. — her and as eyes strained and inflamed with weeping. as in Greek in his art. his interpretation differs it from that of many it critics. and would not have been regarded with less compassion by her Master because her eyes were swollen or her dress disordered. is who saw it in 1663. It is just because he has set himself sternly is to enforce this lesson that the picture so painful. Titian. being the the to disregard the accepted theory that lovely. and for stout persons It to repent as well as those seemed to him that more delicately made." tell But he goes on to think first why Titian painted her thus. Magdalen must have been young and that it " saw was possible for plain women to love no less than beautiful ones. the only instance." Ruskin believes that no Vene- tian picture ever stirred a base emotion^ and that in the treatment of the female form majesty predominates.

the As regards the foreshorten- Magdalen is unsurpassed. but they were afterwards separated from the rest. tory. while the Virgin in the centre holds tenderly the she kisses him on the forehead. while the feet of the Saviour. Peter and St. on the right the Magdalen embraces head of her dead Son. the hour keeping with the subject and depicted. ing.H fly Ube Hrt and all of tbe t^itti fialace dangerous." But setting aside the subject and considering the execution painting technically. on a linen cloth. Woltmann alludes to the fact is that " the emotional sentiment of the scene ren- dered with classic reserve and perfect beauty of line and expression. of one of the world " It is most perfectly dignified Depositions art. " Titianus. and supports his in her other hand. is sustained by John." The background in is is a sombre and gloomy landscape. It is its is most satisfac- signed upon a vase of ointment which appears in the right corner." The body of Christ. when the scene . arm There were two figures of St. in the : In the words of an accepted critic cite not possible to an instance in which a lifeless form is rendered with more flexibility or with more anatomical accuracy. men of sound judgment will from them." Over the door in the Hall of Apollo hangs the It is grand Pieta of Fra Bartolommeo. extended St. Paul which were formerly supplementary to this group.

O < X 4) Q J3 < H O B 'o pq .

.

Although masters he did not vOf rise to the height of the great the Renaissance. human form and He draws most correctly. Piagnoni. He cio. accentuated the body under first the robes so cleverly was that he always drew He combined some of the Christian purity of the old masters with the pagan beauty of the later ones. his por- and his simplicity and beauty of arrangement his chief char- and clearness of outline are among acteristics. a follower whom he painted a masterly por- After the death of his leader he became a in order.XEbe t)all ot Hpollo 85 Living. he balanced the values of both. His large compositions were as clever as traits. with calmness his perspective is and reserve of expression. to save his soul. His figures are strong. Orcagna. he acquired the nickname. did not care for the ancient Greek ideals. Baccio della Porta (Bat of the Gate). of trait. pre- ferring the models of Lippi. and Massac- going back even as far as Giotto for inspira- tion. He forms an interesting link between the mediaeval painters and Michelangelo. He was one of the of Savonarola. comprehension of the proportions of the unerring. San Pietro Gattolini.near Bartolommeo was born the gate of in 1469. he exhibits more of their merits . that is to say. his colouring is sober and transparent. as Dominican he believed. and his good. The reason why he the figure nude. without becoming either florid or narrow.

which finished the course of his life in four days." so that he died. and he made what he had borrowed his own by adding an individual touch. as described by Vasari Having laboured perpetually beneath a window. one side of his body became paralyzed. He was an impersonation of the acquired science and art. From Savonarola learned the he had acquired the taste for simple habits and purity of thought. in the year 5 1 7. with a violent access of fever. The astery Pieta was executed on wood San for the Augus- tine friars outside the Porta Gallo. Filippo. the rays from which poured constantly upon his back.86 zhc Htt ot tbe ipttti palace than any other second-rate man. the refined taste of Florentine Fra BartO'lommeo which resulted " finally caught the severe chill : in his death. in every direction." He in was sent to the baths at San figs. for from Michelangelo he drew imposing attitudes in inspiration the which he placed his figures. art of From Leonardo he real into making the a foil for the ideal. He derived grace and charm from the study of Fra Angelico and Raphael. This mon- being destroyed at the time of the siege of Florence. when he was forty1 nine years of age. While he borrowed he yet avoided copying servilely from any one master. addition to his previous malady. but " having eaten very plentifully of he was attacked. the picture was taken to San Jacopo Tra .

taken to the This was one of the latest pictures by Fra Bartolommeo. it is interesting famous treatment of the same subdel Sarto. by Andrea 58. In connection with this picture. is in Florence. for the sis- was painted convent where Andrea had gone to escape the plague it when it was raging III. St.Zbc IbaU Fossi. that of any of works which remain to to study another ject. and genuine self -forgetting sorrow charis acterizes her expression. and placed to the Pitti. In the Magdalen re- morse is depicted in a restrained and untheatric attitude. quisite than Nothing could be more ex- the hands. It which hangs here. The Magdalen and St. Catherine are on the right. moved it The dead lifeless supported by the Evangelist. Peter wearing a deep yellow robe. Uffizi. numbered rendered exquisitely. and clasps the hand in hers. and mixed with . he might have developed a greater dramatic style characterized by a his power than us. in the was bought by Ferdinand Ferdinand Christ I. Later. is In St. Had he lived longer. Cath- erine the green continued. The colouring good. Pitti of SpoUo it S7 whence the grand duchess had Palace. ters of a It is a spiritual picture. — the Deposition. while the Virgin kneels beside him. There is a refined and elevated realism in the picture. while the dalen is Maggold. in green is and dull rose colour.

married to Saskia. this artist was one of the greatest of the Holland school. bought for in 18 18 from the Gerini Gallery. Poor Rembrandt! pose.88 St. good-natured fellow. most inter- As every one knows. and the Virgin. is in blue. was a pathetic one. and most in prolific works of striking is it light and shade. he was a character without real strength of pur- In his early days. He was art is one of the few instances of an not enough to engage his life artist whose when Of him literally it other conditions are changed. and whom he loved with all the depth of which his nature was capable. is Rembrandt's portrait of himself esting. it executed about The grand duke His life Ferdi- nand HI. he was a gay. the wife of his choice. After her death everything was changed for him. and clever. So marked brilliant light a peculiarity of the Hollander to paint faces with deep shadows on one side and on the other. ube art of tbe pittf palace Paul supplies the complementary red in the com- position. lighthearted. may be said that " the light of his whole life died when He was done. devoted. amiable. flourishing there during the seventeenth century." He declined in every way. became morose and brooding and indifferent to love . trait depicts This por- Rembrandt with no beard. that his name has come effect " to stand for is this style. and a " Rembrandt common studio talk with every photographer. and was 1634. as usual.

of a weak nature from which the one prop has been withdrawn. Rembrandt came to life again. and is a portrait of Archbishop Bartolini Salembeni. Number 36 is by Girolamo da Carpi.Zbc dim. he took a novel way it tO' realize quickly on some of of his his belongings. The smallest sketches brought immense sums. when Rembrandt was in great need of funds. age of He 1556. Number 35. of whom we shall treat later. But he auction The found that the Dutchmen would never trust him again. clad in . he declined. apoUo ^9 the remaining claims of it His genius did not story that took on a new note of melancholy. The bishop is shown full face with a gray beard. Once. seen in full face. at his own was crowded. He advertized the fact own death. but t)all of life. finished and unfinished. and then he announced a sale of his pictures. His life's is Morally. in episcopal robes of violet. painted in the school of Morone. was executed lived until just after Salembeni had been appointed to the Cathedral of Pisa by Pope Leo X. a Venetian master of the sixteenth century. circulation. too. The portrait painted on wood. dying at the fifty-six years. When a safe time had elapsed. saw to that the report had wide house. is Another episcopal portrait that of Bishop Girolamo Argentino.

many colours. while the other rests on a parapet." The lady wears beautiful pearls.) Palma Vecchio 1480—1548. and is usually spoken artist. In the centre of the painting Christ seated. (It is possibly the work at of Zelotti. Emmaus. Fortunately she does not indulge in too clad in a white. by PaJma Vecchio or hangs near. her perfect contentment and general roundness suggest a fine turkey ready for the spit. She is forty-eight years has the air of a court-dowager and the coiffure of a poodle-dog. is perhaps merited. of as a portrait of the wife of the there is although no other record to show that the artist was married. She looks pompous enough. a black bishop's robe. a follower of Palma. holding is one hand the bread which he blessing with the other.90 tlbe Hrt of tbe IPtttt palace beretta. well painted in the taste of Veronese. This picture by Veronese. . double-chinned. The inscription reads : " leronimus Argentinus Episcopus Eharensis et Brachiensis. in and a black mantle. is was a member of the Venetian in a red tunic school. is turned three-quarter face. to She right." A large blonde Juno confronts us in is Number 37. being somewhat loud arrangement of black and The Supper by his school. He says This portrait reaches the comic. old. *' though drastic. and proud of her charms. looking criticism the Taine's of this : picture. and wearing a glove is A held in his right hand.

Julian of Christofano Allori. trying to get the attention of one of the disciples. rendered peculiarly . which extends in a secured by a jewel. mantle and a robe of rose. has a closely neck-band. at opposite ends of the table. The is St. but without inspiration. at-- a significant composition. Number 41. to ask whether he will take wine. is Her which fitted a clinging diaphanous robe. together with St. Number 39 is a Holy Family. It painted on wood. are in the act of recognizing" their Master. are just behind the children. in the An open window landscape. castle on a in type. with his head supported on cushSt. The Holy Child rests asleep in the foreground. The still-life is well rendered. hill. in the dress of a Venetian sailor. deep point in front. ions. and expressing their surprise and awe. and looking ready to bark on the provocation. Joseph. by Bronzino. but the is treatment of the whole picture brilliant less clear and than most of the works of this master. In the forefacing the least ground sits a very breezy little dog. His mother.Ube The l)all of apollo 91 pilgrims. background shows a charming is The whole is a well-ordered group. The background represents a The Madonna is distinctly Greek dress. is The servitor. which he carries in a flagon. and is being embraced by the young in a blue John. and classic in the arrangement of her hair and draperies. observer.

is familiar. took the youth in his boat. night. and. central place. lavishing own him in on him every tenderness and care. while in his little So is told that one boat on the lake. throwing off his disguise. stood revealed as the Christ. a mournful voice crying out to him for listening. The legend it. and was recognized as a the In the picture. carefully from the boat to the shore. In the morning the young leper arose. saint. who wished Instantly Julian rowed across. without an allusion to Julian Hospitator. guided by the tones to the opposite side of the river J he found a poor leper boy. say- ing to Julian. for is and thy rest is near at Not long after that the faithful Julian died. morse which he suffered was the his conversion. and. when and a young man. he heard help. " thy penitence hand. sent me to thee. Julian a convincing manner. but the picture can hardly be interpreted St. to be taken across the stream. and conhouse. .'* The Lord hath accepted. where he laid veyed him to his his bed.9« tractive tCbc Htt of tbe pitti ipalace by the young figure which occupies the and by the lights. in which are thrown of St. Julian. the scene selected for representation is moment when the leprous youth is being lifted St. leading special cause of all him to welcome it strangers with unwonted hospitality. had mother his — the accidentally slain his father is story a long one — under The re- a misconception that they were robbers.

pleasing. The gesture of the youth. The semi-nude is figure of the boatis man looming up against the sky a fine piece of of the usual colour and design. All the heads and faces are idealized into beautiful types. as he steps lightly to the shore. affected girl. one It is may be permitted to use such an expression. But his figure is be- yond criticism as a lovely conception of youthful beauty and an example of fine drawing. where St. the subject not the object. very graceful. Her hands are meekly . but there little ruggedness of the Italian boatman about him. by Perugino. Julian has landed before him is so that he may be there to render assistance.trbe *all of flpollo in a red tunic 93 leper. It must be admitted that the picture is realistic. The leper is too prophetic of what he to appear the next morning. and a blue mantle. The boat- man on the right wears a red drapery about his in the head. with pretty is brown shadows her name seen on her red corsage. of whom we is shall hear more later. Number 42 is a soft. background the wife of Julian charity to other poor wayfarers is seen dispensing on the doorsteps of not exactly is her house. harmless repre- sentation of the Magdalen. while a yellow stuff girds his loins. receives the while a sailor assists him to step ashore. simply a charming. it is by most critics said to be the masterpiece of Allori. rather . if In this picture.

rather an unusual choice The scene is an interior for the subject. Guido Reni does not often choose a pagan subject. while through a door — at the back the domestic sights of the kitchen are visible. and the whole tone and manner of a more the painting restful and devotional. in contrast with Reni. he does it full justice. She wears a green mantle with a furred edge which is soft and attractive. She and the others are Francis. On the floor. his arms full is of tiny puppies. kneeling before a crucifix. quite laughing. St. The face and hands are beau- tifully rendered. laughing face. The Salembeni Holy Family is very attractive. Next to this occurs Cigoli's a familiar subject and well painted. spinning. The Young Bacchus. much amused at the incident. Perugino evidently believed in penitence understood rather than expressed. with the saint clad In the background in his brown habit in an attitude of ecstasy. much of this artist's work. or rather runs. Eliz- seated. is This is a bright. when he makes such a selection. At the left. may be seen the con- vent of La Vernia.94 ttbe Art of tbe pint C^alace crossed on her breast. St. The scene is an outdoor one. by Guido cheerful subject. little St. . John stands. while the mother dog behind him chasing him for having taken abeth away her young is ones. Mary and Joseph are sitting by a table with the Holy Child.

O ^ < O p o O Ph a> jC -«-• (I. m >» .

.

with child. by Tiberio was painted in 161 7. is sees in the face of a street urchin who turn his wits to his own support early in The which deity. up the cup when it On both childish faces an expression of enjoyment. for is unlikely that a royal baby all ! would " have been carried to a studio. such as one sometimes has had to life. He apparently quite nude. " cradle and lies He on a couch. Guido has succeeded in infusing into the youthful mirth of his smile a certain flavour of worldliness.TLbc Dall ot apollo 95 The child Bacchus holds on a platter a graceful cup near his contents. the general effect of the is colouring being golden and pearl. the being the son of the Grand picture Duke Cosimo was probably it actually executed at the Pitti Palace. Although the face of Bacchus is that of a child. . is entwined around the head of the young leaves are just at the point of wilting The person. Prince Leopold IL. fill evidently prepared to to be replenished. It is a most engaging little portrait of the infant Prince Leopold de Medici. and is about to drink of its brimming needs is A little attendant carries a large jug. the fascination of a pretty. lips. all a little. as they would do in contact is with the warm little Young Bacchus a genuine rogue. mischievous Number 49 Tito. painting of the detail of the picture most exquisite. notably the treatment of the grape-vine.

who was made a and who devoted his life specially interested and art. who was a Florentine. Widow The Tabitha (Dorcas) is the one numbered lights and shadows are extremely marked.. artist. He was and the large collection at the Uffizi was made by him. doing most of his work in the early seventeenth century. was painted his in 16 18.96 XTbe Hrt ot tbc ptttt palace lies in and a placid. most delightful. same Cardinal Leo- Some of them may be seen in the Though somewhat stiff. not seeming to mind the contact if it of the embroidered coverlet. his figures still-life is are delicately handled. when he was at the height of power. usually Guercino's interesting group of St. The subject of this picture is so engrossing that we have so far neglected the artist. He also left many pictures to the He died in 1675. as they generally are in the pictures by this This picture is by many considered to be the masterIt piece of Guercino. Pitti collection. The textiles in this picture are This was the Prince Leopold cardinal by Clement X. this and many were bought by pold de Medici. to literature in portraits. with his little bare toes peeping out. and his fine. Peter raising the 50. at fifty-eight years of age. He painted principally miniatures. phlegmatic way. which looks as must have scratched. . royal collection.

>» PQ H CT) .1 < X H >-t PQ < H o O D. 1 ctf iTi -t-> O Z t-H t-H • ^ o J2 < oi <u 13 H W pL. ^ < O VM o Q 1— ^ W w 0) H J.

.

lies extended on her Peter in a com- St. bier at the right of the canvas. This woman child in her arms. about in attitudes of sorrow. breast. is eral people stand first The to attract the eye the figure of a woman on the right. The is colours of rich. command to the dead to while his left hand grasps his cloak him. the light striking full upon her face and her feet and illuminat- ing the long outlines of the body. manding attitude stands by the bier. It is not an especially sympathetic ren- dering of the subject. His figure and head are superbly drawn. imploring the saint to perform his lights are is The thrown strenuously upon lovely. Hanging in the same room with the magnificent painting of Fra Bartolommeo. as also left. John.XEbe l)all ot HpoIIo 97 In Guercino's painting. this figure. brown and white about her are warm and and the handling of the whole picture delightful. stalwart carries a small and head-dress recall some of the women of Tintoretto. the young widow. With both hands on her and her upturned face evincing the utmost is sorrow. it suffers by contrast. in a red robe. Cigoli's " Deposition " rather suggests the poses of models. which most upon the back of a ies woman on the extreme whose drapernoble. Number 51. sustains the . near the bier. she miracle. while St. lowering the body from Three disciples are seen the cross. his right hand about Sev- raised in pronouncing his rise again.

At the left is the Virgin at in tears.9^ Zbc Hrt ot tbc ipitti ipalace feet of the dead Christ. The Magis turned. A very Venetian treatsuch as the lagoons artist. who is seen to the knees. Number 55 is a charming baby portrait of the little much-upholstered Duke of Urbino. by Baroccio. down Her thoroughly expressive. She is clad in glowing satins. The Madonna. and well drawn. Holy Family is in which other by Pordenone. is the best figure. Ecstatic and theat- elements are absent in this picture. There are no other whole accessories. and others. story. stand about in various poses. Nicodemus. It is The very man and his attitude tell the dramatic. clad in damasks and in the stuffs were famous for days of the A striking canvas is Number Spagnoletto's St. ment of the subject all it is. hovering in the air. too an interesting ture of the Venetian school. His eyes are cast up to heaven. Francis. without being theatrical. 52. standing. She turns away from tears coursing the painful sight. Mary Cleophas. and her brow drawn with anguish. with the nails and the crown of thorns her feet. in the fore- ground. — the personages are 73. — the her cheeks. and her face expresses real grief — not a stage face trical is substitute. . and he holds in his hands a human skull. the Sacra Conversazione Number (a name pic- usually given to a saints appear). and there are angels dalen's back is The Magdalen kneels.

he married the daughter of Ferdinand his de Medici. and the compoIt sition is satisfactory. is Number The children are beautifully rendered. was painted Zanobi Bracci. St. the only sign of life amidst the stiff rich- ness of his wrappings.Xtbe t)aU of flpoUo 99 Nothing could be more appealing than the sweet little face. own daughter was that Princess Vittoria Rovere who married Ferdinand II. The the figure graceful. Neri on his knees is an He is clad in rich brocade vestments. / Maria of Urbino. Joseph is is The mother is asleep. with Madonna appears above sanest. practical.. looking out from this mass of the gorgeous detail of his pompous surroundings. while he was and della a youth. covered with richly embroidered stuffs. so in this baby was doubly connected with the way this royal family at the Pitti Palace. for in Andrea's warm. The whole in 1521. Philip altar. Holy Family^ by Andrea del Sarto. Maratta has painted in adoration before St. rich colour. both arms extended. Little Federigo lies in his cradle. and St. A pretty 62. his Philip Neri was one of the most times. the altar. and thoroughly good men of . and are both of exquisite grace. He was the son of Francesco still I. seen in profile.

It exhibits nearly the characteristics of his style. These two tures called are Mars Preparing of for War (sometimes The Consequences War). with sword and to war. armour. clad in his pictures. as all It is entirely the work of Rubens. were many of Mars. philosophers. The cen- tral figure. one is struck with the its action and the breadth of treatment. not laid in and painted largely by his pupils. is pressing onward by one of the Furies. Lipsius and Grotius. Although his steps do 100 . grasps and pulls the warrior with her left. THE HALL OF MARS In the Hall of Mars we may see two of the best examples talents. and the noble portrait group of the Rubens Brothers with the the great allegorical painting. with the torch of Discord extended in her sinewy right hand. was painted about 1625. led shield. Examining variety in It its first Mars Preparing for War. Alecto. of Rubens's workj exhibiting all his pic- and few of his blemishes.CHAPTER V. who.

O S3 Pi 111 ^ •- w .

.

—a who is clinging to him. Study. A broken capital lies at his left hand. also dashed to the ground and holding by which his art aloft a is comof pass. and other upon an open book. his next step bids fair to encroach upon her. is the figure typical of Architecture. corner sits In the shadow of the left a little nude child with a crystal globe . has also been thrown down. in dire despair. leans tottering forward. Farther to the right. and Europe. while an allegorical figure of weapons are to supplant them. the other side. Mars treads relentlessly beneath his stalwart form. with all the plump yet is pliant qualities of Rubens's women. the instrument made use. but lie The arrows and the bow of unheeded on the ground. in vain. who also pleads with Mars. symbolical of the overthrow of Empire. lies Harmony. In the air hover emblematic figures of Famine and Pestilence.Ztoc Dall of /IDars not falter. Charity. Venus Cupid attended by Love. On the left of the picture is seen the open portal of the Temple of Janus. both arms upstretched and her face expressive of suffering. is seen behind these. symbolized by a woman bearing a lute. stretched helpless on the ground in the shadow. yet Mars turns at the volup- head and looks regretfully back tuous figure of Venus. on beautiful nude. grasping an infant in her arms. loi and the action of his whole body is for- ward his" to do the behest of the Fury.

and was entrusted with some diplomsitic work. had art appealed to him. a record of his having been in Florence in order to attend one of the noted Medicean marriages. his The above " jealousies of artists never made much imspirit pression all upon Rubens. Titian Tintoretto all been dead for some years but the inspiration of their work pression on the Flemish artist. Rubens was quite a and England as well as traveller. 1577. 102 xcbe Htt of tbe pitti palace is upon which Peter a cross. going there in 1600. where the progress of and Veronese. will be jealous of you their jealousy.. and you overcome He was of an cheerful disposition. when he married Helen Fourment. always a careful student. and married. and people will affable. 1607. whose genial such petty annoyances. Paul Rubens was perhaps the greatest master of the Flemish school. In 1626 his wife died. rose He used to say: . When he arrived there. In 1608 first he returned to Antwerp wife being Isabella Brandt. . the great Venetians. there is made much im- In October. Do well." do better. Italy. she being then sixteen and he fifty-three. and he remained a widower until 1630. In the far distance may be discerned a battle in progress. first He was born in He spent some time in Italy. He was especially drawn to Venice. and visited Spain He was also a states- man.

" she says. rather with Roman. and sometimes pretty degenerate Roman at that. " Jameson has summed up many his defects thus To to venture to judge Rubens. . he delighted in portraying the nude. 1640. in his works sensual. all." To " No the painter amuses which Rubens replied : . While he is in his life he was unimpeachable. himself with diplomacy. : sometimes Mrs. While on a matic mission to England. for. nakedness It opportunity. I should say. as his biographer. primarily — joyous sunlight." has been questioned whether as a follower of the Renaissance he was in sympathy with Greek art. is his remarks. His life had been very preall and he was endeared to painting by his winning personality. we ought have seen a great His defects may be acknowlthey are in all edged once for senses gross. — warm. " To a capable painter. a London nobleman that the ambassa- happened to say to him : "I hear dor amuses himself sometimes with painting." Antwerp was May. soft flesh-paint- ing. and well born. Calvert. characteristic of his is The light. This combinadiplo- tion has ever been rare in artists. " of his pictures. clouded with gloom and sorrow on the occasion Rubens died in of his passing away. cious to his native city. with perhaps a superabundance of the pink glow of blonde and ruddy colouring.tEbe 1ball of ObavB 103 He was a rich man.

I will show it you *' ! He worked ing letter altogether from living models.. dazzling and garish in its indiscriminate excess. Rubens held his palette. " I beg of you to arrange for us that there may be retained for me. and to while he was painting in Paris he wrote the followto M. replying. visited One day he was to tempt by an alchemist. his his exaggerated his his- redundant forms. if heavy forms. and these three persons will be to me . fifteen hundred works. who tried him to injudicious investment in a supposed discovery of the Philosopher's Stone. coarse allegories.104 tCbe Hrt of tbe ipitti f^alace open. his florid colour. the two ladies Caslittle from the Rue de Vertbois. has he not given them souls? animated them with ity all and vital- his own exuberance of and volition '* ? Rubens painted about the most immense artist. the alchemist that he had himself discovered The up visitor exclaimed with surprise. and prosaic verhe painted sions of the loftiest and most delicate creations of poetry. palpable. in the week following this one. de Chennievres. making three studies for sirens. He informed it. his vulgar torical improprieties. " Here. let all these be granted .. Louisa. — number ever produced by one Contentment was one of his greatest charms. and also that for I reckon niece. asking him to paint secure him certain models for three sirens which he : had occasion third saio.

the same with their figures. and he so clearly defines the position of it Rubens in the world of art that is well to give his own words work doing all this. it (Heaven forbid still!) should not be so. dank fields of Flanders . which I should have culty in finding elsewhere. " his calibre of may it see mind was such that I believe the world another Titian and another Raphael before saying a great deal for Ruskin. with his but Ruskin is sees another Rubens. still. there in the was different . much on account still of the their diffi- expression of their faces. but must be ploughmen and reapers are And Ru- we to suppose that there is no nobility in . . fleshy.." says Ruskin. as much that favour in his sight as the wasted aspect of the whispering monks of Florence." " Whatever imperfections from in his art may have resulted his unfortunate want of seriousness and incapability of true passion. but which God had his eye upon. . perhaps. humanities — humanities iron-shod humanities. and which won. for most of us cannot be monks.." This is mediaeval and ascetic preferences. and more from magnificent black hair. . much hardening of hands and gross stoutening of bodies in . .Ubc fcall of {VbatB 105 of great succour and help. very generous in his remarks about Rubens. on this subject : " While Angelico wept and prayed in his olive-shade. substantial.

This Phillip Rubens . that we may not be offended with.. stands modestly at one side." The celebrated portrait of Rubens and his brother. he has neither cloister breeding nor boudoir breeding. and is very unfit to paint either in missals or in annuals but he has an open-sky and wide-world breeding in him. He a handsome fellow. together with the two philosophers. at the is left of the picture. sits next him. Phillip Rubens. he had his faults. In a room with marble columns and a delightful outlook upon a fortified town. a knight's camp. perhaps great and lamentable faults. io6 trbe art of tbe ©tttt iC^alace bens's masculine this. younger than his celebrated brother. but thicker. His hair is darker and He wears a full rufif. holding a pen. and is one of the best things ever done by Rubens. the brother of the artist. is He has a red beard and moustache. three persons are seated around a table. while one. the painter himself. Grotius. and a peasant's cottage. and universal sympathy with large all it.. as fine as some of Titian's portraits. fit alike for a king's court. though his time and his country than his more those of own.. this trait of as satisfactory a por- himself as any that Rubens has executed. and with his human rendering of gentleman though he was by birth and feeling and education and place . much like him. is is Lipsius and It next to the painting just described.

FOUR PHILOSOPHERS By Rubens . in the Hall of Mars .

.

Xtbc Dall of /»ar5

107

was
to

quite a celebrated philologist.

He was

taken

Rome

by Peter Paul, and there became librarian

to Cardinal Colonna.

He was made
Antwerp

Secretary of

the Senate on his return to

in 1609.

On
book.

the right occupying the centre of the comis

position,

Lipsius, his finger resting

upon an open

Justus Lipsius (1547— 1606) was a distin-

guished humanist, born in Brabant.

Though eduAt Leyden
this

cated by the Jesuits, he early took the Protestant
side,

but later returned to the Church.

he taught for eleven years, and during

time

he prepared his editions of Seneca and Tacitus.

His

classical

knowledge and

his respect for antiquity his

gave him a great reputation as a scholar, and
political

writings were used as a justification of

persecution.

Grotius
1583, and

is

in profile.

He was
jurist,

born in Delft, in

was a great

diplomat, and ecclesi-

astical debater.

As

a youth, his precocious genius
verse,
at
fif-

was famous. At nine, he made good Latin was ready for the university at twelve, and
teen edited the extensive
pella.

works of Marcianus Cathe famous
treatise, "

With Erasmus, he was one of
His

scholars of his age.

De

Jure Belli,"

was a masterpiece.
tation to England.

In 161 5 he was one of a depu" I Causabon wrote of him
:

cannot say
seen so

how happy I esteem myself in having much of one so truly great as Grotius,

io8

ube art
man!

of tbe ©itti palace
This
I

a wonderful
I

knew him

to

be before

saw him, but the rare excellences of that divine genius no one can sufficiently feel who does not see his face and hear him speak. Probity is stamped
upon
piety
his features;
his conversation savours of true

and profound learning."
work.

His reputation

rests

upon
and

his varied accomplishments

and

his scholarly

scientific

He was

a countryman of

whom

Rubens was proud, and there was a sympathetic interest between the two, owing to their somewhat
similar talents in learning

and diplomacy.
is

The
a
little

still life

in the picture

excellent, especially

vase of transparent glass, holding tulips,

placed by the bust of Seneca (tulips being the favourite flower of Lipsius).

The vellum books on
beautifully

the table are finely rendered, and the detail of the

costumes

and

accessories

handled.

There

is

hardly any bright colour in the picture.

The

chief intention of the master has been to give

lifelike portraits of the

men, rather than to compose
one of the most delightsaint
is
is

a decorative picture.
St.

Francis by Rubens

is

fully graceful figures.
is

The
he

kneeling, and

seen only half-length;

in profile,
lithe,

and the
little

lines of the figure are strong

and
is

canted a

backward from the hips; he
him.

outside his grotto,

in prayer, appealing directly to the

heavens above

XTbe Iball of /IDars

109

Generally acknowledged as one of the greatest
historical

portraits

in

the world,
its

Raphael's Pope

Julius 11. stands out in

dusky whites and rich
one

brown
to

reds.
is

There has been some controversy as
the original,

which

this

in the Pitti,

or the one in the Uffizi.

A very impartial
is

statement

of the reasons for the disagreement

given by

Henry

Strachey, in a recent scholarly
I

monograph
one

on Raphael, which
having the
dict as
it

quote.

Strachey points out
portraits, so that

the difference between the
facts to

two

go upon may accept

either ver-

seems to him most convincing:
in the Uffizi portrait is of quite a
Pitti.

"

The mouth

different shape

from that of the

In the former

the lips are scarcely visible, while the comers of

the
fact,

mouth are turned down
a horrible mouth.

decidedly.
in the Pitti

It

is,

in

Now,

example,

the lips are clearly shown, and the corners of the

mouth

softened.

But the mouth has become a charprocess has been at
is

acterless one.

The same

work

upon the
on the

nose.

In the Uffizi the nose

big and

bulbous at the end, while the top of the nostril
left

runs up

to-

a point suggesting the lifting

of the nostril for a snarl.

The

top of this nostril

in the Pitti is not so pointed,

and the end of the
while in the Uffizi

nose

is

less

heavy.

The

eyes in the Pitti picture
dull,

are deep sunk and
portrait

somewhat

sudden

lights

and shadows give them ex-

no

Ube Hrt

ot tbe

Ipitti

palace
face in the Uffizi

traordinary vivacity.

The whole

has the air of having preserved the accidents of
the
sitter's

features, while that in the Pitti

seems

to be rather a courtly softening of unpleasant characteristics.

But the authentic
to

portraits of

Raphael

show him

have been

relentless in his naturalism."
will never be settled to the

Probably the question
satisfaction of
all.

The best picture that Cigoli ever painted is Ecce Homo, Number 90. The group of three
ures
is

the
fig-

placed on a balcony.

Pilate has brought

Jesus forth to show him to the multitude.
centre Christ
is

In the

seen standing

full face,

crowned with
a torn

the

Crown

of Thorns, and his hands confined to^

gether by a chain.

At one
is

side a

man

in

white shirt and a red hat

removing the mantle

with which the Saviour has been covered, while
Pilate, in a

yellow brocade robe and a turban, leans
is

forward, pointing to the sufferer, and act of exclaiming, " Behold the Man "
!

in

the

The

ex-

pression in Pilate's eyes

is

that of extenuation

and

pleading with the populace for mercy.

The

soldiers

are grouped in the background awaiting orders.
the balustrade
lies

On

the scourge.

The drawing and
It is,

colouring are both excellent.

on the whole,

as satisfactory a treatment of this painful subject

as any presented in the Renaissance school.

The

fatigue and

human endurance

are well depicted on

ECCE HOMO
By
Cigoli
;

in the Hall of

Mars

(

Xtbe iball of flDars
the face of Christ.
It

m

comes nearer being a natural

representation of suffering than most paintings deal-

ing with this scene.
interpretation of the

The artist has caught the true moment chosen for portrayal.
exaltation.

There

is

the languor of physical pain, not yet relieved
spiritual

by any uplifting

The hands
little

are not so well managed.
in virility
;

They are

a

lacking

they are effeminate and small,

— hardly

the hands of a Galilean peasant
at the carpenter's trade.

who had worked
are the only

The hands
is

really

weak element

in the picture.

The

history of this picture

an interesting one.

Monseigneur Massimi wished to obtain the best
painting which could be produced dealing with this
subject.

So he gave the order
that there

to three artists, Pas-

signano, Caravaggio, and Cigoli.

Neither of these

men was aware

were other competitors.

When
Cigoli

the three pictures were presented, that of

was so

far superior to the others that the

prelate returned
It

them and retained only

this one.

was afterwards owned by the celebrated musician, Giovanni Severi, and later, through him, came into

possession of the Medici.

A

portrait

which one would

like to think of as
is

a companion piece to the Bella of Titian
portrait of a

Titian's

young man

in black.

Number

92.

The
it

type

is

very Venetian, with reddish-brown hair and
but
is

blue eyes, and finely chiselled features;

112

Ube Hrt
The

of tbe pltti palace

generally alluded to as a portrait of

Howard, Duke

of Norfolk.

subject stands almost full-face,

with one hand placed carelessly on his hip, while

he holds a glove in the other.

Taine, in his "

Voy-

age en
trait
:

Italic,''

speaks in highest terms of this por-

" It
of.

is

one of the greatest masterpieces that

I

know

It represents a

man
;

of thirty-five years,

all

in black, grave,

with a steady gaze;

the face

rather thin, the eyes pale blue

a delicate moustache

meets his slight beard.

He

is

of a great race, but
life; de-

he has seen more than one manoeuvre of
lights, anxieties, the

knowledge of danger have
face

left

their

marks upon

his

...

it

is

the face of

one energetic, yet weary, and also a dreamer."

The canvas shows
drawing
that
it is

the figure half-length, but the

is

life-size.

This portrait

is

so striking
record of
it

remarkable that
it

we have no

other than that
tian.
silk,

was painted by the great VeneThe black texture of the garment is that of
This portrait has unusual
alive.
virility,

not velvet.

is

wonderfully

Titian has been quoted as saying that red, white,

and black are the only colours an
first

artist needs.

At
of

glance one would say that he had literally car;

ried out this theory in the picture Titian's work,

but, like
it

much

upon

closer

examination

will be

found to glow with that ineffable quality of handling which Ruskin has aptly called " a peculiar mys-

HOWARD, DUKE OF NORFOLK (DETAIL)
By
Titian
;

in the Hall of

Mars

.

— whence if the picture derives its name. technically considered. ancient or modern. Near pannata. It is generally conceded that the picture was be- gun by Raphael. It would be difficult to point to a better portrait. sometimes freedom. St.Xlbe 1baU ot /iDats "3 tery about the pencilling. by. Number 94. Elizabeth knees. which would have taken in the four chief figures and St. sometimes called softness. so that even the any other broad spaces of of little plain colour are in reality made up varie- gated dots." in the same of its way that a mosaic is owes much exactly like beauty to the fact that no stone stone. and he. down to the left. shows that the original The comintention was for a round picture. she occupying the foreground at the is The Madonna figures. It but has usually been attributed to Raphael. and sometimes breadth. than this one. on a higher level than the other Elizabeth and Mary Magdalen have brought the child to his mother. position not finished by him. pears to be one of Ruskin's " hetes noir/' for he speaks of its " repainted distortion " being redeemed only by the light which comes in from the linen window. is is the Madonna del Imap- This picture of doubtful authenticity. turning . in but reality a most subtle confusion of colours and forms. " Impannata " signifying a cloth window. painted at any period of the development of art.

in the act of expressing in is by an embrace his joy at being her arms again. John should picture is at the same time be a ground The sometimes doubtless attributed to Giulio Romano. he seems rather to be interpreting the picture than to be a part of it. he side purposely. The still expression of Mary's face rather passive. for the much an anachronism that Magdalen should be a grown woman while is as Christ is an infant. for Giulio worked some- what on in the master's vein (that is during his second manner). the whole picture must be purely it symbolical. Indeed. since Raphael has represented him as too old to be an integral part of the scene. being the patron saint of Florence. St. perhaps is placed out- This is particularly likely to have been the plan. but his evident one can detect a look of pleasure at preference for her. The heads are exquisite in modelling. and. and pointing to the others. The picture is on wood. a young- and handsome Floren- . as that stripling. and was painted this for Bindo Altoviti. and may have done a good deal of work among other of the Madonnas and Holy Families. John appears to be quite an afterthought.114 Ubc Hrt of tbe pittt iPalace is to look after them. — an addition to the general group. St. There is for this theory. Sit- ting apart. the aged face of Elizabeth and the fresh fair beauty of the Magdalen being in good contrast each to the other.

.JUDITH WITH THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES By Allori in the Hall of Mars .

.

and this rather ghastly allegO'ry was his dif- soon interpreted by those dissipations. is a portrait of Christofano He knew only too well that the price of the painting would be instantly absorbed by these rapacious women. The picture of Judith was ordered for Cardinal Alexander Orsini. was in the Uffizi. putting himself as a corpse into the hand of Judith. famous Mazzafirra. . had also a palace near Raphael's villa on the bank of the Tiber in Rome. showing an ugly. — the one which hangs Judith's is in the Corsini Palace is much more original bold in expression. is A The grand of colour Christofano Allori's Judith with the Head of Holofernes. and has a sketch of her mother in the back- ground. dered as he indulged his grim humour. The head of Holofernes Allori. A small copy hangs also in the Uffizi. picture represents the mistress. and it was placed in his In 1587 bit it chapel. is Number 96. figure of Judith queror.Ube 1ball ot /lDar6 Altoviti 115 tine banker. snarling frown on the face of Judith. the Pitti In not an essentially vicious face. about 15 13. — she no imaginary female conand no doubt Allori shudfor this Allori's is a very real person. of The picture afterwards came into possession Grand Duke Cosimo. and Allori painted these portraits in a sort of morbid resignation. being the mis- tress of the artist himself. who knew him were painted in at Three replicas ferent times.

The picture was taken to Paris." alludes thus : " The Judith with the Head . but in it is treated by a master experience a masterly manner. is is The triumphant of a typical Jewish red. right hand still holds the sword . While this picture was by Schlegel. which beauty. it was examined of Holofemes in his "Esthetic Essays. well rendered. cruel eyes of Judith are comparatively passive in the painting in the Pitti.ii6 trbe Hrt of tbe pitti ipalace colouring of this picture is The the one of the most striking things in the entire gallery. She hand her stands well-poised. The robe of ex- Judith of a most gorgeous deep yellow. who. to it in Paris. elsewhere he has drawn his mistress as a veritable bad-tempered fury. suggest- ing infinite riches of texture. not a sympathetic subject. The personal of the artist. pression of the face. striding forward. and the old woman behind her looks at her with approving admiration. and supplies the of interest for those it human The element who would otherwise regard long-lidded. only as a disagreeable subject. thus interwoven in the old Bible story. which add to the It is magnificence of the general effect. has significance. blue. first is and is often thing mentioned by visitors. where it remained from 1799 to 18 1 5. her left firmly clutching the hair of the head which she has severed from the body of Holof ernes. There are touches of and green in the painting.

it Like music. it is cheerful subject treated in a happy humour. a fine composition. is much more interesting is when this is the case. . is Our attention immediately caught by the beauty and splendid attire of the Hebrew heroine." The first worthy example we have met in this gallery It is of Guido Reni which is here numbered lOO. in at the Well requires a detailed the treatment and .Ube Iball ot /©ars 117 in ex- by Christofano Allori has much merit both pression and outline of the figure. knowledge of the story before the picture can be some pictures use of colours constitute the chief interest the subject chosen is in others as much a part of the comIt position as the actual planning of the figures. and with few of the affectations which spoil so many of his pictures. which bine both unsatisfactory unless is com- harmony and melody. as well as by the expression of simple piety and wonder in the head of the old woman. in the best manner of the a master. so a picture untreat- satisfactory unless the subject is worthy of the ment given it. harmony and are not properly balanced. In the first place. and fail many good to ex- compositions in music to satisfy our longings because they have either melody or cess. and the external correctness of the representation. The Rebecca understood. Many is fine paintings lack sentiment because the subject a painful one.

see and he trusted that he should to among the women who came draw water such a damsel as should justify him in approaching her on this delicate matter.ii8 TLbc Hrt of tbe pittt palace is This picture of Guide's in the Hfe of Rebecca. Eliezer. seen a man holding Evidently Guido Reni has not had many opportunities to study this special breed of beast. The women are gathered about the well. carrying a gifts inter- casket. evidently that from which Eliezer takes . At the left is a little boy. And before many minutes had passed. Rebecca with her pitcher on her shoulder came out from her dwelling. and handing the jug to him. taken from the incident the steward of Abra- when ham. arrives in the city of Nahor. and looks over his shoulder. had been sent to bring back a wife for Isaac. is the chief centre of the picture. and at the same time came others. the steward. the son of Abraham. smiling at the spectator in a jocular way. Probably the mission of the steward has become a jest among the retainers . having been sent to the land of Mesopotamia. is The episode chosen by the artist is that Rebecca bringing her pitcher to Eliezer. to represent the boy as sympathetic left is in this arch In the background at the a camel. amused . of gold to offer the damsel the boy is much ested in the general situation. many where she is Rebecca is described as fair to look upon. it is quite a human touch way.

on the right of the well." he says. in 1575. Hawthorne considered him a marvellous " There is no other. will be that. One of them. There is a good in deal of thought and portrayal of human nature the poses of the women. and holding aside her draperies so as to display her limbs ." he considered his " Some one asked him which greatest picture. 1642. with one hand on her hip. As he said himself. per- haps trying to convince the steward that he might do better by coming to is her. and stands in a stage pose. own I He will I replied : The one on which it am working now.'' scenes. am doing After a tedious Guido Reni died on the eighteenth of April. it And if I am working on then " ! another to-morrow. and showed early He was called " the father of fa- so easily did he accomplish his purpose. and the day after be the one illness.tEbe IbaU ot {tbavB at the strange 119 way in which the visitor has ad- dressed Rebecca. and apparently interested to see what will come of the interview. early Italian painters. . colour quickly at- tained. " It is designing that is difficult. is much entertained. Guido Reni was born art. " who seems to achieve things so magically and inscrutably as he sometimes does." painter. and rendered with more spirit than most of Guido's genius for cility. He is was devoted to the whom he studied intelligently. The picture is quite a merry one.

and who is not remarkable correctly fore- for anything but that his figure is shortened. sitting on a high throne. shows Our Lady with the child upon her knee. in the attitude of one who rides horseback in a side-saddle. the Order of the Garter its may be seen hanging. He stands grasping a baton he wears a wig of flowing curls after the fashion of his times. The child leans forward to bless a warrior saint who stands at his right side. by Soggi. This is not a realistic repreideal concep- sentation of the Holy Family. with his draperies floating off extended on either side. The Magdalen with clasped hands and upturned gaze. from the cloak which he has laid rests and which upon a tree-stump at his side. aside. with pendent figure of St George. whose face is hidden.. On the other side of the composition a is the Baptist as man of middle age. but an . whole weight of raised his substantial burden on his upsits hands. The Magdalen Both is being carried up to heaven by an angel. 120 Ube Htt of tbe l&itti iC^alace of the Magdalen by Cagnacci The Assumption is rather an unattractive picture. She seems bliss- fully unconscious of the painful efforts of the angel. and. The Madonna Enthroned. of them look thoroughly uncomfortable. A fierce and defiant gentleman is Van Der Werff's Duke of Marlborough. is The angel bearing the flying practically on his back.

He got into to trouble in Spain. they are supposed to be perpetually young in heaven. called him answer the charge of having dissected a Spanish gentleman. tails — no It nothing from which in it might have taken its name. a celebrated surgeon. was . He has a long gray beard. they condemned him to death. He is sitting an armchair. at Brussels. On his way back from The all. Spain. hangs here. injured that of late it picture is so much has been questioned even whether of it it be by Titian at There are parts to its authenticity. in Number 80. which bear strong witness is There also a charming Holy Family by Andrea hazy style.tibe Iball of /IBats tion of the 121 Madonna and Child enthroned . wears a sombre garment with fur about Italian medical such as men wore. with an open book in one hand. and glasses in the other. and it. Titian's portrait of Andrea Vesalius. Vesalius was born in 15 14. painted in a deliciously The de- figure grouping is well arranged. where Charles V. but his fame was acquired in Bologna and Pisa. but his sentence was changed to banishment for life by Philip H. where he became a great anatomist. where he died of exposure. he was wrecked on the coast of the Island of Zante. as are common the Madonnas of Raphael. is del Sarto. Less liberal than the authorities of to^ day in such matters. There original or striking about the accessories. and taught his profession.

and was much admired by the critic. certainly restful and dreamy. about 1529. He became papal secretary to Clement VII when he was only sevensent and later was by Paul V. and a vase of in the table are an opened flowers. draped behind office. by ing full-length portrait. and tried as nuncio. He became a prominent and . Cardinal Bentivoglio was born teen. is A On in . a very living portrait. who it paid double the price demanded for It is it because so entirely satisfied him. and he dressed in robes of with and brocades. in colour. pearly lection of types. " History of the War in the Netherlands. in the on her knee. and John and Elizabeth are In the days of Vasari. He is seated. to use his influence in the astronomer's favour.122 Zbc Srt of tbe pittf palace painted on wood. this Madonna hung chamber of the widow of Ottavio. is Number 83 retto. Cardinal Bentivoglio died in 1644." and also wrote memoirs. Van Dyck. but unsuccessfully. He was one of Galileo's judges. by Tinto- of Luigi Cornaro. Bologna 15 19. curtain full is Near him lace letter is a table. him. This Venetian nobleman in his early life entirely days was dissipated. pleasing in the sesits The Virgin St. with the Infant present. before he He reformed his treare- grew old. for Ottavio de Medici. and wrote a tise on sobriety. is a strikNumber 82. Cardinal Bentivoglio. to Flanders He was the author of a work.

silhouetted against the trunk of a great tree. infant on the — being interested by a personage evidently the portrait of a doge or other Venetian grandee. This Holy Family represents the Madonna seated in the midst on the ground. John. — who is giving the child a miniature of the world in the shape of a geographical globe. The Santa Conversazione. holding a half- open volume. where she. a charm- ingly portrayed middle-aged woman. is either by Bonifazio Veronese (not Paolo. The baby puts his hands on it in the way any which is little child will it. do upon a smooth surface presented to The is face of this portrait painted. together is with the child Jesus. while donor . the upper leaves of which are visible at the top of the canvas. and wearing a rich mantle of crimson with a heavy gold chain about his neck. thick fashion of the day.Ube Iball ot /iDars "3 when spected citizen before his death. the great Venetian) or by Palma Vecchio. A crown is placed at the feet of the at the side of the Ma- donna and Child. St. which occurred he was ninety-six years old. Mary is turns to speak to the child The left. with hair cut in the short. Little John runs to meet them. It (probably the donor) represents a beautifully man of forty-five. who is in her lap. Elizabeth. St. Critics are divided. Number 84. sits on the ground at the right of the picture. in a landscape of some charm.

Granacci being among those selected. " Begone. Giambattista della Palla. Pontormo. send to his patron. which he did in his finest manner. Francis in hopes that this propitiatory to aid the republic. vile broker! " she who firmly re- fused to allow them to enter peaceably. who appears to be regarding the spectator with curiosity. they had to encounter Margherita.. portraying scenes from the life of Joseph. Numbers 87 and 88 are two wooden panels painted by Andrea del Sarto. They were the tops of marriage-chests recently alluded in the set of furniture to.124 stands a XTbe Hrt ot tbe little ipittt palace dog. — Baccio d'Angelo. who persuaded the government to give ace. *' reprobate salesman! How dare you fancy that you can carry off the ornaments of a noble house?" With a prolonged . tribute would induce him But when the raiders arrived at the Borgherini Palace. It fell to Andrea's share to paint the of two linen-chests. They were such choice works of art that an attempt was made to carry them off during the Siege of Florence. exclaimed. by the best artists of the day. which were ordered by Borgherini for his son's marriage gift when he took Margherita All the pieces were decorated Accajuoli to wife. lids Del Sarto. him permission to sack the Borgherini Palset of furniture to and take the entire I. The King of France had an agent.

Joseph. cool. A woman is at the left is unpacking a hamper of provisions. make only one it instead of dividing into smaller panels in the more usual way. Ruskin's remark that some artists do not difference between angels to know the and cupids might apply these little creatures. she succeeded in dissuading them from attempt. some of the Holy Infants painted landscape background is is varied. is a shady and with the spell of the Venetian lagoons in the air rather than the Egyptian atmosphere. by Paris Bordone. in The Repose restful picture.Ube Iball of /IDats 1^5 their tirade. and the Child are gathered Jesus is at the foot of a tree. which cannot be said of in the Renaissance. holding out a is little wild flower to his mother and Joseph extending his hand upward to the tree. Joseph a flagon of wine. Mary. Egypt. At the fruit. The preparations are going forward for refreshments. The panels are composed in a quaint method. transcribing the history so as to picture out of it. The par- light scarf about the shoulders of the figure ticularly delicate. feet of St. while angels are casting down fruit to him. who play among the branches in a state of nudity. and a dish upon a white cloth. The face of the Child is very human and The very young. In this picture of Paris Bordone. laid ready to receive the .

like nearly all of Dolci's saints. inferior in power to other treatments . which has accompanied them. The cock is crowing upon a rock in The is picture was executed 1654. too. . rather be obliged to live with. Abraham is holds aloft the scimitar with which he stands stroke. for he has grasped firmly by the arm. and his eyes. a bit too realistically. close to the pyre. who meekly. with his hands clasped. room representing have developed full Peter in tears. awaiting the The angel reaches out of the cloud above. near by. the '' Both of these artists its lachrymose manner " to to say extent. preparing to smite Isaac. — tion seems to be condensed into too small a space. the Sacrifice of Abraham by Chris- tofano Allori. possibly the canvas was and has been trimmed proportions. and stays the Abraham With sacrifice.126 ttbe art of tbe UMtti Ibalace in this There are two pictures St. The whole composioriginally larger. in the accepted his right hand the angel expostulates attitude of " argument. In the background is the ass laden with panniers. Here. with bowed head. Peter is sitting before a grotto weeping." The head of the ram is seen in the bush at the right. It is difficult which of these paintings one would St. cast up to heaven. Number 97. one by Guido Reni and one by Carlo Dolci. down by degrees to its present There is an Annunciation by Andrea del Sarto.

127 It by him of the same subject to be seen is not strong in composition. her The tears are coursing down her cheeks. The profile view of her nude figure is good. The seen angel wears fringed ecclesiastical vestments. none who kneels in a charming attito two votive arrows Heaven. Guercino's St. it As This was painted for the is Convent of San Gallo. but for some reason she does not greatly move the beholder to sympathy. which it differs from angel has arrived. Cigoli's in Magdalen is not important when It is company with his great is Ecce Homo. but in ot flDat6 later. num- bered 98. figure is The hangs on the rocky wall. one of the founders of the order of the Servites. The saint sitting at the foot of a tree. and on a projection near her hand is poised a human is skull. offering a graceful youth. Her eyes are upturned in the inevitable crucifix manner of in Magdalens. starts The Mary back from the prie-dieu at which she has been at her devotions. Michael holding the scales. tude. the painter of the picture num- . either of the others. A trifle back of these two figures stands St.Ube Dall has good colour. a and a vase of ointment are the chief accessories. She holds a book nude. Sebastian the worse for wear. Aurelio Luini. supposed to be a portrait of Filippo Benizzi. The crucifix hands. the figure of a is monk introduced by courtesy. and sinks upon one knee.

with her hair much dressed. above the terrestrial globe. portrait of one of his friends. the Immaculate Conception. leads one to fear that the artist preferred to represent ha" before her conversion! She holds the usual vase if it of perfumes. was an artist of the school. upon which feet. " of Volterrano.128 XEbe Hrt of tbe Iptttt palace Lombard It is bered 102. The only picture by Luca Giordano in the Pitti The is Number 104. it was painted originally for a Magdalen. and yet one would not be surprised if. there were a depth of worldly wisdom hidden there. Virgin is standing on the new moon. is and yet The expression on the face that of di- vine innocence. child is sleeping with his head rest- ing on his arm. but lovingly. as were bric-a-brac. . The attitude is casual. for she appears in modern clothes. taken from the is wall and framed as a picture. is seen the serpent is wTithing beneath her stars. The charming restful. version of the saint if it is a departure from tradition. His picture of the probably a Magdalen is painted on wood. when the eyes opened. the " Sleeping is The treatment as soft and broad as in a modern picture of the French school. and This wears precious stones and a gold necklace. while she flashes an arch look at the spectator. She crowned with A Love most exquisite bit of fresco. born on Lake Como in 1530.

. or her prototype. It is an unpleasant subject. almost on his brow and about amounting to a scowl. The figure is seen about to the waist. a heavy expression his eyes. little stands an evil-looking At her side Cupid. His doublet is buttoned up closely in the middle.TLbc Dall ot /iDats 129 called Another picture by Volterrano Love. The astronomer is sad and weary. It though a technical success. In the school of Sustermans. brated portrait artist himself. into the other who is pouring trinkets hand of Venus money and from a casket which he carries. looks Number io6. leering. is Venal Number 105. but not by the is cele- a head of Galileo. He has a beard and moustache. represents Venus. while she takes an arrow and blunts the end of it by biting it with her teeth. who might more properly be denominated Cupidity.

particularly in representing men. the third of the is great Venetian masters. Veronese. THE HALL OF JUPITER In the Hall of Jupiter. fruit. In some of his work. he portrays animal force his brawny and little lusty bodies. satins. women have often too of the intellectual element in their beauty. the pageant. truly characteristic work of Vero- namely. — Venice in the Renaissance. revealed to us. and all the scenic properties of a great painter of high life in the richest and most voluptuous centre of costly living. bearing banners.CHAPTER VI. ar- mour. pieces of and are simply pleasing hibit anatomy to exthis skilful the fair garments with which painter loved to clothe them. we have no example of the nese. filled He excelled in large canvases with silks. dressed out in and brocades and jewels. gorgeous men and women. It is unfortunate that in the Pitti Palace. 130 All the people are . complete as is the collection in many types of pictures. he resembles Rubens in .

I I— •-» o < X .

.

is withal. an air of stately good The great culmination of his power in his picture of the Marriage of Cana at the Louvre. There is a love of display. and that of Tintoret in the Paradise in that and the Crucifixion city. almost graphic trivial effects treated seriously. intent. same doubly dowered Although Veronese seldom chose the greatest and most inspiring tkat subjects. His religious pictures are usually Venetian scenes. and always with high moral He was never vulgar. . He was exactly the sort of painter to please a nation of rich merchants. with noble. he stands as the apostle of light and gaiety. for he had not the necessary quality in his art to justice to them. and society about his work. Of the three great Venetians with whom we are here principally concerned. He showed good judg- ment do in seldom choosing tragic or emotional scenes. playful. he to is set in essentially show forth a out in their best home when he has group of worldly women tricked finery than he is when trying to more at interpret Scriptural stories. art. the focus of Titian's genius in is just as in the Assumption Venice.ttbe Iball of Jupitet large. habitual preference was for graceful. but is the spectacular rather than the thoughtful or poetic in which he indulges. it 131 with monumental decorative proportions . it may also be said of him His and he never chose an unworthy subject.

pointing to heaven. in his Liberation of St. in the act of telling the three has is risen. women that the Saviour is not here but The nimbus of light about their heads fire. is and her head is turned quite away. not painted in the conventional manner of the earlier masters. The rock-hewn tomb At at the left and trees cut into a hillside. is She one hand. above which are two angels examining the linen clothes. standing erect. so that only her figure carries a basket in seen. a veil . Peter in the The in the three figures of the Maries are in varying all attitudes. Three Maries first at the Sepulchre on Easter morning comes to our is Number is 134. One of them is crouching at the door of the sepulchre. Raphael has done the same Vatican. red. is The one more clothed in those foreground than the others shades of gold and rose colour which occur in Venetian glass. etc. mingled in true Venetian spirit with rich effect. Veronese could not resist an opportunity to render a luminous silken material.132 ITbe Hrt of tbe pitti t>alace picture representing the The notice. raises the forefinger of his right hand. and the and shrubs growing. the door are the other. but is rather a mist of Vene- tians generally so painted their halos. This companion is clad in shades of orange. and the other placed upon the shoulder of the next woman. and green. She wears a charming head-dress. expressing surprise.

The a figure is not satisfactory. The large. with the fingers spread symmetrically apart. The third Mary is only seen in part. which would seem complementary to the Three Maries. in profile. but the figure lacks power. Christ stands at the right of the picture. broad folds hang with steps. probably saints. draped by a white and her garments also clothe her with clinging folds. background of drawn against a which makes this part of it the composition confused. the figure of the Saviour at is not essentially it — might be any raised well-draped courtly personage. exquisite grace. ecution than in expression. and is gazing earnestly at the angel. and is the work of man who felt the value of painting rather in exIt all. The is right hand. is when studied independently from the sub- extremely lovely. she is being behind the other two. occupy the position behind the Madonna and at her left . is displeasing. folds of her green mantle gathering the around her. The depth such a scene of feeling which is one would look for ing. is that which represents Jesus taking leave of his mother. But the arrangement of drapery. especially as lattice. The to be other picture by Veronese.Zbc Dall being of ot Jupiter 133 wound about her head to emphasize the shape her coiffure. in entirely lack- Three other women. The Mother Mary her head is sits at the foot of a flight of veil. ject.

and looks at Jesus with much reverence. stands another woman much . and yet with such effect of life as finished work seldom produces. in the shadow. as a few careless Ruskin points out. hair and head-dress are most artistic. com- The tones of the colours are soft and is Veronese always master of tints. of in the This portrait the only work Pitti Palace. lean- ing against a pillar she and her draperies are finely disposed. is Zbc Hrt The one The of of tbe t>itti palace whom Her only the head can be seen very pleasing. made possible by the knowledge bred of long experience. brush unerringly. that has usually . or is Nun. it appears as if strokes of the brush have caused this result. " All great art is delicate art and all coarse art bad art " (Ruskin). but not artistic. Above. that knowledge which is guided the . lucent. But while. at the top of the flight of stairs. Number 140 Leonardo. besides the Goldsmith. although a subordinate part of the position. the real fact is that these apparently heedless strokes are the refinement of artistic intention. dog or a still- A life few touches of his can paint a subject so that the actual thing portrayed seems to be present in a defined shape. Veronese understood how to paint with as bold an impression as a scene-painter. other woman holds her hands upon her heart. it is" There is some grace in the attitude. is the famous Monaca.134 side.

The costume life. on which descried the may name of Christ. sider it 13s critics Some conIt is of the school of Piero di Cosimo. emanating from the painter's brain. but an actual woman who has lived. with reliefs of white in delicate veiling. draped in the regulaexcite remark. and Perugino. who appears so piquant to the traveller. a priestess. the background repit is resents a monastery. tion nun's habit. in a very is shown in three-quarters view.trbe t)all of Jupitet been attributed to Leonardo. as Is of inward contrasts and as inexplicable. in fact. In reality the face has not very much that is complex. which stood originally in the place of Santa Maria Novella. certainly a all little unusual for one in cloister hence these speculations. being a serious. An arch of the arcade this is directly behind the is head of supposed mysterious nun. or a courtesan? " This being. He " This not an abstract being. a sister of full Monna Lisa in the Louvre. painted on wood. holds a small book in her hand. The is picture has been ascribed in turn to Franci- abigio. would hardly The . showing that she to be walking in the cloister. if calm countenance. which. said to be a view of the ancient Hospital of St. Taine says : is most enthusiastic about the is picture. Ghirlandajo. low corsage of black. Paul. she a nun. and is exquisite in its finish. The She be transparent effects are beautifully rendered.

The Greek ideal of the Fates was usually three . —a is the farther fact almost irreconci- lable with the absolute technical skill of Leonardo. bought from Marquis RicolHni. The striking picture in low tones of brown. while Atropos. Anatomically Leonardo has never failed said to He was have been the most thoughtful painter except Albert Durer. Lachesis. Clotho carries the spindle in the backLachesis. in has twisted a which she holds taut her right hand. first place. stand in a monumental is group. their virility. There is is some internal evidence that this picture not by Leonardo. is holding the blades ready to cut the thread at a signal from Lachesis. from a design by the master. It more probably by Rosso Fiorentino. The three elderly crones. and Atropos. The Grand Duke Ferdinand III. is In the eye in bad drawing. The beauty of his faces not always of the conit vincing and obvious type. which gives them us. has been attributed to Michelangelo. emblematical of the thread of life. with her shears. the centre. called The Fates. Clotho. is a subtle charm of the soul shining through the expression. and he had a thor- oughly creative mind. But they are always faultlessly drawn. in ground. thread.13^ XCbe art of tbe is it IPitti IPalace painting of the hands fine. but much doubt is thrown upon its authenticity. upon whose face she has fixed her eyes.

. it. all is really more conscientiously painted. is is keen. . to all the petty disciples of formal criticism. ture (for it The model who is a repeat of the same head in three varying positions) was an old woman who used to visit Michelangelo constantly at the time of the siege of Florence. and the interest being only ." Lotto's Three Ages of Man may we be compared with Giorgione's Concert. — in Dante. — goddesses life . and In some of these the appreciation of the ** grotesque rules the entire conception . which Hall of the Iliad. the persons re- ceiving equal attention.. occurs in truly great originators. But it ally more exaggerated. Michelangelo. to offer the services of her son as a warrior.. to such a degree that they are an enigma and an offence . Tintoret. in the De- partment of Drawings. as Ruskin says. There are in the Uffizi. by Rosso Fiorentino. which. two studies for their heads. will see in the it As a composition. This picture tirely the is hardly robust enough to be enhis types are usuis work of Michelangelo. and characteristic. merits the words of Kugler as applied to terribilita " is — " Severe.trbe 1baU of Jupftet lovely 137 young girls. which the master but there a certain grimness and a noble all grotesque." In this picture there for none of the " famous . but Michelangelo had seen that side of which led him to draw sat for the pic- them as witches. and even if it is a powerful picit ture.

figure of a is The picture young man at the right of the seen in profile. and is certainly quite worthy of the great Venetian. falls through which the light with such inimitable charm. His gaze at not that of comprehension. this subtle art claim- ing more of his thought than dress. and dressed in brown and red.138 Ube art of tbe IMtti palace slightly diverted to the central figure. At any rate. it Morelli ascribes this picture to Giorgione. but of exthe scroll of life is amination. the first Age of Man. looking also at the sheet of music in the boy's hand. The first child is such an exquisite bit of work that the is glance instinctively drawn to him . one finds that the heads really deserve study. as does also the cap \yhich hurriedly. is slouched on — the mystery and the joy of the music is He holds and studies a sheet of music. setting The two central others are not merely a one. a typical Italian boy of the rich blond colouring of the Lagoons. if he did not paint it. — seen in three-quarter face. suggest the carelessness of early youth as to the conventional arrangement oi personal ap- pearance. unrolling before him by degrees. but with finger raised in the act of interpreting to the younger one some . The straying locks of his hair. for the as in the Concert. — man who did. he was the in- spiration of the The is child. but as one looks from all right and left.

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art. and healthy.. all portraits. . His hopeful. .. The old man on possibly symbolizing The delightful colour-scheme of the picture red robe. completed by his His face. when we see them painted. buoyant. age and experience.. retrospect. Lending our minds . Altogether the compo- sition is full of thought and thoroughly sympathetic. . the large ear usually said to denote a generous tempera- ment is much in evidence. dawn of self-con- No scheme of colour could have been the left looks over his shoulder. is while bearing the marks of not unamiable or cruel . while earnest.. things we have passed Perhaps a hundred times nor cared to see So they are better painted Art was given for that : ". is chosen better to display his mature beauty." — Browning. . . — We're made so that we love First. betokens the sciousness. The is face of this man is ""among the most satisfactory things in expression.. and we might see on the street to observe until they are thus brought together then these frankly characteristic types take on a new significance. . The heads people as fail are probably They are such any day. God uses us to help each other so out. with chaste and well- disposed trimming. Zbc Iball of Jupitet 139 of the obscure passages. the picture is full of optimism up to this its The green tunic. point.

smoke-laden battle Jacques Courtois. while a central figure represents a soldier discharging his firearms at an enemy prostrate on the ground. picture This was the first painted by Salvator Rosa in Florence. and was a painter of the Roman 1 school. Rarely is seen a painting of an enraged crowd made so convincing as by these small flashing eyes of the combatants. living from 62 1 to 1675. The warriors and horses are in armour. by Giovanni Battista Franco. Number 133. with mountains beyond. He holds the a shield bearsyllables of is A R O. lier on the a cava- who has been thrown. and who supposed to be a likeness of the painter. and .140 ^be Hrt and of tbe pitti palace There by- Portraits is battles abound in this hall. first In the centre of this picture a foot-soldier charging upon the cavaliers. ing the inscription S Salvator's name. the general hurly-burly of which is punctuated by little scintillating eyes. Another great battle-piece represents the Battle of Montemurlo. born in 1536 and dying in 1561. two detachments of on the right left is is cavalry are attacking one another. In one of these. an enormous warlike. a young man of some promise. are Turks wearing turbans. There are two large war scenes by Salvator Rosa. Courtois was called II Bourgognone. in the who is already A fortified city is seen background. an inconspicuous Venetian painter.

Co'simo this '' Ht I. — Salvator Rosa. and upper rooms of the Pitti. had been taken from his friends by the will of God. while in picture to still young. and had used signify that the duke." one of the most graphic bits of writing on this subject." It is How In to Compose a Battle. extolled.. " on Painting. the bird of Jove. and so borne up into heaven. Number 135 another scene of carnage displays the signature of the artist on the cornice of a temple. but foreground were the huntsmen of Ganymede.. which displayed good invention. Vasari describes battle-piece affair of in his Life of Battista Franco in The Montemurlo. to who is carrying the youth Battista it away the skies. . Battista painted a story of the battle which had been fought. most in the which his illustrious Excellency has caused to be entirely finished. and mingled with the facts certain poetic fancies of his own. having then ensued. . this part borrowed from his Michelangelo.. which all exiles and rebels to the duke were routed and taken prisoners. Rosa is better represented. It was painted by him is with extraordinary care.. in the The work was much . now . with their eyes turned upward toward standing.: trbe t)aU of Jupiter loyal to his sovereign... In the distance was the battle." sons Per- who are interested in these battle-scenes should not fail to read the masterly description of in his " Treatise Leonardo entitled da Vinci.

moment when having employed all his marvellous elo- quence to detail the nature of his perilous enter' prise. A repHca of was executed it is for the MartelH family and one of the most famous of Rosa's Some claim that the Paris copy is the original. ratified by pledging each other in wine mingled with human blood. a weak. the Conspiracy of CatiHne. altar. dressed in ancient Roman costume. and is the next picture to be considered. The figures were drawn from the demonstrative Neapolitans of his own day. In the centre an antique tripod serves as an which about to be used for the celebration of a ghastly ceremony.142 tCbe Uvt of tbe t>itti l^alace however. has induced the conspirators to bind them- selves to secrecy and to the terrible cause by taking a solemn oath. clasping altar. Salvator Rosa depicts that fearful Catiline. hands above the The one on the left. is This ceremony now Roman in process. The masterpiece this picture in Paris. falls An effective shadow is upon the rest of the picture. falling from above. Two men in the dress of the nobility stand in the foreground. The light. It hangs over the door of this salon. by his most famous picture. of Salvator Rosa represents an episode in the conspiracy of CatiHne. it is so reflected from the marble walls that illuminates the heads and figures in the centre and foreground. historical paintings. . The scene is in the Palace of Catiline.

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but his beauty fiery order. as men willing to bind themselves by such an oath could hardly be. The conspirator who clasps the hand of Curtius is better looking than the traitor. is of a brutal. One would way expect neither justice nor mercy at his hands. how- . to supply the blood for the conspirators to drink. Neither of these men appears to be in any reliable. and the drawing of every lineament follows the description of Sallust. because of his brutal. in hopes that this con- spicuous part in the ceremony might so impress his imagination that he would be given additional This strength to maintain secrecy and good faith. urg- men to their duty with uplifted arm. figure is intended for Quintius Curtius. is 143 holding a cup to receive the blood which flows from his raised arm. He was probably chosen for this hideous sacrifice. spirators are seen Some right.XEbe Iball of 5upftet evil-looking dupe. is Catiline himself quite in the background. of the patrician con- on the One of them. — two of the old price. fighters wearied with peace. In the background at the left are guard of Sylla. in full armour. and ready for action at any They are regarding Curtius and his opposite with ad- miration and wonder. Treachery may be seen in the mean and undecided ing these lines of his countenance. uncertain nature. and Catiline still feels the necessity for stimulating their courage with his eloquence.

meeting like. for he was an impulsive NeapoliNaples for tan. . aristocratically attired vagabonds. under death. sight. so that as his son. a sufficient image of the mind of the painter of Salvator Catiline. and adopted the of Caravaggio. XEbe Hrt ot tbe pitti palace seems to turn with horror from the atrocious and to loathe the idea of seahng an oath with a hbation of human blood . he joined the band known as " Compagnie della Morte. might be expected to look Ruskin considers of Salvator. even at that time all envying Catiline. although left Rome when he was only twenty years of age. on such an errand. calls Burckhardt them " a choice company of evil- natured. and longing to trample other powers in subjection. and yet he was planning a it still more disastrous conspiracy of his own." at the time of the popular tumult Massaniello' . he says " It is as elevated a type as he ever : reaches. for is the face of Julius Caesar." which is doubtless what such a company. While he was a youth in Naples.144 ever. but at Massaniello's tragic Rosa lost heart and fled to Rome. we may almost consider him He he is always rather savage in his se- lection of subjects. He style was a scholar of Spagnoletto.'^ Rosa was born in Naples in 1615. vulgar. this a very characteristic picture In alluding to another head painted by him. and assuredly debased enough. and spent his life in the Imperial City.

tlbe Iball of Jupttet 145 That Rosa was an original and positive person is He wrote poetry. Salvator announced that . as the Academicians did not wish to recognize a doctor in their midst. Artists came crowds. for they tell a story of a certain picture painted by a surgeon. without any announcein ment as to authorship. So and the scandal spread. privy conspiracy. and his house was the certain. ture of " Fortuna " could be seen. among who were treading pearls under their feet. and rebellion. too. another ly- was recognized an old goat ing on a bed of roses. and Hterary men. resort of wits. but rejected by the Academy. his all friends evil made him draw up a formal denial of intent in his picture before his life was really considered safe! Perhaps he was rather scornful of the reigning authority in some other matters. and praised the it When they had admired it to his satisfaction. of one Church dignitary. and Salvator Rosa was accused of sedition. ecclesiastical grandees. people pretending to penetration detected a cardinal masquerading as an great personage ass. it Rosa took the picture and exhibited among his its own things. artists. picture. and the eye of another. as well as He probably owes much of his bad reputation to the with these last fact that he took certain In a picthe swine the nose liberties mentioned guests. very well done. scattering with his hoof the laurel with which his path was strewn in .

The attitude is suggestive of Correggio's The shepoccasional treatment of this subject. his on a stone. think the Academicians have acted unwisely. The not remarkable in other ways. who lies on a linen cloth on the ground. herds are assembled. " But." The Nativity is pleasingly but not convincingly rendered by Lelio Orsi. " I for. a painter of the school. bending toward the child. thoroughly good. 1586." he added. most delightful in There is great stateliness in her attitude. leaning is present . and St. portrait. and painting The Virgin is kneeling. in profile. one hand crossed above This position painting is is the other.146 Ubc art the ot tbe IMttt palace was if work of the surgeon. II. Joseph attitude. rather an original touch. — 1 but doubtless as Sustermans conceived that they might have dressed. The pose.. by Sustermans. and clad entirely differently from any Vestal Virgin. I ' as she stands holding in her hands a sieve. Her hair hangs free on her and she wears a green mantle. they would have the advantages of his services in setting some of the broken and deformed limbs that occur in the exhibitions. born in Lombard until Reggio in 151 1. The whole effect is She was the wife to live in of Grand Duke Ferdinand who came . shoulders. he were only a member of the Academy. of Vittoria is della Rovere as a Vestal Virgin. is natural.

ler thus sums up his excellences " KugHe was of decided realist tendency. having been in 1597. portraits for the remainder of II. Andrea del Sarto. bringing with him the Vittoria art collections of his father." 1681. help us to understand more intelligently the large number of pictures by Del Sarto in the . — perhaps : the most essential quality in a popular portrait painter. born in Antwerp But his claim as a Flem- ish artist stops there. an able draughtsman. In the time of Cosimo he went to portraits of Florence. and possessed much freedom of the brush. retained in the court until the death of Cosimo He had the talent of being able to retain a likeness while flattering the individual. was a daughter of that Francesco Maria be della Rovere. Lucrezia. JoO'St Sustermans was a Fleming. whose portrait by Baroccio seen in the next room. herited his art treasures. He was III.. a powerful and clean colourist.ttbe Iball of jupitet u? Cosimo will the Pitti in the seventeenth century. the existing family. painting members of the Medici Many of these pictures hang in the Pitti. and painted court his life. all where he remained. He went early in life to Italy. II. and on his death she in- which were brought to the Pitti as part of her dowry. He died in Florence in Number 118 It will represents the artist. and his wife.

he began to show promise of artistic talents. and their studio became a rendezvous for the wits and sages of Bohemia. the object of his devotion being one Lucrezia. and was sent early to in the studio' of Piero di Cosimo. the wife of a cap-maker. Andrea's head followed those . decided to up These two fellows received as many orders as they could execute. . so greatly influenced his art. general fascinator. the son of a tailor. who and who seems to have been a turned the heads of many young men. work As a youth." His real name was Vanucci.148 Pitti trbe art of tbe pitti palace Palace if we look for a life. boon companions had been the sum of Andrea might have lived to realize a fortune fell in love. whence name. — " Del Sarto. in his case. He had a pasand prick among these was a hedgehog. he friend. he not wisely but too well. Among their intimates was Rustici. who must have been an sion for exotic pets eccentric genius. After a short time of apprenticeship. moment born his in intoi the cir- cumstances of his which. He was Florence in i486. none other set than the famous Franciabigio. and there he cherished pents and aquatic curiosities. and another ambitious young a studio together. rooms ser- that used to roll itself up under the table the shins of guests. in his Rustici had one of the house flooded. by his art. but unfortunately. If the innocent Bohemian freaks of these his follies.

. when Lucrezia's husband died on a sudden. Andrea seems tO' have worshipped this unworthy but enchanting woman. amiable. So. . But still. easily led. — the other's Virgin was his — wife — ! Men will excuse me. Sweet. and a little it seems to have turned farther than the others. emotions people —a and common mistake among in who have the artistic temperament an unhealthy degree " Let my hands frame your face in your hair's gold. there's my picture ready made There's what we painters call our harmony smile ? ! . one of his moods of conjugal as spiritual." it. lovely that " And the result is so Men have excused him. rounds on rounds '* ! . inspiration for his She became the tures. adoring his interpreting Lucrezia's his outward appearance. keep looking so.: ! Ubc Iball of Jupitet 149 of his contemporaries. You beautiful^Lucrezia that art mine Andrea painted that Raphael did this The Roman's is the better when you pray. inexpressibly as Browning has expressed describing the painter sitting in religion. he married the widow. My serpentining beauty. most sacred pic- most inappropriately selected as his type for the Virgin. for." And " again: You Why. and from that time all his money went toi decking her out for her progressive conquests.

Andrea paints a more mature as the Virgin. where he painted the and which In 1524 the exquisite Pieta. It is this also to be seen in the Pitti. those of the type the and presents Lucrezia glory. ISO XTbe art ot tbe pitti palace Artists laboured much for the churches in those days. It i^ woman . Madonna is in Glory with Saints was executed. to escape the plague which was raging there. which hangs in the Pitti. The good brothers evidently believed in " casting their bread upon the waters. vite Convent. In 1523 Del Sarto left Florence for a time. which Gallery and. Andrea executed also the paintings lids of the History of Joseph on the riage-chests presented of two marto by Salvi Borgherini Mar- gherita Accajuoli on her wedding-day. He went to a convent for refuge. smoke and good In 15 17 Andrea painted the renowned del Arpie in the Uffizi.. Perhaps all this Madonna Madonna is in one of the most beautiful of recognized as his." and no doubt the candles returned to them in wishes. is power of her youthful In 15 18 followed the in the Pitti powerful Disputa. will be described in its turn. as worth while to notice unpleasant to remem-^ time goes on. having the true spirit of applying his art even to the crafts. and often received small equivalent for their time and thought. For painting a Pieta in at the Ser- Andrea was paid a bunch of votive candles. that.

an old lady paused by him and watched . Some of his most powerful work occurs in these last efforts. he had no depictures are the cadence. is Baldinucci interest. discreetly withdrew in order to escape contagion. Surely he might have uttered without egotism the words with which Browning " credits him No I sketches first. responsible for a narrative of the artist Empoli some One day when was em- ployed copying Del Sarto's Nativity in the Servite Cloister. so that the painter died in solitude.: trbe t)all ot 5upitet ber that this must have been because his wife 151 was he getting older. His power of delineation never waned. in which the portrait of himself appears. wife. — that's long past. died for. as when he was only forty-two. And fail in doing. The brothers of the Scalzo buried him with short delay. and which was left his easel at the time of his death. for she continued to be his model." Andrea His del Sarto died of the plague in 1530. with that sense of self-preservation which characterized her. his Biadi alludes to this disposition of remains as " the poorest possible " funeral. do what many dream of all their lives. and the large painting unfinished on of the Virgin in Glory. Among his latest two Holy Families in the Pitti. no studies. Dream? Strive to do. and agonize to do.

152 tbe art at work. del Sarto in the Number is 124. It is on a wooden panel. There are three treatments of the same subject. with a vaulted ceiling. At the left stands the Virgin. above which. . The background scene in is of this picture is famous. above the door leading to the next hall. and submission . with a lily in his left hand. depicted as taking place in the open a beautiful garden. hesitation. with an expression of surprise. It was removed then purchased in San Jacopo Tra Fossi. of tbe lC)itti Ibalace that one of the him wife. The picture was painted for the monks to of San Gallo. transpired that she herself was Lu- crezia in the flesh. — the Annunciation. There is a slight haze which suggests that they belong to another world. there are two charming angels behind him. is and a chaste Renaissance This house has a portico house seen at the left. Pitti. and was 1626 by the Duchess Maria Maand hung in the chapel of the dellena of Austria. At kneels. She informed him figures in the picture was a portrait of the artist's Upon it his questioning her authority for the statement. She is reported to have lived to be eighty-seven. she wears a dull red robe and the right the Angel Gabriel a blue mantle. on a balcony. but this. — by Andrea Pitti. the painting of whose heads is especially delicate. The air. by far the best. and hung for a time in their church outside the Porta San Gallo.

in the Hall of Jupiter .ANNUNCIATION By Andrea del Sarto •.

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upon which an may be thus translated " Andrea del Sarto has painted thee here as he carries thee in his heart. The legend. " Behold Augustus then proCoeli." Garofolo has painted a striking picture of Augustus and the Sibyl. and an ex- shows beyond. were the Madonna and Child. while a voice was heard chanting. to thy glory rather than to his renown." ceeded. The Sibyl replied by causing a cleft in the clouds above an altar. In Garofolo*s treatment of the story the general atmosphere Sibyl is is and the figure of the a graceful one. as most of us have heard. Marie. is an ancient one. the altar of the living God. On is the steps which lead to the portico a youth quisite landscape resting. It prie dieu. as the Senate had decreed. and from the breast to the knee much too long. The Emperor Au- gustus Caesar visited the Tiburtine Sibyl to ask her to answer his question whether he ought to allow his people to worship him as a god. and to receive divine honours. and not such as thou art. although the proportions are strained. while through the open arches of the portico ruin. the distance a little from her neck to her vision in the heavens breast being too short.: Ube fjall of Jupitct 153 several persons are gathered. after this vision. may be seen a picturesque little Mary is has risen from a inscription. enthroned. line Hill the tO' found upon the Capito- Church of the Ara interesting. The . there.

One wonders if it is could keep such a canine. he had become attracted by the work of Da Vinci.154 Zbc art of tbe ©ttti lC>alace might have been better conceived. His method was to draw the figure nude. Augustus Caesar dressed like an apostle rather than a is Roman Em- peror. so he defiantly painted this St. it restless and energetic. although seated. On the floor is an extremely diminutive possible that a Sibyl it lap-dog. with a shell-like apse above him. The picture not a powerful The full gigantic St. The is figure is of action. fill d'etre. the Child looks as if he were wading through the clouds. and . While Delia Porta had studied under Roselli. put there in a space. and his early works are so had been fine as to be almost miniatures. He criticized as being unable to reproduce any- thing on a large scale. Marc. shading his eyes with his hand. looking carefully in a diametrically opposite direction from the vision. is The scene is laid in an open portico. thereby silencing first all cavil on that score. The treatment of the draperies of the Sibyl is charming. his figure rather attenuated. her tunic falling in folds of quite a Gre^ cian aspect. The saint is painted in a kind of niche. Marc of Fra Bartolommeo occu- pies a large space in this apartment. and look like an emperor's pet! certainly does not it In other words. as he kneels. It is is seems to have no raison order to one.

a painter of Ferrara from 1481—1530. There Crespi. being brought before Christ. This portrait of a man in armour. to main a figures in half-length. he was born at Brussels in 1602. in either case.treme finish. when brought into such close proximity. and died in Paris on the twelfth of August is in 1674. and might from fear at the wild bird. scarf loosely crossed from shoulder is and a square lace collar. equal care being taken with all details. by Phi- lippe de Champaigne. KaU ot Juptter fell iss into the and thus he never of drawing irrelevant folds with nothing under them.XCbe then to drape error it. . The Child. good example of the of Mazzolini. 132. is hiding his face and motioning to his father it to take the bird away. This picture represents the Joseph has caught string. is a very sweet. or from sympathy at the bird's captivity . The picture. A good cavalier portrait is Number 126. human Holy Family by St. little and brings it. tied by a show to the Infant Jesus. in his mother's arms. or to set at liberty. it is a delightful and orig- inal picture. one of the best of the Flemish masters. The arise attitude is thoroughly little childlike. remarkable for his ex. Number bird. of the Woman is Taken a in Adultery. Number style 129. His hair dressed in the elab- orate curled style of the period. with a sash-like to hip.

and wood- cock seem to have been the game. rabbits. is a spirited The men who have on which been participating in the chase are ranged up to have their pictures painted. green. triumphant virtue gloating over exposed vice. and the expressions on their faces are very cleverly portrayed. who Pharisees stand Christ the act of forgiving the stands before him.156 Ubc Htt is in ot tbe mm palace woman. Pheasants. positively outraged gerous doctrine. while at the the others one in in blue and dressed inconspicuous shades of a neutral is The central seated figure good. The hypocrites and about. — without realization that their sin of hard- heartedness and self -justification was quite as hid- eous in the sight of the Lord as was the sin of the woman whom feeling they condemn. he is in black. stone. The colours of the cosis figure at the right left is in blue and tan. and . and holds the composition together capitally. tumes are pleasant. Doubt. One acid old person at is turning away. what he considers danstooping to pick up a another Manozzi's Return from the Hunt display of cavalier portraits. the right still The hunter at carries his gun on his shoulder. behind a table are deposited their spoils. her hands crossed and her eyes cast down. — all are drawn with is and force. — the are cast. with no con- ception of the Christian ideal of protection and tolerance. disapproval.

or materials. it is considered simply as thoroughly charming. in fact. As picture. by of full Done by my best scholars. Ruskin remarks that " Rubens wants the feeling for grace and mystery. Number 139. it — wholesome. it a good-natured. his usual vein. the whole retouched my hand. costumes. — is a portrait-study of his own menage." little The are blooming. plump children. Nevertheless. and . winsome. Rubens's Holy Family. types. he mentions florins. is quite in human. is impossible to find studio piece. a family group. A most beautiful picture. It is true. simpering Dutch- to there being any inspiration in the more than a proud grandmother and parents viewing two very rollickIt is said by some to be a ing. catalogue. is h7 It a good picture of its class. for instance. It is which it purports to repchildren almost " jolly. He is so much imthem pressed himself by the worldly and theatrical value of certain subjects that he even advertises according to those characteristics. and the mother. of the subject resent. either in types. : In his priced " Six hundred a picture of Achilles clothed as a woman. he was toO' baldly realhis He had a great way of painting own family in sacred scenes." istic at times. father.tCbe 1baU of Jupftet others have their hunting-pieces in their hands. with no suggestion. and grandmother are Rubens's usual is The mother woman. jocund chaps.

On the table appears Elegit." the inscription. but among them was Artemesia Gentileschi. Num- ber 142. and have fallen in with nymphs. She was as popular for her manners and appearance as for her .- 15^ tCbe art of tbe beautiful lp>itti Ipalace the appeal many young girls. All laws are disregarded. satyrs have evidently returned from a hunting party. and is said to have been a most charming woman. and a vase of perfume lady on the ground. except that she infallible is endowed with a art. — proof of sainthood in is Near the skull on the table a mirror." He knew is to popular taste. On the a dead boar and a dead deer. who worked at Pisa. Her hair is and there is nothing to suggest that the picture represents a penitent. by Artemesia Gentileschi. The Bacchanale satyrs of Rubens a free fight between and nymphs. is A Magdalen. and they are capturing any one the ground lie whom they can. " is Optimam Partem satin. Her lips are parted and her body thrown slightly forward. The picture is numbered 141. She was the daughter of an artist. Very few women painted in the era of the Renaissance. good society. where she was born in 1590. On is a table is seen a skull. The in a very low-necked Italian Renaissance costume of luscious and evidently moves in in ringlets. She might be an opera singer trying to reach a high note. halo.

on something while in pietra the same principle as the closely clustered square stitches in cross-stitch embroidery. She was influenced by Guido Reni and Domenichino.Zbc talents as Iball of Jupiter 159 a painter. This style of work differs essentially from the mosaic made Rome. or Florentine mosaic. the edges fitted to a nicety. In this hall stands one of the most famous of the great tables made in of pietra dura. She lived for some time in Naples. for in the Roman is vari- ety the tesserae are small. and the workmanship necessarily much more skilful than in Roman mosaic. and the effect produced by innumerable tiny bits of colour. portraiture. She had great and was particularly famous for picture The of the Magdalen was probably begun as a portrait. where she married. . variety of style. dura the actual stones are cut and polished the exact shape and size of the values they are to represent.

" It is a narrow person particular style who own can see beauties only in the to prevail or to which happens day. and see what is really there of merit or defect. that is shown Raphael's Madonna of the Chair. *' " His art/' says Benson. THE HALL OF SATURN Is the name its of Raphael less significant than it was fifty years ago? Modern criticism is not as ready with earlier unstinted praises as day. The most popular in the Pitti It is a is picture.CHAPTER VII. round picture. but no criticism was that of an or modern spirit can prevent a wholesome appreciation of the immortal part of Raphael's genius. is is above fashion. familiar even to children in all i6o . be the fashion in his Let us return to our Raphael in the Hall of Saturn. to whom the fact of unchallenged ascendency is in itself a chal- lenge. perhaps. with a mind free from prejudice. One should not accept the rather degen- erate cavil of iconoclastic eccentrics. as it above criticism.

MADONNA OF THE CHAIR By Raphael . in the Hall of Saturn .

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little a round painting on wood. or perhaps for one of the acquisitive Medici. describable and uncopyable luminosity about the Immaculate Conception of Murillo in the Louvre. or colour. But v^hat this signifies that it is " too common/' are the quahties w^hich have thus appealed to so many generations? Surely not a commonplaceness of composition. ably executed by order of was prob- Leo X. and is over two feet in work of the master and 15 14. Jhe trouble that so much undiscriminating and lavish praise has been be- stowed upon the Madonna of the Chair. that the pendulum has swung the other way us examine It is it at last. is a charming legend connected with the The story is that a venerable hermit dwelt among the hills near Rome. sees the original can one possibly Not until one know the real inlike power of this picture.. There painting. which has also been copied almost as often.Zbc countries. handling. so full first is it seen in the new is of that subtle quality which so different from the work of is any inferior artist. who was called . a diameter. There is an element of it. between 15 lo while he was working in the Vatican. Let and see what there the really is to admire. It during his Roman period. and yet which bursts original like a upon one when picture. It Iball ot Saturn i6i has been more copied and engraved To some sensitive souls than any other picture.

sitting One day Mary was in her stick by one of these casks with a child arms. the it had been cut down and sections of prepared for heads for the wine-casks. In the meantime. providen- came up at the moment when this propitious tableau presented itself. Raphael. and that in a frightful storm the Hfe of this old man was once saved by his taking estate shelter in a great oak-tree which grew on the of a wine-dresser. it and both Mary and the oak-tree were immortalized. nardo departed from the wine-dresser's he pronounced a blessing upon Mary. Modern critics find in this picture spirit. reported model for a Madonna. Mary. and sketched the group then and there. who was hospitable and kind to the hermit on this occasion. and the Madonna result. Thus the hermit's away in triSeggiola was the final blessing was realized. He immediately appro- priated the top of the wine-cask. He del carried umph. small evidence of the devotional There are absolutely none of the superstitious or symbolical elements which occur in so many of the precious earlier Madonnas . After many tree years the hermit died. An older child ran to show her a which he had fashioned into a to be in search of a tially cross. This wine-dresser had a lovely daughter.1 62 ube art ot tbe IPitti palace Father Bernardo. and also besought the Almighty that the friendly tree might be distinguished by some special favour. When Father Bershelter.

clutching her infant with the beautiful gesture of a savage animal ! That there is not as ual as earthly beauty in this picture tainly grant. and a happy with them. An artist has a right beliefs. It is much spiritwe must cer- rather a glorifying of maternity than an exposition of the mediaeval interpretation of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. its Each mode of representation has but the own charm. this is But not a valid objection. It is 163 realistic an absolutely picture of a devoted mother hugging her extreme child close. Hawthorne expressed himself as convinced that this was the most beautiful picture in the world. to interpret a scene according to his own and it is not unlikely that the Holy Family similar in Naz- areth presented a somewhat outward ap- pearance to other families of their period and locality.trbe Iball of Saturn of the Italian schools. Holy Family in and other so which has been expressed many early pictures by visible halos and attitudes of conscious piety. The subtle difference between the families. little chubby brother or cousin playing it But is is a little in Taine to say that the mother a Circassian or Greek sultana. and George Eliot evidently found religion. gross Madonna because we of the Chair should not be called love also the refined and exalted types of Fra Angelico and Lippo Memmi. may in reality is be quite as much a license of the painter as this entire realism. as she inter- .

' picture which pleased him so much was the famous Ma- donna del Seggiola by Raphael. Dr.' said he. He says that one evening. and the . a friend was pointing out rather the excellences of some of the listen pictures to him. where the grand duke resided. " the final and lasting impression " picture. who would remain ignorant than to the lectures of a connoisseur. her . made upon her by the A most interesting writer of travels tells in the eight- eenth century. When he returned. . yet one con- of the truest copies of nature I .) admire the "'Because. John Moore. he said. but there I a picture in one of the other rooms which all . handsome country woman with her child arms. rather have than the portrait of a healthy. We followed him." (But the gentleman expressed told that it disappointment when represented the * Holy Family. * I know would in no more of painting than is my pointer. man of genuine because without any previous knowledge or instruction he had fixed his admiration on the finest picture in Florence. she says. while " a gentleman in the company. in the Pitti Palace. walked on by himself into the other apartments. I and thought ever saw. in connection an anecdote with the Madonna of the Chair. Ube art in the " is ot tbe l^itti ipalace grave gaze of the Infant/' which. though it I art of the painter. Our instructor immediately pronounced him a taste. . .i64 preted it.

. in its " Its chief charm. leave to better judges than I pretend to be to determine." says Hilliard. I will quote another traveller. happy blending of the divine and the human elements. and And when am told that this picture lived. admiration. and that her son should be called the . .Ube fess ftall of is Saturn 165 my admiration much was the abated when you inform * me * that his intention to represent the Virgin/ cicerone. George Stillman Hil- liard. ? ' Why so ? ' repHed The Virgin rank in Hfe/ Mary was not said the other. Some painters treat this subject in such a way that the spectator sees only a mother caressing her child. divine love. while by others the only ideas awakened are those of the Virgin and Redeemer. of high rank ' * No could give additional dignity to told the person who had been by an angel from heaven that she had found favour with God. besides I comeliness. ." To show how differently two persons of different temperaments may be struck by the same picture. I by the greatest painter that ever am disappointed in perceiving no traces of that kind in it/ What I justice there it is in this gentleman's remarks. is and I virgin modesty. whose opinion of the Madonna of the Chair be compared with the analysis of it may " is by Doctor Moore's friend. Son of the Highest in the countenance of such a woman. look for the most lively expression of gratitude.

the sweetness and the grace belong to this world. one comfort that no one has even technical points that are risen to announce that the picture by some other Among space. infantile form. and suggest something to worship as well as something to love. the colouring of the vari- ous fabrics is a relief from the conventional blue art. the fond. are touched by the light from heaven. worth nothing. But as a composition graceful. is a mysterious depth of ex- pression. — the purity of heaven and the tenderness of earth. especially that of the Infant Saviour. The round. points out that perhaps this is well filled. and. Virgins which so abound in Whether one Raphael is prefers Greek or Gothic styles. but the faces. fervour." A Circassian sultana.! i66 Ube art ot tbe pfttt palace But heaven and earth meet on Raphael's canvas. clasping arms. — the up artist. It is — De Te Fabula is — a healthy peasant. Queen of Heaven. the only painter who unites in his manner for the excellences of both. . the is an unusual one for a group. . in whose eyes there . if the costume does somewhat suggest an undue mixture of East- ern and Western styles. . Greek beauty and religious — these are no longer irreconcilable. Crowe at the accomplished expense of the comfortable appearance of the subjects. bit — possibly the figure of the Virgin fit is a cramped to the exigencies of the it is circle.

followed by his *' his life in Florence. nor preacher by his sermon. lasting until his pathetic death in 1520. to Rome to paint in the third manner. from 1504 about 15 12. A cursory examination of these three char- acteristic styles in self is which this artist expressed him- now our purpose. the most universally acknowl- edged popular painter of Italian art. when he went Vatican. and her protecting arm. inspired me with a reverence for motherhood such as no philosopher could have inspired by his argument. . but no other nas. artist seems capable of combining this rich beauty with the spiritual exaltation of his Madon- In later testimony regarding this famous pic- ture. nor even musician and poet combined by their song. which was supposed. to extend from his first efforts until about 1504. where he developed till second manner. be: cause. as I stood before this picture. or " after that. and the trustful repose of the child." succeeded these other two. Raphael's style : generally di- vided into three manners his early or Umbrian manner. I quote from again and again to Lyman Abbott "I came back the Madonna of the Chair. There are who can dehneate beauty as well as he. his Roman." the Florentine." Raphael Sanzio. nor novelist by his story. is was born ins Urbino in 1483. roughly. the purity of the mother's face.tCbe 1)aU ot Saturn Raphael has succeeded others in fusing 167 them.

we have alluded. or Roman. Perugino. so vigorous and broad did become. this To what farther degree of perfection will never amazing his death in a cold youth would have attained his life be known. The manner was characterized by the thoughtful conception to which his handling at this time clear. were marked Roman manner of Raphael. more ability to express in fewer touches the idea that these. and in easel pictures a softer mod- elling of the outline. are observable. manner was simply academic expres- a development of this and a broadening into less comprehension and a sion. and in fresco broad brush-marks and defined lines. and had taken a ous life. careful. chill. acteristics of — which are the charall progress in the best artists in in the ages. the author of that charm- . He had been kept waiting antechamber for an interview with the Pope. manner was almost a new it school of painting. he intended to convey. and His colours were pure. The third. More power. and the whole work reminiscent of the conscientious labour of his good master. or Florentine. the tender smoothness of the early work has disappeared. The fuller second. for was only thirty-seven years. which in a few days ended his Count Baldassare. which developed into the treacher- Roman fever. was minute. style.i68 Ube art first of tbe t>itti palace lofty. and came in 1520.

His tomb to be seen in the Pantheon in his Rome. " 169 The Courtier. with the unfinished picture of the Transfiguration hanging over his bed.ttbe Iball of Saturn ingly quaint work. The Grand Duke Ferdinand III. to verify the body beyond a doubt." We know the touching story of how Raphael is lay in state. how- ever. as was very likely painted in 1504. is not of importance. for the Duke Guidobaldo. Some years ago remains were exhumed and an examination made. This. it for . was the work of youth of twenty-one. his We now turn to the incomparable Madonna del Granduca. after which was purchased then bought for the equivalent of about $20 from a poor widow. It This point. at Ura bino. that earlier master." wrote to his that I mother *' : It seems to me am no is longer in Rome. which Raphael painted after relli Madonna was the first Madonna he left Perugino. Mothe loveliest detects so much of the influence of Raphael's Viti. for the preeminent genius Carlo Dolci once had it it in his possession. since all my poor dear Raphael no more. as there had arisen some question as to the place of burial. another well-known Virgin of Raphael. called by some critics that has ever been painted. and there can hardly be a more conclusive argument of Raphael than this fact. it Timoteo he considers that might be more properly it called the Madonna del Duca.

as it on wood. she has the simplicity of a Greek statue saint. . The is infant's eyes are directed toward the beholder. and carried with him on his travels wherever he went. and the mother looking in ele-. As Mr. to sit down before this noble work of art. It combines the spiritual and earthly elements to a It has much of that sweet piety of sentiment that one sees in earlier Perugino and the appears in left Tuscan painters. while with her right hand she gives him the usual support suggested by his position. one would think. as though for protection. — rather is an unwieldy mascot.i^d tbc Urt so of tbe t>itti tatac^ this about $800. feet by one foot nine The composition remarkable degree. transaction. and the sweetness of a Christian One can readily understand how restful it must have been for Ferdinand. after a tedious journey of the eighteenth century. is perfectly satisfactory. He some one was enriched by was so devoted to the picture that it he had it always in his apartments. as the two holy beings in the were looking downward upon the world. child's body there is a very human turn towards his mother. though lower than the eye the level. Still- man says. There is a suggestion of if vation in this arrangement. holding the Child seated on her hand. The Madonna full face. and measures over two inches. same direction.

MADONNA DEL GRANDUCA By Raphael . in the Hall of Saturn .

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A. and the mantle blue. which is exaggerated in the works of Francia and Perugino. with the earthly beauty." This is one of the few Madonnas in which only the Virgin and Christ appear. As the fashion of the day was to pluck out the hairs from the eyebrows and forehead. Hare ." When . the his mere maternal expression of new style.'' " The Madonna del Granduca. . had command over himself the modcol- became firm and precise to a degree unknown of the Umbrian school. The mystical element sugis gested by a thread-like halo above each head the only bit is of deliberate symbolism introduced." says that appreciative critic. There which the draperies are of the simplest. a picture which illustrated the transition first This from the manner of Raphael to : his second. verging on green. Muntz may be quoted acquired complete elling " It showed that he . Owen. honest. " the holy. and sad eyelid . and the to the painters ouring became much clearer and more brilliant. The eyelids are heavy. points out. are no accessories . C.Ube Dall The robe veil ot Saturn is 171 of the Madonna a soft red. " has in it the mingling of the last touches of the reverence and solemnity of the Umbrian school. and the eyebrows are very slightly defined. She has a white over her light hair. this feature is evidently intended to convey the as local idea of beauty. little the child being nude except for a is scarf twisted about him.

A throne is in the cen- on which this is seated the Virgin with the Child. in good cool yellows and greens. Madonnas and complains that the piety of the duke satisfied might just as well be ture. In Raphael's 165. Number and background of the picture are interesting. and the on the left. is a sweet type. Jameson wrote her " Diary of an Ennuyee. holds a substantial key. child is delight- Peter. She admits that she bribed the attendant to show her this room. Bernardo regarded as a patron of monastic learning." she alluded to a fact of interest concerning this picture. Madonna. On the right are St. with an open book. being a little apsidal chapel with a cof- fered vault. in bishop's mitre and clothed in red vestments. and throne is covered by a canopy. the curtains of which are being raised by two very active angels. Augustine. stands next him. is St Bernardo. the setting Madonna del Baldacchino. something on the order of the Granduca St. One " of the most beautiful of Raphael's was suspended beside the bedside of the grand duke. and St. supported on columns and pilasters capitals. which is never exhibited.172 ^be Hrt ot tbe pitti palace ** Mrs. so that by some other pic- he need not selfishly appropriate this gem. James the Less. de- monstrating with his right hand. St. Two charming child angels at the foot of the throne are chanting . with Corinthian tre. The Virgin ful.

giving an expression .Ube from a parchment them. the eagle wings. though is on a very painted with a broad. In this picture Ezekiel himself occupies a minor position. The next small scale. is like quite as much as the picture which the handling of Fra Bartolommeo. where the actual vision forms the seated on the symbolical principally theme of the beasts of the picture. was painted about the time of his work in the Loggia in the Vatican. which. They suggest Fra Bartolommeo There is much about Raphael. Bernard and St. "fcall of Saturn 173 scroll which they hold between of these The broad treatment two is figures. right. being seen only in the dim distance down is upon the earth. finish of the earlier and has none of the smooth It work. picture to be considered it is is Raphael's Vision of Ezekiel. especially the general arrangement. while the spectator transported to the heavens. and the upper part of St. is The Eternal Father bearing him upon its Four Evangelists. Peter on the left. James with the staff on the The angels above seem to be far on the way to turning somersaults. The only parts which are unquestionably by Raphael are the Virgin and Child. trasts rather abruptly Their extreme action con- with the serenity of the rest of the composition. which are familiar to all art lovers. St. admirable. dashing stroke for so minute a picture.

" could be suggested it No more to a painter. ject I. And was over their heads saw as the colour of amber. like the noise of great waters. is first to bear the hon- . face. a great cloud. . and above the firmament that as the I was the likeness . and. symbol of John. . inspiring subject and Raphael has used St. . and the face o^f a lion. and a itself. on the right and they four had the face of an ox on the they four also had the face of an eagle.. came out of the north. out of the midst of the Also out of the midst thereof . was the appearance of the brightness round about.174 Ube art of tbe Ipitti palace of unrivalled lightness to the composition. . . came the face of a side: likeness of four living creatures and as for the likeness of their faces. . : The sub- is taken from the account in Ezekiel. as the appearance of fire round about within it. as the voice of the Almighty. . And when I O'f saw it. infolding . . I left side. And when heard the noise of their wings. they four had the man.. and it had brightness so round about. . behold. . the voice of speech. nobly. . This was the apparance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord.. they w^ent. I fell upon my and I heard a voice one that spake. appearance of a man above upon it. as the noise of an host. a whirlwind fire . . . it. The eagle. As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day O'f rain.. Chapter I " And looked. and a brightness was about fire.

in the Hall of Saturn .VISION OF EZEKIEL By Raphael .

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'* might be applied to this majestic atom. Two in the life little angels support His outspread arms. while the angel of St. Romano's work and considers not Raphael's it except in design. Amber eighteen light is nowhere more perfectly luminous than on this little wooden panel only Ruskin's words. about 15 lo. The ried it picture was executed for Count Vincenzio Ercolani of Bologna. turned three-quarter ecclesisilk face. 175 oured burden. in the usual red and white garments of astical dignitaries. is Some God critics claim that the Almighty too rem- iniscent of Jove. and ap- pears in the main extraordinarily characteristic. but any anthropomorphic idea of Morelli detects Giulio it leads to such treatment. was placed in the Pitti. off. adores the Presence. " Raphael expatiate within the circumference of a platter. below are the lion of Mark and Matthew all the ox of St. while the other holds a paper. The French in carit and when it was returned 181 5. Luke. here. is The portrait of Cardinal Bibiena usually attrib- uted to Raphael. little. with such a in result. as well as a purple watered cape and a red beretta. thirteen by can inches. It is claimed that this picture is a copy of an . One hand lies on the arm of his chair.Ube f)all ot Saturn St. He is seated. amber clouds about are indications of angelic beautifully expressed. matters It is worthy of Raphael any case.

was originally in possession of the Dovizi family at Bibiena." Bernardo Dovizi was born of poor parents Bibiena. He became . in the The seat of power is wide forehead free from hair.176 Ube Htt of tbe pttti palace original in Madrid. yet fleshy where overhangs a large mouth. the hands being well formed calculating. Crowe thinks that the head is by Raphael. is and whose name was Bernardo Dovizi. now in the Pitti. the whole suggesting a polished ecclesiastic. I quote from his description of it : nose is it long and tending to aquiline. in the face. The story is that Raphael painted two portraits of Cardinal Bibiena. which belonged to Balthazar is Castiglione. The gray-blue eyes are clear and open. and brought him to Florence under his protection. where shown the battle between the Saracens and the Romans in the port of Ostia. but that it was finished by subordi" The nates. Passavant the authority for this statement. This one of them. capable of vol- uble speech and mobility. represents Others say that the picture in Madrid another person. a small in town in the Casentino. interest in Lorenzo de Medici took an him while he was a youth. who was a great friend O'f his. a valley behind Vallombrosa. yet sug- gestive of cunning. The and picture is virile. and the is other occurs in a fresco in the Vatican. This portrait. refined.

Ube who Iball ot Saturn 177 the tutor to Lorenzo's sons. Bibiena and Raphael were friends and mutual admirers. and was a statesman and an author. this can be only a is The Roman prelate sitting at a on which are an inkstand and several books. for he died suddenly in Rome in This picture should be compared with Van Dyck's is Portrait of Cardinal Bentivoglio. Bernardo arranged for the political intrigues and the pleasures of Leo. but as Raphael could never have seen Holbein's coincidence. on wood. It is generally sup- posed to be a replica. cardinal. The first idiomatic Italian drama is from his pen. also in the Pitti. Much is repainting and cleaning have a flat injured ries There look about the accesso- which suggests that the pupils had a hand in Passavant sees in it the work. This a more intellectual Still face. one of vanni. is another ecclesiastical portrait by Raphael Tommaso It is Phaedre Inghirami. table. the original being in Volterra. so the project Bernardo ofbut the girl out. though worn and sickly. There are suspicions that he was poisoned. was never carried 1520. a strong reminder of the work of Holbein. created whom was Gio- afterwards became Pope Leo X. which is less simply conceived. Leo him a and his portrait appears with that of his pontifical superior in Raphael's painting of Leo's portrait. fered his niece to Raphael as a bride. . pictures. died. it.

His secPhaedre was adopted by his friends — because of an occasion upon which he exhibited great presence of mind. and the performance was .17S ^be Htt seems to be of tbe ipittt palace ready to write when the He in thought. idealized The face is by the suggestion of thoughtfulness. accurate and smooth. man preferred be painted Raphael would not quite give ject's up so characteristic a point in his sub- face. and papal all secretary. Something machinery got suddenly out of order. Raphael has suc- ceeded in making a dignified portrait. inspiration comes to him. to Inghirami was taken under the protec- tion of the Medici at two years of age. this Like to cross-eyed people." was being acted. He holds a pen in his is right hand. on the finger of which a heavy ring. Red and green predominate in the picture. Vatican librarian. its by beautifying or The is finish of the painting. Lorenzo had him educated he went Rome to study ond name — when he was thirteen. so he gave to the paralyzed eye an abstracted gaze into space. not flattering the features. " Hippolytus. with delicate glazings. having lost . subject. The whole face ex- presses intellectual investigation. in profile. corpulent Considering his and squinting. Seneca's tragedy. Inghirami was a distinguished scholar. Tommaso both parents. and Tommaso was playing in the the part of Phaedre.

the whole work of Ra" is its humanity in the double sense of the humane and the human. to Maximilian I. . will not suffer his eyes to fall He on what is loath- some or horrific. when Giovanni de Medici was elected Pope Leo X. portrait is not known it just when came into the Florentine collection. . tragedy and death. His and painful subjects. from the It is effects of a fall. impromptu Latin verses. made him Bishop of Ragusa in 15 10 and secretary at the conclave in 15 13. men and women cent are either glorious with youth or dignified in hale old age. . Instead of asceti- . Pope Julius II. but likely that Leo X. . . . 1495* ^^ which time he received the of Count Palatine. Touched by is his inno- and earnest genius. He died at Rome." says Symonds. " What distinguishes phael. take loveliness from him.Zbc *all arrested. He shunned stern Even sadness and sorrow. . which in those days were considered an acceptable diver- and he was so much applauded that the name of Phaedre clung to him. at the this it age of forty-two. reciting and began sion. . ot Saturn 179 Inghirami immediately took the stage. mankind once more flesh gifted with the harmony of intellect and and feeling that belonged to Hellas. He title became ambassador in for Alexander VI. obtained from Inghirami himself. Raphael has painted him in the red dress which he then wore. .

let us It study Perugino's Deposition which hangs here. and secondly by pure beauty of faces and figures. or sudden lights to attention to salient points. rhythmic constructhought is tion and lyrical beauty . everything he paints in a clear light. in summing up upon the the genius of the art The wonder and worth of Raphael seem to in a me to rest his possessing supreme degree the gifts of . full. one of his best pictures." No painter has ever appealed so equally to intelligent and uneducated. all is in a glow. " says. was once a pupil of and he in turn was a pupil of the Beato Angelico. Strachey of the master. distant shadows." Mr. doth but sleep lives for Who immortal in how can he be dead the hearts of men ? his To is turn from Raphael to master. «.. no call half-tones. Hellenic temperance the virtue prized by Raphael.. . Says Longfellow: Raphael . 1446 or I447» ^^ Castello There may be said to be only two generations in art between for Perugino him and Fra Angelico. ex- pressed firstly by means of a rhythmic arrangement of lines and spaces." iSo tCbe art of tbe HMttf palace is cism. — to scholar and to peasant. dislike is He showed much of mist or mystery. in Perugino was born della Pieve. Benozzo Gozzoli. some- . He is not dead.

Gold he used quite occasionally with it. Ruskin says that " no painter belonging to the purest religious school ever mastered his art. straightforward repre- sentation of natural objects. he was employed continually by Church dignitaries disproves this theory. He introduced gold often in the lights of hair and in foliage. is ornament supplied by delicate patterns running along the little edges of robes. The ecclesiastics were most particular in those days. even hatching the lights as the early masters had done. with curious shaped shadfolds. hollow folds." and then he goes on to say that Perugino comes nearest to this mastery. — no brocades were His draperies were usuintro- duced. freely.XCbe t)all of Saturn iSi times almost as unadulterated as Fra Angelico's. the materials dark. Vasari starts the scandal that but the very fact that Perugino was an atheist. or in spots of gold or colour. Raphael in his early pictures had acquired some of the same fall in style. treated nevertheless in a devotional spirit. with his lucid. Perugino had a manner quite his own. ows and hood-like ally plain in their texture. and no jewels or embroideries. altar-pieces. and any artist who did al- not hold orthodox views would not have been lowed to paint work. . Ruskin seems to be in his most impressed with the luminous quality In the painting of draperies.

The it painter in a was amused at his dis- and repaid his brush way which must have been very humiliating to the prior. riod. therefore helps in the effect of shadow to introduce the fine lines of hatch- ing as a blending for the colours. generally stipulated that the person was who ordered the picture should supply the ultramarine. Occasionally he is undoubtedly used oil.t way than was finished. As ultrait marine was an extremely expensive colour. He took occasion to wash was that unduly often.i82 ube Hrt or tbe pltti palace 1500. so that the artist should not be put to such heavy expense. and. — even more went When i. it is impossible to model lie as if it were it oil paint. so that the ultramarine precipitated into the water. he had he drained off the water. up the powder he presented to the . scraping at the bottom. This particular old prior was for ever watching and peering about to see if Perugino was using too much ultramarine. but a part of his pictures always in tempera. is A story told of how Perugino artist read a lesson to a very mean-spirited prior of the cloister of the Ingesuati. trust. put on the picture. This partly due to the difficulty of shading with tem- pera painting. it it the yolk of egg being the vehicle. must as first applied. where the was working. In his pictures painted before Perugino used hatching in shading his faces. is after that pe- he employed it also in other textures.

Then only can one with several know how enchanting little absolutely true are his delightful valleys. wrought at the time when he was in the flower of his genius. for such never deceive those who confide in them. In- such as one could really see in so clear a light as Perugino depicts. quiet. towns visible at once hills. romantic country-side in which he was reared gave him his idea of backgrounds for religious pictures. vistas. stand how all these things may be Otherwise the landscape might seem finite distance. is here to be seen. one can undervisible at once.the t)aU suspicious prior. which one of the lovely is landscapes for which Perugino justly famouSc . though they well know how yourself if to circumvent distrustful persons like they desire of the tO' do so. rolling distances. — forti- fied towns capping If approached by winding in the white roads." The beauty landscape backgrounds of Perugino can hardly be appreciated unless one has seen the country of Umbria. Perugino's Deposition is one of his masterpieces. Assisi one has stood monastery at and looked off over the plain. of ^atutrt 1S3 saying: "This belongs" to you. father. in various places. Painted about 1496. artificial. learn to trust honest men. felt in The sense of immeasurable distance is is the background. The space is filled in the most unobtrusive and yet the most perfect manner. The domestic.

The group is somewhat passive." says Woltmann. the persons in the group are dominated by the central figure. His figures never a quiet brooding have such action as those of Raphael (especially the Raphael of Rome). is The balance and harmony of the grouping than its more noticeable action. being the of a distinctly inanimate body. There none of of conversion nor of the divine ecstasy of revelation in any of his work.i84 tCbe art of tbe IMtti t>alace filling Both as a tance. but here is repose which must have been restful in the strenu- ous life of fifteenth century Florence. painted. and religious in the quiet it is way is in which Perugino the fire is usually religious. The faces have serenity of beauty. it is per- haps too perfect and academic a composition to be within the range of actual experience. but thoughtful. " sentiment of the landscape. and yet showing that flexible heavy weight characteristic of the dead. is The treatment of the body of Our Lord drawing specially worthy of attention. The expressions of all the faces are studies of a refined type of restrained grief in different phases. of the figures exhibit exactly the same emo- and yet all are united in their feeling. " The expression of heart-stricken is sorrow." carried out by the is which exquisitely This picture has not the intensity of the . of the immediate foreground and as a suggestion of vastness in the treatment of the disit is unrivalled. None tions.

crouch- — reaching forward with an expreshand of her face. in the centre of the picture. the wife of Cleophas. the pyramidal form is secured by introducing the heads of Mary Salome and Mary Cleophas. is holding the lower part of the shroud. is one. clad in green and yellow tones. the right Nicodemus. but that work. The head At of Mary. The Magdalen is supports his head. the wife of . with a turban on his head. taking the dead son. and crossed carelessly. and gazing into his heads in the centre (for one is Over their this tempted to treat picture primarily as a composition). it is the only figure in the picture in which the eyes stray to the spectator. but One little of these is a lovely — shows too interest in the subject. John and an and the wife of Zebedee are seen on the on the extreme right are three figures. finest is perhaps one of the drawings ever made by Perugino. as if whose hands are posing for a portrait. figure. older man. St. The Virgin mother ing somewhat. showing the nails of the Passion to two younger persons. left. evidently having been the one to bear the feet of the Saviour. one kneeling and the other standing with upraised hands and bent head. is is the legiti- mate forerunner of The Saviour's body sustained by Joseph of Arimathea. sion too deep for words. We have chosen the head of Mary.trbe 1baU of Saturn 1S5 Entombment of Fra Bartolommeo.

or "The of Disputa.i86 Ube art of tbe IMtti I>alace Cleophas. After the suppression of the Convent of Santa Chiara.'' It was painted for the It monks San Gallo early in 1518. is the Dispute of the Holy has Trinity. for Perugino admitted that he was not confident that he could ever reproduce the picture. under the order of the French Commission. his work as could be The Chiara. and among the -most celebrated. instead of show- ing the entire picture. but they rejected his offer. to present in this book. which are so characteristic of his style. passed through many vicissitudes. to the Pitti. and it then. Pieta. picture was painted is for the nuns of Santa This subject usually called in art a There was a rich Florentine merchant. and the picture was sent to San Giovanni . It is as significant an ex- ample of the best features of selected. he also promised them a replica by the hand of the same artist. was brought One of the finest of Andrea del Sarto's pictures. The church was destroyed during the siege of Florence. because it exhibits in a rein markable degree Perugino's foreshortening. who if offered the nuns sell it three times the original cost they would to him. in 1529. one Francesco Pugliese. this pic- ture went first to the Academy. skill it is drawing and In this detail possible to trace the fine lines of the hatching.

in the Hall of Saturn . by Perugino .HEAD OF MARY CLEOPHAS Detail from the Deposition.

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In the heavens there seen a vision of the Creator. Crowe and at Cavalcaselle speak of : in terms of great appreciation " In order to show that he was home in every mood. the attitudes are grandiose." Andrea here shows exhibits attitudes trasted. in every line of which stern power and boldness are discerned. Indeed the varying interpretations of the doctrine . . the forms are well-proportioned. weighty. shrouded in a red robe. St. he accepted a dis- commission from the monks of San Gallo. and is full shows Seis the four saints who are indulging in this theological sit discussion standing.JLbc Iball ot Saturn tra' Fossi. al- though disciples may disagree as to the interpre- tation of the doctrine. soaked. his intellectual power more. typi- fying the eternity of the fact of the Trinity. and nobly draped. 187 in Then the flood of the Arno 1555 rose to such a height in this building that the picture was badly fact. and thought out the noble altar-piece of the fathers puting on the doctrine of the Trinity. sustaining the figure of Christ upon the cross. than in any other of his works. perhaps. and still shows evidence of it this In the seventeenth century came to the it Pitti Palace. while at their feet bastian and the Magdalen. his peculiar characteris- Yet as usual there are abundance of the atmosphere and vapour which are now tics . The group It and expressions admirably conof dignified action. .

and Mary Magdalen. stands at the left of the picture. St. St. emblem of his martyrdom. and to different epochs they belong. who.i88 Zbc Htt ot tbe pitti palace picture. St. holds the box crouching at the feet of St. so that the stigmata may The other figures are St. awaiting his turn to is mined expression on make reply. between the first and sixth Thus the figures of St. evidently expounding his views to in the St. The intro- duction of the three saints in who are not taking part the argument illustrates the fact of the right which the Augustines assumed to include within their order all saints centuries. the father of the theology of the Latin Church. the third figure group. heart. what Augustine. stands with an open book and a deterhis face. with his hand on his be seen. Peter Martyr dressed in the at Do- minican habit. terrible St. of spikenard with which she so often appears. Peter Martyr. Sebastian kneels. facing the disputants. and the Magdalen are to be considered . Next him stands the extreme right. it is natural that Andrea should have chosen the moment for representation when Augustine was apparently confounding his opponents. Lawrence. Francis of Assisi. Francis. Sebastian. form the subject of the Observe of what diverse types are the saints selected. the picture As was painted for the Augustine friars. Lawrence with the the gridiron.

in the Hall of Saturn .DISPUTA By Andrea del Sarto .

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and they then turned their attention to the lay brother who accompanied him. gustine was Bishop of Hippo from 395 to 430 a. the blow felled him to the ground. no artist has ever drawn a more digthis and majestic presentment of him than which stands holding an open book. as is well emblem the crozier. he he had delivered up to of their had made many powerful enemies among certain Venetian grandees. justice whom without any consideration rank (which was too often a protection for lawlessness). Aud. where he was obliged to pass through a wood. distinguished in some way.Ube Iball of Saturn 189 as complementary to St. St. There are very few symbols each saint is in the picture. and nified figure. for his youth was one of pation and waywardness." and wrote " Confessions " dissi- after his conversion. They .. but St. Peter Martyr was a powerful and influential preacher. Augustine in this composition.his " City of God. So they hired assassins to waylay him between Como and Milan. so he carries as his gustine. was the author of the also.. Two of these noblemen determined to have him put to death. St. is His is noble head disfigured by the gash which the sign of the death which he suffered. They struck him on the head with an axe. inquisitor While he was general under Pope Honor ius HI. Auknown.

who had struggled to his feet." says Woltmann. Lawrence concerned.190 Xtbe Art of tbe IC>ittt ipalace stabbed this companion. is portrait of the artist's wife. and to a a The Magdalen. Francis's face wears a puzzled expression. The " master's delicious atmosphere. St. found Peter Martyr. and . Sebastian seems to have been introduced largely as a graceful bit of flesh-painting. Francis Assisi was much more for St. and the contrast between the two figures is well maintained. St. assist the general composition. of all the figures deserve special atten- Probably no one ever drew hands more faultthan did Del Sarto. as he would rather leave the whole question in peace. but still . is already conspicuous. and his go on with own' meditations and good works. The hands tion. has somewhat of a portrait pose he does not appear much in possibly he has discovered that differences of doctrinal opinion are non-essentials the St. particularly fine dressed in shades of red. and this profile is piece of anatomical delineation. is clothed in a red dalmatic. repeating the the Creed. and they finished their work with pacific sword. canonized him in 1253. Innocent IV. and. life of a true Christian. is lessly This picture " full of thought and an intimate knowledge of the characters of each of the persons represented. returning. if than Peter Martyr.

and innocent paganism." Much genuine study should be de- voted to the true understanding of this incomparably fine work. There is nothing They are literally spirits hovering about as Ariel hovered. little He was born in an obscure baptismal town named Correggio Allegri. Number 153. neither immoral nor moral. Although the Correggio the luminous little head. hardly to be called sensuous. is Sappho a the poetic lyric artist of light and shade. but they have no arrows and carry no of the earthy about them. His angels are rollicking cherubs perhaps. sweet. is the only in the gallery. His beings are rapturous and beautiful. his name being Antonio He stands like a Greek. in 1494. soaring freedom. it is characteristic. but the painter of joyful. with the religious nor scoffing. joy of living in his veins. really typical features of Of course he painted religious . modern standards than he These angels are the Correggio's work. quiver. pure ecstasy. of the air. and no more to be judged by either mediaeval or is. so un- conscious are they of their own loveliness. Correggio like was in essentially Greek by nature. — not He was a great in- ventor or a great designer or a deep thinker. neither simply a pagan. of his He mind. and has glow of the quality artist's touch.Ube combined in a Iball ot Saturn 191 very remarkable manner with a fine clear outline.

but there no suggestion that it failed to inspire him with respect. G. Num- ber 147. goodness. and they arc worthy. is one which is thoroughly sylvan.192 Ube Hrt ot tbe ptttt palace scenes and other subjects." Of is course the Church of the sixteenth cen- tury did not appeal to his free sylvan nature. Rose says : " Raphael's beauty is a kind that cannot be divorced neither from actual evil. and agreeable. but his floating denizens of the heavens are his own creations. pictures we may see the spell which the magnificent natural beauties of his early spirit. B. is A fascinating. joyous. Giorgione was bom in one of the most romantic In his spots in the world. The sweet ample of the angel's head in the Pitti is a good exit style of this unique master. home laid upon his He was unique in his power of painting landscape. expression '* Popular usage has sanctioned the as " golden light " applied to Titian. but Correggio's is good nor simply innocent and glad. Giorgione's Nymph and Satyr. Mr. silver light " when describing Paul Veronese. He is a thoroughly picturesque figure . but is to be regretted that there are no more important always works of his with which it might be compared. about 1477. Castel franco. cheerful Venetian picture refreshing. and " internal light " as characteristic of Giorgione. In an appreciation of Correggio.

and both profile views should be visible at once. he enjoyed dream- ing in colour. and playing upon the lute so that nobles vied with each other to have concerts. lighted in allegory He de- and legend. and in this was view of his figure. combining the mythical romance of subject with the poetical suggestiveness of his col- ouring and treatment. Gian Bellini. a nude study in such way that the back. Tintoret. front view of the water was reflected the same figure. He the plague in 151 Giorgione was an intellectual painter. with a rare combination of talents. was still mediaeval in his Giorgione stands as the great link between the old smooth school and the later glowing haze of Titian. he painted the nude figure standing with its back to the spectator on the bank in the of a limpid stream. Veronese. he was the first great Venetian spirit. On one side was the burnished corselet. of the Renaissance. front. for his master. and on the other side his other profile was seen in a mirror. singing divinely. vades his him perform at their The spirit of harmony and gladness perwork. as he had declared that he could do. dying of 1.Ube l)all ot Saturn 193 himself. conceit Vasari tells of a whimsical which he once employed a in order to paint. . and lived to be only thirty-six. In order to ac- complish his purpose. which the knight was supreflected a posed to have taken profile off.

is clothed in leopard one shoulder being covered and one bare. with the satyr immediately behind her. but her attitude does not suggest pression skins. flight.194 Ube Hrt ot tbe pittt palace He painted flesh in a delightful manner. for it a crowded. Dosso Dossi. Number 148. seen to the waist. falls Her luxuriant hair about her. jester. The nymph is a lovely creature. for the normal human being has imagination. or a dinner served to the court retainers. usually called The picture A Nymph She Pursued by a Satyr." which means a caricature. and there is a general air of spring and gladness throughout the composition. is and her ex- quite happy. with no suggestion of sensuality. final accomplished before Dossi had attained his . but there it are details about it which are amusing. yet without the developed monumental feeling which characterized the Giorgione later work of Tintoretto. It its gives a very poor idea of the real is power of stiff. such as the dwarf. hard piece of work. painter. is called It the " Bambocciata. whose women are no more nude is than Greek statues. singinggirls and the like. Undoubtedly is an early work. looks like a fancy-dress party. A curious picture. and it is no more characteristic of human nature to degrade and brutalize — a sympathetic a subject than to idealize is it. human and imaginative artist. and it is worth noticing.

was painted by Pontormo. Van Dyck's rietta twin portraits of Charles and Henall Maria hang here. sits a dwarf. he will always be reckin oned one of the most pathetic figures English His portrait always man. a favourite of his uncle. refined of prejudice. 149. representing Ippolito Ippolito de The portrait. on the mosaic top of the table is seen a tambourine. They are all laughing in an abandoned mood. tache. and a jester with his bauble. I. one's judg- ment concerning Charles history. who was compelled by his inheritance to . f)all of Saturn 195 At the left. portrait spite of by Titian in the next He was. little One of them holds a dog. with a touch of mystic fanaticism. wearing a sword one hand rests upon a and the other is laid upon the neck of a dog. table. Pope Leo X. black beard and mous. both are familiar to students of history. This portrait shows him with short hair. He full died in 1535 at face. in Medici was the natural son of Giulio de Medici. full recalls the sensitive.. dressed in a gaudy and wanton manner. made a cardinal. Whatever may be I. ures. tastes.Ube manner. and one of the figures in the background carries a bird. and His escapades his Hungary his will be alluded to when we study room. he may be intended as a Close about are the other carifig- two women. Number de Medici. with a crown of leaves. cature of Bacchus. in adventurous Itri. partly nude.

meeting in the centre of the picture. the upraised arm of Cain reaches the frame at the top of the picture. life. literally. disis playing both figures. fighting for The picture spirited. The background . but without force.196 Ubc Hrt of tbe plttf t>alace deal with supreme questions of state requiring boldness. and spent her life in While she lived. and is Carlo Dolci's Santa Rosa. and is a good drawing of muscular brute itself in force. the amiable and delicate features of an aristocrat. as this one does. roses. The next Francis. His portraits always present. the arms of the two men. the whole space. she was the guardian of the people of Viterbo. and after her death became their patron saint. fill necessarily extremely active attitudes. It is an unusual composition. sincerity. Santa Rosa of Viterbo was a thirteenth century saint. and was painted in 1668. while the elbow of the fallen Abel reaches the lower edge of the picture. and wisdom. form an unon the broken link from top to bottom of the entire space. is The kill- picture on wood. She is represented in the habit of the third order of St. Thus. elegant in manner. is crowned with a wreath of deeds of charity. who lies is ground. in The two figures. Schiavone's large canvas representing Cain ing Abel occupies the centre of one side of the room. She was celebrated for her eloquence. Cain is towering over his brother.

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bled look to his little He lies upon thus. Andrew. of Carlo Dolci's least affected pictures is One the little St. and St. Peter Weeping. died He studied with Jacopo Vignole. a it would be any one to paint more perfect representation of a sleeping child. beholding him praying beside him. Carlo Dolci. the insignia which the ries. so St. the Sleep- John. The tones of and harmonious. and the expression of the a trou- face indicative of some dream which brings brow. Among works are the Martyrdom of ing St. her face betokening a forecast of dread for his future. St. John usually is car- and his mother.Ubc Dall of Saturn 197 a dark landscape with a luminous stretch of sky visible between the bushes. his colouring are soft Charles Blanc calls him a true representative of Jesuitical art. . May 25. As is the Madonna is often repre- sented as sorrowing in anticipation over the child. a prolific though careful painter. John asleep. Elizabeth all here shown as beholding the is vision of the pain that to come. young St. his cross. tures are His pic- marred by affectation of religious feeling and cloying sweetness. Number difficult 154. 1686. is The attitude natural. born in Florence there January 17. He was his best the last of the Florentine school. 1616. The child lies finish is in unconscious relaxation. Christ in the Garden. Although the for smooth.

the nose rather irreg- and for that reason not too ideal to be strictly human. and in it is was affected by seeing Luca Giordano proHis it is duce more work four or five hours than he could pic- have accomplished in as many months. There is lumi- . perches^ a lovingly.198 Ubc Brt of tbe pitti palace chiefly the His paintings were of working brain heads of the Sa- viour or the Madonna. charming. he had done one every day of his The Madonna O'f della Rondinella. His manner said that his was very slow. The is silhouette of his is little shoulder against the neck of the mother very pretty. The child. Her hair is arranged at the in a careless yet be- coming manner. beautiful. being so foreis shortened that the child on her knee a level with her almost on is own face. is most lovely type of spiritual and The Virgin ular. or the is Madonna of the Swallow. a intellectual being. in the best style The Virgin sits in the clouds. on which swallow. At the is right an adoring angel. bound back with fillets and parted in thick waves on the brow. however. tures have been so successfully copied that said that there are galleries more works attributed to him in the of Europe than he could have painted if life. and the saints. by Guercino. his He is watching the bird in and with head on one side a grace- and infantile attitude. in a slightly uncomfortable attitude. ful He little extends one chubby hand. this painter.

above this is a small tablet bearing the inscription. are grouped. consisting of two angel . which are now in the Uffizi. scale. . Httle of the haze and glow of Murillo. the four Evangelists St. 1516. C. " Salvator chalice. Fra Bartolommeo's Risen Christ with Evangelists is a picture in the combined symbolic and realistic this artist. MVD" and above is a The picture is signed " Bartolomeus C. On either side of him. powerful figures. they are seated on An emblematic group. holding a circular device on which appears a landscape. his right arm raised on high. his body being draped in white.*' The two great figures of Isaiah and Job. It is Every line is soft and every numbered 156. St. pinxit. occupies the foreground a step.Zbc and a f)all of Saturn 199 nosity throughout the whole atmosphere of the picture. manner of Jesus is On a pedestal in a niche standing. and in the left hand carrying a staff with a ball and cross. John and St. well painted in an old the colour subdued but strong. which was on a very grand There may be traced a certain influence from Michelangelo in the drawing and proportions of the figures. These are is heavy. Luke and St. Mark on the right. children. Matthew on the left. were originally the side panels to this composition. detail is restful.. on a lower plane. school.

examining the child. fur-collars. who kneels before her at the oppo- . health of the little The figures are small and serve their purpose as simple decoration. divided into separate scenes. in the This one. A tree divides the composition. Two ashore women by a are stooping over the bank hooking it stick. is a long left is panel. to view the A little dog is jumping up boys are new acquisition. but are minutely finished. At the seen the finding of is like Moses in his little cradle. while a man is serving wine. and other adornments. perhaps to drink the stranger. horizontally disposed. narrow panel. and two little burring up for a peep. on the shores of the river. Number i6i. Number 163. which a tiny coffin. All the costumes and types are strictly Venetian. and evidently intended for the ornamentation of some piece of furniture. is painted on a long. which represents the exhibition of the infant in his cradle at the court. The Vir- gin starts back in terror and surprise at the apparition of the angel. They are not accurate studies. They wear mantles. There are three Annunciations by Del Sarto Pitti Palace. distin- guishing this from the next scene. and it is amusing to see these Venetian grandees top-boots. Morelli gives the picture to Bonifazio. bending eagerly over the casket. At the right is an or- chestra of musicians playing on bass-viol and lute.200 Ubc Hrt of tbe IPtttt palace The Moses of Giorgione.

while on their appears the inoffensive face of an ox. Lanzi speaks of his style " following drastic terms to a vastness of design He seems to have aspired beyond that of Titian. and to mark the naked parts with a more evident degree of artifice. and Cain artist of the not yet having manifested his fratricidal propensities. It There was painted for Julian A cheerful little panel is Giulio Romano's Dance a wreath of Apollo and the Muses. a matter of conjecture they being the first how they came by this human beings. della Scala. are no other accessories. by Campagnola as hut is A little seen in the back- ground left .Ube site side of is Iball of Saturn sill 201 the panel. At the feet of Eve lies a human skull. suggesting that the scene occurs on a loggia. On the of the window there lily. engaged in a sprightly dance. and on their right is a lion. as a cover to a clavichord. It is relic. It was evidently designed It is literally of graceful figures. Domenico Campagnola was an school. their hands joined and their lips parted in song. they are reclining in graceful attitudes conversing under the fruit-tree." One of the most celebrated pictures in the palace . and the angel carries a Two portieres are looped back at the upper corners. a vase of flowers. one of the Venetian is many : of whom Titian said to in the have been jealous. rest- Adam and Eve are painted ing on the ground.

Both of the pictures here St. continuing. rich. by Guido. revolting malice which usually distinguishes pictures of this kind. " is in the picture of St." cited are in the there. without turning away from the confused heaps of dead bodies." visible in 1799. the threatening instruments of torture have not touched the body of the saint. No for blood. every- . Agatha. Louvre Schlegel saw the Agatha having been carried to Paris " Nothing of this description. in his ''^Esthetic Works. he proceeds." makes an exhaustive and scholarly analysis of this picture. and blame the artist for his selec- tion of such a subject. we do not here see that expression of fiendlike. or have gazed on the Massacre of the Innocents. " How can a subject so horrible form a beautiful I painting?" he asks. ''Indeed seen the have after many first spectators turn away shuddering glance. and yet the very same per- sons have stood in pleased astonishment before the Martyrdom of St. as yet no heartrending agony. it . Schegel. ful The flesh tints are warm and figure of and the picture ranks among the most beautiart. no wounds. the differentiation beflesh tween the tints of her creamy is and the swarthy faces of the executioners striking. Agatha. Agnes by Domenichino. specimens of Renaissance is The the saint noble and grand .202 is xrbe Brt ot tbe ptttt palace del Fra Sebastiano Piombo's Martyrdom of extremely St.

In . stern. to shrink and turn away. noble Already the majestic form of the is woman uncovered. Schlegel An ashy paleness alone reveals the insupera- ble terror of mortality at the horrible doom approach- ing." " says : In alluding to the central figure. for her lofty countenance and gleaming eyes be- speak more indignation and contempt for her miserable tyrant than concern for her own sufferings. who derive no pleasure from the majestic beauty of the figures. and the horrible idea of pated suffering thus engendered cannot be other- wise than painful to excess tively • still there are compara- few who will find its suffering insupportable. overlook the lofty. the horror which It it seems therefore probable that inspires.a Perhaps noth- . godlike character of the design . soul-freezing reality of the rep- The artist has chosen for his picture the application the moment immediately preceding of the torture. the glowing irons apantici- proach her bosom. after a first glance. . overpowered by the exhibition of suffering. prompting every one. as if in his once decided pur- the stubborn cruelty were struggling with better impulse and subduing.XCbe 1ball of Saturn 203 thing loathsome or disgusting being kept as completely out of sight as is possible in the representation of a martyrdom. or the fine arrangement of the whole. the midst of torture she yet triumphs over him . is pro- duced by the resentation. . those alone who. he seems to harden himself pose.

but with helmets who stand behind the tyrant and look at the proceeding in perfect sympathy with the sufferer. ** edifices. they gaze only on the saint. d. though under a double form. . together with their guild of workmen. and is this circumstance yet more strikingly in affinity with the old chorus of these tragedies." They were immediately recog- nized as subjects for martyrdom. . and refused to assist in the building of heathen saying. Mute spectators of alter. of the Forty Crowned Saints is painted by Pontormo with spirit and vigour in Num- The legend is that in the reign of Diocletian there were four architect brothers." The Tragedy ber 182. between the two. There is a reif markable resemblance . . . . . and were disposed of in many ingenious ways. . . . the chorus in Greek tragedy. they seem by their entire and lofty sympathy like a strain of attendant music to perform the part of . as they were designed to represent only one being. in some imagination. who. were Christians. We cannot build a temple to false gods. but assume familiar fourth day of Pontormo has shown the main the martyrdoms This happened on the features.204 Xtbe Hrt ot tbc IMtti palace is ing in the whole picture more worthy of notice than the two raised. what they neither can nor dare attempt to . November in the year 400 a. soldiers. In . armed. nor shape images of wood or stone to ensnare the souls of others.

and in the background an- other satyr. and Salvator's is Poet hangs here. is dancing. while in the background on the left disproportionate infant angels are seen inveighing against this unholy massacre. are dancing along with nymph and satyr cymbals the satyr is wound . There also rather a weak copy of in Titian. a Bacchanale. a youthful tyrant directing the orgy of death. a harmless and joyous fashion. There are other good pictures which lack of space alone prevents our mentioning. holding a staff and waving his arms aloft. skull in the A little fawn drags an ox- foreground. A with numerous snakes.tCbe Iball of Saturn the picture Diocletian is 205 seen. showing a merry group of caredisporting themselves sylvan creatures. . In the Hall of Saturn may be seen also certain Madonnas. Number less i8i.

the central figure being vital and superbly painted. and " his entirely perfect us this picture. The modelling of the face. is Monk at the Clavichord. A young Augustine monk with and is ascetic sits at a clavichord playing." as Ruskin claims for intellect." him. At his left (the right of the picture) stands 206 a . while the the face of an other two are not nearly as strong. The the called picture of first importance in this hall Giorgione. The hands rich chord grip the keys is finely. Evidently a being struck. by Bartolini. master- ful. has given The work is very uneven. with his " spiritual power and practical sense.CHAPTER VIII. a The treatment of the subject is the same as that of a fifteenth century statue in the Bargello. Iliad stands a marble group representing Charity. full. which is is turned away looking over his shoulder. THE HALL OF THE ILIAD In the centre of the Hall of the Tuscan sculptor. by The Concert. commonly Giorgione.

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A rather self-concious youth poses for a full-face portrait left. as represented in Browning's * Abt Vogler. " the very soul of music. evidently he has struck a heavenly chord. each one expressed it. illustrating the varying tastes and interpretations first of different tourists. or a genre subject. to another something quite different. who has made an tells eyes. By courtesy it is assumed that he These two figures are but accessories to question as to what the picture repre- the first.' passing through his Timothy Cole. an ideal head. who' resting his hand hghtly upon the shoulder of the player. But on one point all must agree. To one bears one message. a story of people who passed through the gallery while he was engaged at his work. he has caught for thrall . Whether Giorgione intended that ineffable quality oi musical to paint a portrait. Two young ladies stood before the picture. herself regarding One of them remarked upon the glow of inspiration on the face of the player. all as Symonds so happily expresses it. with a white-plumed is listening.Ubc Dall of tbe Iflta^ is 207 priest in a white rochet. hat. In his other hand he holds a musical instrument." exquisite engrav- ing of this subject. on He is dressed in yellow and black. The sents will probably never be answered it to the satis- faction of all critics. it is a lute. and it has had such an effect upon the friend behind him . judging from what the is seen of this instrument.

brother. of the " old beer saloon ! One of them remarked upon the likeness monk " to " the one we saw in the lager" They commented upon the extremely . Then the father of these when his opinion was asked. Luther. then. these critics When had withdrawn. to representation of the Three in own personal belief that this picture was but another Ages of Man the youth. two girls came up. Calvin joined in the well. it ubc art " Oh. sister of this of tbe pittt palace violin. has caused him to drop his ! exclaim! The it ferent impression how grand how glorious " young woman had received a diffrom the picture. apologizing for being obliged to request him to desist while the offend- ing string was tuned. the significance might . two old ambled up. he observed that the " guide-book said " that the picture represented in portrait Calvin. To her she said laid his seemed as its if the violin had gotten out of tune. plumed pride of expectation. with state his an expression of great wisdom. be supposed to be that. the mature man life. while Luther struck the first chord of the Reformation. and. and Melancthon. and that owner had approached and hand on the shoulder of the player. — Melancthon just stood by and listened ! But the father continued. and Melancthon presumably.2o8 that ing. chorus. playing in the midst of his violin out of tune spirit and the old man with of — out harmony with the ladies of the age. .

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the picture the gallery. in one of the most interesting In the time of Ridolfi this picture was Venice in the collection of a Florentine merchant. no matter by to decide whom (and who is is when experts disain gree?). was of somewhat from its different But it was cut frame and sent the picture to Paris in the days of Napoleon. a strip was added at the top of the canvas. He sold it to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. There which is is is a warm golden glow over the whole. it Morelli claims that is an early Titian. so that the handling of that detail must not be visited upon Giorgione. which likeness favour of Titian as the one of the arguments artist. and the Braun Catalogue enters it as a Titian.Ube Iball ot tbe ITltat) 209 disagreeable aspect of the painting. Originally this painting proportions. . When returned to its rightful owners. perhaps a little dimmed by varnish. In any case. There effect- nothing more simple and at the same time ive among the masterpieces of the sixteenth century. Claude Philipps believes that the model for the monk was in the same as the Man is with the Glove in the Louvre. and the plume in the young man's hat was carried up rather unduly. and proceeded with their inspection of the other masterpieces of the Pitti Palace. M. Grant Allen accepts this amendment. and gives some rather good reasons for this. Paolo del Sera.

sensitive hands draw from the keys where they linger ? Magic notes they be. or a haughty dream. the power of significance is of which as unlimited as the mystery of sound. to succeed in working in the is mu- sician so violent a transfiguration. What must notes do the beautiful. He half-way through his earthly existence. Jerome had tamed. like a forest laden with purple fruit.: 3IO ube art ot tbe iPittt palace Gabriel d'Annunzio has exquisitely analyzed this picture in an appreciation occurring in his ** Flame of Life." " I quote from the translation by Kassan- dra Vivaria Whoever has looked at the Concerto with sa- gacious eyes has fathomed an extraordinary and irrevocable of the moment of the Venetian soul. They are of nobler and stronger finer and the air they breathe is and richer it is propitious to the birth of a great joy or a great sorrow. . " The monk sitting at the harpsichord and his older companion are not monks like those that Vit- tore Carpaccio painted flying from the wild beast that St. certainly. he is already detached from life is his youth. already on the verge of decay. essence. and all its only now revealing itself adorned with good things. of his which hands that were intent on other work have . By means harmony of colour. : . . first the artist shows us the soul to working of a yearning whom life suddenly appears under the aspect of a rich inheritance.

His compan- who is calm because already on the threshold of old age. the harmonies sought after by the player seem only the prelude to his own feast. . but he undergoes a confused kind of anguish in which regret over- comes desire. the stupendous influence of a ray reflected Hellenic myth whence the ideal form of the Herand yet a maphrodite arose. ion. no care but finitely his is for his The music seems to exalt his inexpressible dream and to multiply in- power of enjoyment. while on the web of the harmonies that he seeks. divines this inner tempest. because his sensuality slumbers. He does not un- der the dominion of some solitary tempting image. cinates him.ttbc fcait of tbc fliab never an fall known the velvet bloom. present from the others as one having good. kindly and gravely he touches the shoulder of the passionate musician with a pacifying movement. whom Giorgione seems to have created under the from. stranger. the fiery flower of adolescence. separated He own is there. and that he would His . He glances sideways intently as if turning to I know not what that fasfascinate. the vision of his past might have been and was not — weaves — such itself as it before his eyes like a design of Chimerae. life He knows that he master of the that escapes both the others. like the expression of de- we see the yO'Uth with the plumed hat and the unshorn locks. Emerging from the warm shadow sire itself.

one deeply in shaded by a drapery around his head. showing that after his it is intended to represent the Christ crucifixion. ion. John with his eagle and book on the right. the other the full light. the result is one of the most beautiful in art. effably graceful. seated upon the clouds. on the earth. gelists : On either side. On sym- either side of the central figure little angels bolizing Night and Day are crouching.212 closed kiss." perfume his The picture of Jesus enthroned in heaven with is attendant saints. by Annibale Caracci. restful. of crowns would not encumber his hidden hands. extending both his arms to the world below. it might be Below. and a landscape . city. although the hands are pierced. is . Evan- St. But whatever the reason for representing Christ as so young a boy. Zbc Hrt mouth is of tbe pitti palace a yet ungiven a mouth heavy with his forehead is so spacious that the leafiest it. All this part of the composition If is refined and vis- one could be vouchsafed a heavenly like this. appears a distant with domes and pediments showing. Peter at the with his keys and books. are the left. and St. beyond. inis The face is that of a youth he hardly more than eighteen. I can only but if I consider in the imagine them act of crumpling the laurel leaves to fingers. one of the most exquisite of the compositions of this master. The figure of the Saviour.

CHRIST ENTHRONED By A. Caracci . in the Hall of the Iliad .

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The all Caracci are at the very head of the school of Bologna. in the case of the Confessor. at the extreme right. the painter of the beautiful Christ Enthroned. is hind. at the Ermengild. colouring of the two central figures in the foreis ground almost entirely blue and golden hues . In the case of the was stabbed in a former. and Annibale. who wood by the wicked treachery of his stepmother. St. Here are four be- fine figures of saints. martyr. Edward the Edward of Martyr. his brother Paolo. St. that we are now . first. in the centre. trbe 1ball of tbe Ifltab connecting it 213 with the foreground. They were a remarkably talented family were painters. significance of this figure not easy to determine. England may be either St. At the Edward of England kneeling with one is hand on his heart while the other placed on the shoulder of the Cardinal Farnese. It is Agos- tino'. the Magdalen. there is As none of these no way of determining In the back- which English saint was intended. bearing a palm. or St. ground is seen the creeping figure of a cripple. sup- ported on his hands by blocks which enable move independently The of his is him to The misshapen legs. who is a later and more familiar saint. his proper emblem is a palm . with Annibale. Edward the Confessor.. The left. a dove and a ring. the red cape of the cardinal enlivens the right side of the picture. left is St. Ludovico. attributes are present.

observing. they knew anatomy well. they were rather noted for good plain folds than elaborate detail. and understood the human figure. and then. had been so long in vogue. In treating costume. Caracci are said to mark the last boundary line of the Golden Age in Italy. he remained quiet until they had all aired their knowledge. he drew the . their paintings are often badly oil faded. often to the verge of They abandoned the yellow tones which coldness.214 XTbe art of tbe Ipitti palace concerned. . " Poets paint with pencil. is It a matter of taste whether this appears a virtue or a defect in their work. This arose from too much being used. They observed Correggio and his peculiarities very closely." words painters speak with the The Rome. Annibale Caracci was a wonderfuly accurate and rapid draughtsman. In a group of artists who were few discussing the Laocoon. Nearly art which is worthy of the name its in the eighteenth century owes power to the in- fluence of this remarkable family. drapery well managed rather than decorated. with a strokes of the pencil. They employed blues freely. Annibale was before all the rest in thus allowing blue to predominate. Annibale died in in 1609. Mengs does not consider them consummate as colourists. statue. Indeed. in 1 Annibale Caracci was all bom in Bologna 560.

Below Mary's most exquisite boy-angel. and this so discouraged Andrea upon it. and the draw- ing of the figures beautiful. while pointing upward. being sold after- wards to the Grand Duke Pietro Leopold. is The wood on which the picture painted cracked. and it hung in the house of his son for a long time. that It he never quite completed his work was. left. her gaze upwards. feet is a She surrounded by beautiful nude child- two of whom hold tablets. and her right hand extended. who had ordered it. several figures of apostles. with his right arm raised and a figure near the centre who stands . kneeling with turned so that he looks over his shoulder disagreeable impression at the spectator. accepted by Bartolommeo Panciatichi.. giving a of inattention at so vital a moment. Ube "baU The Assumption Sarto. by Andrea del is a large picture. directed of tbe fllfab 215 of the Virgin. however. figures Some of the are unfinished. in a strong light he looks downward to earth. bidding the saints below to behold the ion. Number 191. and some directing their There is is only one false note — the portrait of the artist his face introduced. is The face that of a is woman who has passed her first youth. angels. celestial vis- Below are gaze above. Observe particularly an apostle at the extreme slightly. is The quality of the atmosphere luminous. The Virgin is top. some looking into the empty tomb. round at the seated on the clouds.

Her eyes look out from the pic- ture in a disinterested manner. The upper part of the canvas gio's is quite like some of Correglights. with upturned profile and extended Margaret of St. The little angels. in Mar- was born Tuscany. The Assumption of the Virgin. has such a beautiful hand that one forgets the self-consciousness of the pose. are beautiful studies of foreshortening. Number 225. arm. and being overcome by the temptations of her surroundings. trbe art of tbe ©itti ff^alace with both hands (beautifully modelled) lifted in a gesture of surprise. kneeling. but the central figure. Cortona appears garet at the right. her hands joined. by Andrea del Sarto. is sometimes confounded with Number 191. The her that she sight of his mutilated body so afifected . and where he lay. having been left early an orphan. This picture may be seen in the illustration representing the Hall of the Iliad.2i6 startled. work. and slightly upraised. The saints below are rather academic. hanging in the same room. St. and in her youth was a noted evil liver. a little One of her lovers dog led her to the place was murdered. especially in the quality of the sits in The Virgin the clouds. and do not carry the observer upward. for a signal — and She looks as if as if she were waiting that signal were not coming ac- from above. which play such an tive part in the scene which the Madonna takes so passively.

robed in a dalmatic and with feet. He regarded his riches as a sacred stewardship. Francis.tEbe Iball of tbe ITliab 217 repented. One narra- . Niccolo de Ban. being from the first mined to observe all fasts. She became the representto the people of Cortona. Naturally his parents life. and ever afterwards lived a saintly life. in order to render thanks to into the world. but in this picture by Del Sarto omitted. is was on the day of up for having called his in his bath. heir to vast wealth. and they relate further that he would never nurse on Weddeter- nesdays or Fridays. In 1272. A legend is told. assumes an admirable pose a native of Lycia in Asia He was Minor. dog regarded as her attribute it is in art St. she took the habit of the third order of St. a mitre visible at his at the left also. and constantly gave large sums to the deserving poor. that as she knelt before the crucifix the head of the Saviour was bent in forgiveness. Many people were saved from lives of want or inhis famy through unknown generosify. still left a young man. His parents were Christians. he said to have stood The first sign of early piety in Niccolo birth. and reformed. and him. dedicated so remarkable a child to a religious His father and mother died of the plague. is ative of the Magdalen little As a rule the . God him He is probably the only saint on ! record to begin so promptly his saintly calling He continued to be a most precocious child.

Biliverti's Tobias and the Angel. some that they say that they are three loaves of bread which kept a poor widow from starving. by some enterprising merchants. home to their parents. Niccolo died in 326. and was placed in the Church of St. Giovanni Bil- was a Florentine living between 1576 and . Antonio del Poggio in that city. Niccolo are three to balls — some three The at- claim that they are intended represent purses of gold which he threw in at the house to save three unhappy girls window of a from ruin. Niccolo approached the barrel salted where the remains of these victims were down. who had heard of the miracles which the sacred body had wrought. The grand Duke Ferdinand II. The bought it from Cosimo Passerini in 1639. entire. His remains were taken to Bari. iverti one of his finest works. was painted for the Cardinal of Cortona. some say signify the Trinity. and who went and helped themselves to the the relics unchallenged. where- upon the limbs tributes arose.2i8 tive is Zbc Hrt of tbe ft^itti palace to steal related of an innkeeper who used children. and it was taken is to the Pitti Gallery. and made the sign of the cross over them. The penetrating St. in 1084. town having been picture recently devastated by the Sar- acens. and the children. and serve up their limbs to his guests. hanging above the door. are re- ported to have run of St. St.

By Biliverti in the Hall of the Iliad .k TOBIAS AND THE ANGEL .

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This picture was painted in 1612 for Giovanni Cerretani. An line of serve to interpret Biliverti's paint- ing. and would have devoured him." . a the Florentine Senate. 11. While the youth was on his journey. member of The Grand Duke Leopold Accia for 250 sequins. Tobias. Then the angel said unto him.XTbe iball ot tbe irita5 1644. who in from blindness. bought it from the artist Although often accused of being affected and mannered (for it belongs to the decadent school). it is The picture represents Tobias is and out- As will the story told in the Apocrypha. the son of Tobit. it has a definite charm. he came to the River Tigris. probably unfamiliar to it many readers. " To " whom the angel said : Open the fish and take out the heart and the liver and the gall and put them up safely. " And when wash the young man went down to the river to himself. 219 and a pupil of Cigoli. And the young man laid hold of the fish and drew it to land. a fish leaped out of the river. the Angel. The angel then went on to explain to Tobias that Jthes^e parts of the fish are of virtue in exorcising . had gone forth to wife. even though that charm be some- what dramatic. marry a suffered leaving at home his father. reality the accompanied by a stranger who was Archangel Raphael. Take the fish.

his offer of jewels. and the expression and attitude of the figures are not affected. with a slightly dazed ex- pression. in fear before him. and each shows dawning comprehension of the angel's words. Be of good hope.220 devils Ube Htt and ot tbe pitti palace in healing blindness. offering jewels to the angel. caught with considerable power and critical A more moment been selected. the considering the su- preme importance of incident. stands by. quite remarkably indicating unac- customed sensation of sight. Tobias in has his made hands. and his Tobias. not knowing who guide had been on the journey. behold and when they bow Biliverti has he has gone when they rise up again. saying: So when Tobias came to greet him. wished to give him half of his riches. returned home. which he holds the — the old man. my father. his blind father " And he took hold of his father and strake of the gall on his father's eyes. The lips of Tobias are parted in an exclamation . tell who sage. one of the seven holy angels. is them his great mes- The instant of transition is from ignorance to could hardly have knowledge action. with newly recovered sight. and depicts Tobias and Tobit just beginning to his father." chosen the dramatic moment in the story. but his companion answered him: " I am Raphael." And the father was healed of his blindness.

while Tobit wears a blue is fur-bordered robe. if a Cupid with wings natural. that of the angel being. the angel violets. St. as it were. whose heart. In point of fact. in soft grays and is Thus even the colour-scheme thought- each subject being clad in a shade to harmon- ize with his position in the legend. would surely be very his On the ground are any bow and quiver. yellow. a Greek also are is head in a Renaissance setting. " Christ is young Tobias took living from the stream. instead of such a picture being a mannered and simply pretty study of a scene.tbe tall of tbe lUab 2^1 of surprise and reverence. Augustine interprets the story of Tobias and the angel as being a symbolical story. you feel that he will be gone directly. the wings of the angel are spread for flight. ground stretched out under him existed. saying. Veronese special inspiration. lying on the is His wing bent way which. The hands modelled finely." The heads of the three chief figures are beautifully drawn. put the the fish which demon to flight and restored sight to the blind. in a in slumber. painted for the sake of introducing types. The face of Jesus is . is it full of thought and study of a critical situation. is The Sleeping Love. ful. fails In the Baptism of Christ. is to give though his treatment of the subject not objectionable. the colour of the whole Tobias's tunic is soft. by Caravaggio. consumed by passion.

rather stiff. symbolized. Kneeling on the bank. He is in no way a figure equal to the demand of the subject. or rather leans upon a rock. but the lights are characteristic of his style. The nimbus about the divine head is painted in regular rays. rather in the middle distance. the gen- most pleasing thing left. and showing between the figures of Christ and John. but they are rays of simple light. The background is that of a thick grove of trees suggesting that the spot chosen for . is St. is Her upal- turned face in Veronese's best manner. The figure stands in a conventional way. as us- by a white dove. In this picture Paul Veronese had no opportunity to paint rich textiles.222 in ttbe Htt ot tbe B>itti ipalace shadow. and is acceptable if not striking. and is though the hand. — not metallic formed rays such as Carlo Dolci Christ is has employed in his pictures of saints. in symmetrical disposition. in the picture. angels are at the cloth. which eral effect is the almost the only other is part of her which appears. His arms are crossed upon his breast. kneeling on a small rock in the bed of the river. a nobly executed female saint. one of them holding a white The Holy falls Ghost. The Baptist stands. is and conveys too much the impression that he afraid to get into the water himself. Two ual. hovers over the group radiat- ing light — which from above upon all. the attitude being one of reverence and submission.

On gin. the Van Dyck of the Ro- man school. wife I. even when laboured. and must have been brought up in the Pitti Palace. may be seen in the illustration of the Hall of the Iliad. but he only lived to be thirty-six years of age. by Del Sarto. and Del Sarto. are rows of is At the top on the right of Vincenzo a picture by Pulzone. either side of the large Assumption of the Virportraits.. having come to a considerable fame in portrait He reached a standard of excellence which came partly from a close study of Raphael called. His style was . dying in 1593. He finished and even highly. who have painted the scene in the broad open is river. Scipione Pulzone was a young artist of some promise. and her hair is dressed high with a cap and jewels. especially the hair in in the pupils of the eyes his pictures. a general air of cool seclusion about the the clear sky picture with showing through the This picture leafy branches at the back. such as we usually call Elizabethan.Ube 1ball of tbe Ulta^ 223 the Saviour's baptism was a shady ncx)k by the side of the stream. he often placed a reflection of the objects in the room. of Mantua. giving an extremely real expression. so that he was even in his youth. She is dressed in court costume. of Eleanora. art. quite a different conception from that of many There artists. Duke I. viewed from a distance. She was a daughter of Francesco de Medici. having an elaborate lace ruff.

had he lived. She is numerous portraits in a decollete corsage with high stiff lace collar flaring back in the fashion which she usually affected. and married King Henry IV. in red She It is gowned a very and '* is covered with jewels. Marie looks much as she does by Rubens. is " dressy portrait. a method which she adopted to show her disapproval of his reprehensible course of action. balancing that of Eleanora on the in her opposite side. George. with one un- wieldy hand raised in benediction. A saint. This monarch was addicted to gallantries which greatly displeased the fiery disposition of his bride. and was bom of April 26. Marie de Medici was also a I. An unknown much charm and top of the portrait by Tinelli is painted with sprightliness. It is said that his face has of- ten borne the marks of her nails. and at the death of her husband became re- . She was the mother of Louis XIII. it hangs in this row nothing about suggests the He is simply a man in armour.224 but it XTbe Hrt ot tbe pitti palace was full of promise for future greatness. . daughter of Francesco de Medici. 1575. Pulzone's portrait of Marie de Medici hangs at the left line. by Paris Bordone.. who good- laboured under the disadvantage of being less looking than the ladies who had superseded her in her husband's affections. France when she was twenty-five years of age. stiff head of St.

col- with a sash across his breast. Number in 190. or Francesco Raibolini. lowest portrait in this row. with his hair cut straight across his forehead. serious countenance gazes at us from a small panel. among the florid pictures of a later day. The portrait us. is another portrait of himself by Andrea del Sarto and one of Salvator Rosa. — her even history She lived to in be sixtyher youth. —a thor- oughly Spanish-looking man with a mantle slung across his shoulder. exiled by her son. was a great airtist who . He is rather a heavy-eyed boy. It is as fine a treatment of the human face as any in this and stands out cool. the costume being of about the year 1600. The IIL. 225 Her is great political career began then familiar to all. and represents the son of Federigo King of Denmark. This portrait was painted She died There . by Francia. There is a superb Velasquez portrait. at last.XTbe Dall of tbe ITlta^ gent. Louis XIII. restful. and a large square lar of elaborate lace. at the bot- tom of the row of gallery. portraits on the other side. is by Sustermans. facing the spectator. by himself. and holding his palette and brushes. A mediaeval. and is familiar to most of through photo- graphs. too close to his eyebrows. Number 195. is a decorative one. in Cologne. without the material comforts. five years old. and pure from Francia. It shows a youth armour. in 1643.

The handhng is not so perfect as that of Perugino. " and for charm of colour. feehng. Mendoza was also Ambassador to Rome and Venice. is Francia challenges comparison with what best in Perugino. it." says John Addington Symonds. of Ferof Cosimo I.. lives Number 209. and was brought into close relations with Cosimo de Medici when Charles sought large loans from the Florentines. A skilful master of diplo- . though he did not attain quite the same technical excellence. Number 215 doza. too. His work has a fascinating quahty of In his reHgious pictures he exhibits deep naivete. and Number 212." There are dinando II.. Short by the accounts of and errors of these princes a portrait of It will be found in the chapter upon the growth of the collection. is Don Diego da Menin 15 14. by Titian. in 1557. by Sustermans. although restorers have done their best to spoil Don Diego da Mendoza was duties as a favourite of Charles v. of Spain. The emperor of Valencia conferred upon him the viceroyalty when he left his kingdom for an expedition into Germany. and a good subject. Bronzino. and entrusted by the emperor with important ambassador and viceroy.226 Zbc Hrt ot tbe pitti palace dying lived in the early part of the sixteenth century. but " for mastery over oil painting. was painted while Men- doza was Ambassador to Venice for Charles V. portraits. It is a striking picture.

either efifect. and he holds a At either side him stand two other These two first saints. a dove. virgins in vestScholastica. Individually the figures are not . 197. Maur and St. Benedict among is the Saints in Heaven.Ube Iball ot tbe Ultat) 227 macy. disciples. in a corner. St. The saint is displayed in a cope O'f regal magnificence. which he occupied under the pretence of rendering the inhabitants sure protection. Placidus. a rich characteristic bit of the master's gorgeousness. is an oval pic- and hangs above. benign and of stately. saints are St. many is St. in equally rich copes. with uplifted face. The draperies could not be better disposed. of Siena recovered from him their and it was through his lack of military foresight that the people city. he being a At his feet kneel . martyr. he stands among the is clouds. St. painted in 1572. Mendoza was a poor soldier. It is a graceful partly composition of clinging children about a draped woman. for near inspection or for distant Guido Reni's Charity. afifected. Catherine kneeling at the feet of Christ. His attitude crozier. Placidus a palm. his two St. embroidered with figures and rendered most exquisitely. Maur holds a book and a censer. by Paul Veronese. dis- ments of nuns among them In the sky tinguished by her attribute. is The picture was seen a very ornately dressed St. Number ture.

his repu- Industrious. but one must attribute much of to the genius of the artist. and assassination are not unjustly associated with his name. genuine impression may be gained how man looked and what kind of a Philip II. grasping. him as a spider sitting in the centre of his web. with unlimited power his at his will. Few men Treach- have ever exercised so great a power. avari- cious. command. ery. small in stature and dreary of countefits nance.'s portrait by of Spain. ible bet. and as invis- and hedged about as the Grand he dictated the policy of the Lama of Thistate.22S Ube art is of tbc t>itti palace Hanging high II.. it is fitting have re- . with a large protruding jaw. traits of the monumental effect Painters have always It is interesting to have other porso that a the same subject by other artists. imperfectly educated. an adept in cruelty. conspiracy. flattered kings. master of intrigue. possessed of a great empire. it and entangling within all who Sitting in his cabinet in the Escorial. and fewer have ever used it for such unworthy ends. Motley speaks ventured near. spirit there was in him. by Titian. is Velasquez acknowledged to be the one which Spanish king most its presents the realistically. tation. the full-length portrait of Philip Philip II. The murderer that he should of Will- iam the Silent. he all ruled by the exercise of either in own and destroyed open warfare or secret plot of who withstood him.

certainly embodies the Venetian preference for warfare over religion. Bartholomew. He one. but the result was the same. painted is Europe and threatened England. and was born in Urbino in 151 1. Duke of Nemours. and the lower have here the the idea part of his face indicates the determination and energy that carried them outskill We of of the man who could conceive Spanish Armada and command the to put resources Philip sufficient the idea into operation. and fail the world. his right In hand is a baton and in his left a sabre. and the Inquisition was governed by motives partly one tion. in a red cap ornamented with a buckle and plumes. vein. Philip II. looking upon his face. Cardinal Ippolito in Hun- garian battle costume. in Titian's best portrait He is turned three-quarters to the right. and Alva must be mentioned together. can never see there the cruelty to and bigotry which devastated de Medici. The story of the Netherlands in revolt illustrates the deliberate cruelty of his acts. must be destroyed. partly political. determined to stem the tide of heretics modem thought.Ubc Dall ot tbe irua& 229 joiced at the Massacre of St. His history was a strange He was a natural child of GiuHano de Medici. oif the instruments used in a wholesale destruc- He was religious. In the small and narthat secretiveness row head are evidences of and intrigue which hatched the plots. .

army when Charles V. Clement VII. Titian painted his likeness. that. and Titian has adapted his style well to the exigencies of the subject. not on account of the young man's for the calHng. and took was of a very martial disposition. who was then Pope. The " description by Crowe and Cavalcaselle seems best : to quote in studying the detail of this picture No modulations are to be observed in a face the whole character of which lies in the contrast between pol- . and gave him three hunopportunity to join the dred musketeers. knowing that Ippolito had found favour with Pope ap- Clement. and behaved himself in so lawless a way that Charles V. whom he wished to enter upon a liberate the legate.. and had him ap- pointed cardinal.230 'Q^be Hrt ot tbe ipitti palace Giuliano was a brother of Pope Leo X. It he decided to who peared at Bologna at the conference. in a The bronzed visage painted remarkably lifelike way.. had him arrested. with treaty. whom he proceeded joyously His distaste for the more peaceful fields of Church disputations caused the Pope to pro^ nounce him slightly insane. He allowed his mus- keteers to run riot. appointed him as his legate. assembled a host to go out against Solyman and the Turks. who be- came fitness interested in his nephew. but because it was a conIppohto his first venient favour for the Pope to bestow. with to Vienna. but. was here is while sporting his Hungarian uniform.

Red and blue predominate in an early work of the master. sharp-cut features. essential the and these Titian gives with a warmth and softness of fusion truly admirable. to which Titian gives without and elevation by a broad and general rendering of the lineaments. and eyes of porten- tous cunning. Number 206.xrbe t)all of tbe ITliab 231 ished skin. vicious face of Francesco I. Giorgionesque and mysterious glow Titian's is A the result. only a bust. any research of miniature. Looking closely at the grain of the canis one sees the art with which the colour it. and has the delicate finish As usual. This was the son of Cosimo L. the face nearly in laid and one hand on the breast. but a disgraceful example of self-indul- gence and weakness of purpose where moral ques- . and gloss of the period. to Smooth rounding and tone were production of this effect. in 1541. He was a great patron of and letters. strained over is the skill with which uniform gloss broken with a touch or modified with a glaze. bom the 25th of arts March. in the There is something grandly entire life whole head. Titian has here " given tenderness by transitions of half-tones and broken contrasted col- ours. de Medici confronts us in Broozino's portrait. The weak. It is the draperies. profile. vas. The picture has a landscape background." as Crowe describes his method of mottling." It is head of Christ lacks character.

and. the cause decree reversed. much to his honour. per- formed a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Loretto. candlesticks. and. In 1572 she and her ladies set out for Loretto with etc. piously trusting in her religion. but in vain. The in grand duchess. narrated by his biographer. which were put up very high in the great hall of the Palazzo Pitti. through the unlawful affection of her lord and master for the beautiful Bianca Capello. '' and chronicled which I Memoirs of Mark Noble/' quote " He perforated the six torquex in the Medicean arms. wife of Pietro Bonaventuri.232 tions Ube art were involved.. Our Lady of Loretto was powerless against the substantial charms of Bianca Capello.'* Francesco married a lady of great virtue. the Duchess Johanna of Austria. He used to cir- cumvent in plots and conspiracies in the : in the Pitti Palace an ingenious way. was reexamined by himself. This good woman was kept in a state of con- stant excitement and fear. of tbe t^itti K^alace He became sovereign of Tus- cany at thirty-five years of age. that said was gallery on post. order to win back the heart of her husband. . niece of Maximilian II. the and the judge punished. if he detected in them any par- tiality. crosses. when all the magistrates sat in their judicial capacity. was distinctly heard in a Here he often took his the other side. offerings of golden hearts.

Ube *all and Johanna was put in 1578. Elizabethan fashion. the collar flares in the veil. and she wears a thin She has on a pearl necklace. The couple fled to Florence. and Bianca was finally reduced to taking in washing to supdesperately in love. Short are around the upper parts of the sleeves and around the shoulder. Finally. It was painted also by Bronzino. She wears a gown of embroidered stuff designed in square figures. but was married at an early age to Pietro Bonaventuri against her father's wishes. and that she was never the mistress of Francesco. the cause of all trouble. and shows a lace-trimmed chemisette. sary if — which would have been unnecesFran- she had listened to her powerful adorer. The neck is open. however. her sleeves are elab- orately arranged to button their whole length. of tbe IHfab 1^33 aside. The this portrait of Bianca Capello. hangs here. and shortly after died. the conditions changed. She is richly dressed. her. but were frills left open when the picture was painted. port the family. cesco went about hinting that Pietro Bonaventuri was in the way. Number beautiful 204. Her husband was a weak and lazy member of society. Bianca Capello was born in Venice. There the dissolute Francesco de Medici saw and fell Her defenders say that Bianca was a virtuous woman. that it was not a grand duke's .

" Whereupon Francesco replied : " The best justice I can give you marry you myself. 1579. Bianca. Cardinal Ferdinand de Medici. Their only Some years passed happily. and then the royal couple received a visit from their brother. ." and demanded justice foT the *' murderer. to which he himself would succeed pen both to expire. she and the duke were promptly wedded on the I2th of October. of this delicacy. though the popular acceptance of the term. and denied himself the cidence. who thought it a pity that two people like his brother and his low-born consort should so long occupy the throne of Tuscany. — Cardinal Ferdinand was treat." This arrangement conforming absolutely with the proprieties as Bianca is to conceived them. and they all sat down to A tart such as Francesco greatly enjoyed was set before them. went to him in all the " pomp of mourning. was certainly very much attracted to the duke. One day. the unfortunate Pietro was discovered dead his on a bridge near virtuous in home. if they should hap- nand came to luncheon.434 tbe Htt ot tbe titti t>alace him to death. both Francesco By a curious coin- and Bianca died that night. who. son died in infancy. visit So the kindly Cardinal Ferdithem. He and Bianca ate a great deal fasting. but that the same grand duke would pardon any assassin who chose to kill Pietro on his own account. not long business to put after.

ture is The main little in the charming landscape in the back- ground. the Gold- smith and the Monaca have both been considered as his work for generations. and was also' what : in modern times would be called a " decorator " not being averse to paint- .. It is a misfortune that the only two pictures in the Pitti which have ever been attributed to Leo- nardo da Vinci have been somewhat discredited so that in all probability this greatest of artists Still. The Goldsmith is now thought It is to be the work of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo'. and it is interesting to note the reasons for the change of opinion. for has certain faults of feature which are seldom chosen by a painter under it is in representing an ideal subject. Ridolfo Ghirlandajo was a painter of legitimate pictures. . is not represented in the collection. xrbe Dall ot tbe Ulia^ 235 This melancholy event took place on the 15th of October. and the chin not regular. is The But lip is heavy. as well as the fact of their having been so long accredited to him. a very pleasing picture nevertheless filigree against the is the small touch of sombre texture of the in garment of the goldsmith happy relief. The expression of the man who examin his ines a beautiful jewel is which he holds hand it very living. It might easily be a portrait. . painted in low tones colour in the pic- of brown and black. in 1587.

refused. Raphael invited to assist him with his frescoes in the little Vatican. and could be conveniently " one day that the Signor Vasari tells how Duke had gone out of Florence. triumphal arches.236 Ubc Hrt ot tbe pittt etc. and decorations of heraldic character. He assembled instructed arts a coterie of clever people around in various oi the him and minor decorative which greatly fascinated him. He had much elegance and and a certain vivacity of manner which enabled him to follow the style of Raphael in some of his pictures. palace ing banners. suffering some- what from the gout. Many of his figures are strikingly like those of Raphael. standards. thereby losing the opportunity of being associated with the great master. that were in the vicinity seen. as he grew old. His portraits were excel- He was of a sunny. where . But he painted rather for therefore he amusement than what might be them as a profession. lent. and designing pageants. etc. called was an amateur. and he lived to enjoy a peaceful old age. When him Ghirlandajo was in Rome. and bearing it with fortitude. and of having his name handed down facility. He seer.. cheerful disposition. Ridolfo caused himself to be carried in a chair to the palace. and. decorated several ceilings in the Pitti Palace. with very foresight. he became a devoted sight- and visited all new buildings. but Ridolfo.. gardens. to posterity in connection with that important work.

side. " Now shall said : die content. and a book On the left St.Ube 1ball of tbe 1Ilia5 237 he lived and remained the whole day. is above which suspended a circular canopy susSt. in was interred in Santa Maria Novella. which altered was it so greatly and transmuted from what had formerly Vasari was been that he scarcely knew it again. They are inexpressibly So much lampblack was used in this lute. and a small palm in the other hand. relief. and holds a knife hand. since shall be able to carry to our artists who are in the other world intelligence to I the effect that have seen the dead revived. and beautiful. standing by on the stands in right. the is Madonna seated in the centre. and the old made young." at that time painting at the Pitti. His head is The angels at the foot of the throne are playing. Bartholomew. It is well drawn. when he I departed. In Fra Bartolommeo's Virgin Enthroned. He holds a furled banner. the old I man In the evening. one upon a violin and the other upon a graceful. on a high throne." Ridolfo died at the age of seventy-five years. is in his very stocky. . Bartholomew on the opposite very noble. it is painting that almost a monochrome. the deformed made 1560. giving a light poise to the figure in strong contrast to the heavy St. in good and is a fine composition. Michael full armour. one foot advanced. pended by four angels. examining the whole of that building.

it. the price paid was equal Daniel Barbaro. St. and her spirit is reported to mouth in the form of a white dove when she died. by Veronese. in partnership with Albertinelli. and was She was tortured and then beheaded. This picture was painted It hung in 1 5 12. son of Cos- imo III. Antonio Gabbiani made a copy of to the church. have issued from her martyred under Decius when she was only twelve years old. and banner with a red cross on it. a palm. Bar- baro was Venetian Ambassador to the Court of .238 xrbe Hrt of tbc ipittt ipalace is The kind. Reparata. St. a thor- oughly good Venetian portrait of the period. from 680 to 1298. which was given to $800. he has gray hair. Her usual emblems are a crown. the left clad in a black robe lined with The hands are magnificently painted. is a good portrait. She was a virgin of Cappadocia. who was for six hundred years the patroness of Florence. originally in the Church of San Marco. true to the life. ence was named for this The Cathedral of Florsaint. usual effect of a pyramid in composition combined with much grace and action of a stately The infant is placing a ring on the hand of Catherine. but was taken to the Pitti in 1690. in lovely garments. The man is is sitting full face. where it was placed in the apartments of Ferdinand de Medici. kneels at the Virgin's feet. It is In one he holds a handkerchief. and ermine.

sensual mo'Uth. He died in 1570. In the Council of Trent he was an earnest and active defender of the Church.XCbe ftall ot tbe fltab 239 England during the reign of Edward the Sixth. he accepted the position of Ambas- sador to England in 1548. full prettiness " in Dolci's and the day . His shock of wild hair painted in a masterly manner. with glittering eyes and a cruel little moustache above a is thick. Born in Venice. is The foreshortening of the right hand ently the warrior slightly doubtful. perhaps to the battle-field. This w^as rather an unusual vehicle for this master. St. St. he studied in Padua. botany. represents a war- standing in armour facing the spectator. 218. in the and the strong contrasts and soft outlines picture suggests Rembrandt. and other sciences. style of grace that is was admired ception to it no adequate coninspired writer. John the Evangelist. who g-enerally employed tempera. wood in oils. is John Adoring the Infant a painting on by Perugino. of '' is as It mannered and smooth as most of is his pictures. He is a fierce person. modern observers of the full Number rior. by Carlo Dolci. the picture has . which may have been the scene of a recent victory. by Salvator Rosa. The Virgin and Christ. and was in- terested in mathematics. After having been for some time in diplomatic service in Venice. but appar- is pointing out of the window.

240 XTbe Hrt ot tbe Ipitti palace is been restored a good deal. on the whole. John. though enthusiastic observers might so interpret it. not among little Perugino's fig- but the kneeling ure oi the young St. behind the Virgin (so it disposed in the perspective that sible for would be impos- him to catch a glimpse of the child is whom landIt is he is adoring). very prettily handled. The rather insipid. with one finger right in his mouth. who on a very full-stuffed sack or bolster. Not of the Virgin is really a very beautiful only is the expression of adoration to be seen upon her face. in prayer. The Virgin kneels with hands joined sits and regards the Infant. and the work on the angel's wings. and. a pathos. and yet foresees. and yet detail not overdrawn for an Umbrian hillside. is The scape in the background most delightful. little He is represented as a very natural fat thing. The supported by an attendant angel. but also there is a shade of sorrow. The on the robe of the Virgin and the angel. and looks at his mother without comprehending her child is attitude. as romantic as the setting of a fairy-tale. are very effective and characteristic of Perugino's use of gold. the picture happiest compositions. as she looks at the unconscious child. — probably not intended angel is is to sug- gest a blessing. and the general tone red and hard. and the forefinger of the hand raised. The head work. as she was usually believed .

may have been one to which the youth gave special attention when he came under the masThe head-dress is most gracefully ter's influence. daughter of Ercole Bentivoglio. but painted with such truth and richness of finish that he appears to be almost good-looking. hangs here. picture was painted 1520.XLbc t)all ot tbe f lia& to have foreseen. which seems to have been a fashionable Venetian head-dress of the period. more remarkable than anything . painted by Gior- The woman suggests the type which occurs in Titian's Sacred and Profane Love in the Bo-r- ghese Gallery in Rome. Later she married Filippo Tornielli of Navarre. in the manner of Raphael's Donna Velata. all 241 that is in store for him. stiffly She wears a wreath of she rib- wound foliage. is the subject of which not known. being married in 1510. drooping eyelids remind us of those of the nas of Raphael. is here a portrait of an aristocratic female. is an integral part of the design of a portrait in Titian's school of Number 221 is Constanza. of the hands is The painting else. by Hans is A portrait of a scholarly-looking Holbein. man. She was the wife of Lorenzo This in Strozzi of Ferrara. There gione. particularly the The Madon- Madonna Granduca. and the head. He is not handsome. a captain of Florence. This head arranged. wears gloves. and her sleeves are composed of bons.

— as a thing well. however. the cen- nothing more or less than an her affected court lady. to say that there finish was an idealized line in In and execution a masterpiece. rank in technique. and one of them him a crystal vase. It is no doubt the family of the lady of the first admired it. A stout party. by Carlo Dolci. can still be claimed as gen- Parmigiano painted the celebrated but unpleasing picture. The Virgin. examples of the meretricious features of It must have been intended originally as a saint. The is sleeping child lies in arms. like Raphael. and afterwards denominated as a The Gravida of Raphael is one of the instances of the pitiless exactness with which the great artist used to treat portraiture. in a blue is mantle and robe. uine. she is insipid. leaning upon cushions. really inexcus- able. Ube Hrt of tbe pitti palace is Margaret. The foreshortening of one hand portrait of is not Compared with the it Madel- lena Doni. as the model looked. . Angels one side are adoring the offering infant. Number She at is 230. tral figure. This conception is one of the worst this school. of beauty.242 St. Near a portico in the background stands an old man unrolling a scroll. This is doubtless precisely One would it is not be cruel enough it. portrait. the surfaces of linen and damask are like those of Del Sarto. with a double receding chin.

that he never finished Everything in the pic- drawn an affected and exaggerated way. Ippolita. the Madonna. who is playing the violin . and persists in attempting what he cannot often finds that in seekattain. very like those of Cor- reggio at Parma. Like so many persons who have a decided ability in effort to one line. Parmigiano was principally a painter He and his wife. died of a fever at Rome. The Madonna Number 231. not more than It forty-five years of age. even the columns the figures are long-drawn out. music. it is and as to the neck of it so long and sinuous that has caused the picture to be named " oi the The Madonna " full of grace Long Neck. preferring effect. these journeys that was on one of Parmigiano.xrbe Iball ot tbe Ifliab 243 The ture is painter was in so dissatisfied with this picture it. " He who deceives himself. both travelling about and sketching. and he ought know. angel of The Virgin is preceded by an maturer aspect.'' he has lost what he does know and possess to ing to acquire that which he can never So says Vasari. drew many scenes for various Italian collections." of landscapes. of the portico are so long and slim that they are of a ridiculous proportion. to heaven. literally swimming up by an angel cherub." Vasari finds it and beauty. he neglected that and made an excel in one to which he was not adapted. is assisted in the Assumption by Lanfranco.

to welcome ently.244 XTbe Htt ot tbe Ibttti ipalace her. not content in this with gazing from afar. while. Joseph represented by the chamberlain of her husband. have approached. and are actually removing her draperies! The bath itself is an attractive one. Christ Entering the House of Mary and Martha is the subject of a picture. shows It the children in the act of caressing a pet lamb. for the elders. appar- for her delectation. there is It represents a domestic interior. with II. rising . A is Holy Family of Rubens. On the shelves of this in the foreground on is the right in is a fireplace. by Bassano. and St. idea of the scene. numbered 232. engaged is skimming soup from a Lazarus seated at the table cutting a loaf of bread. the dresser being placed apparently in the landscape background. being a square basin of marble with several steps and a sedilia. Victoria della Rovere appears as the Madonna. dresser are rows of dishes. Altogether a strange and erratic In Sustermans's Holy Family. Guercino's Susannah and the Elders next claims Susannah is represented as havit ing an unusually uncomfortable time of picture. are three small angels in the clouds. Cosimo III. a delightfully fresh picture. Ferdinand a passing notice. as an infant. singing out of a book. where the cook kettle. Number 236. no ulti- mate wall. Martha. Number 235.

greets Jesus. in He was. who is entering at the Mary is already on her knees at the door. would wear his gold insignia of Mark upon all Bassano was always nervous for fear his of being poisoned. through an arched doorway. kissing the hem of his There are many domestic accessories garment. a sort of Beau Brummel an Italian and was more or less a subject of mirth. was Bassano in 1558. fact. He died at Venice in 1623. in man may be seen bringing in fish in a basket. and on heavy chain. having numerous retainers. carrying his gold cane or his mema orandum book. the far corner. who used to go about with him. in setting. . the slightest provocation he St. some fowl on the laid on a napkin on the ground. a cat and a dog in the central part of the room. and had tasters to try dishes. a left side. a son of Jacopo. bom in He kept a magnificent establish- ment.: Zbc I t)all of tbe 1lta5 245 from the left table. Leandro da Ponte. and.

" early " picture. and it painting. praise. the artist was a Dominican life A monk. un- be passed by as a less stiff. he received some influence also 21$ from the early Sienese school. is not to be wondered at if the repre- sentation of natural objects came less easily to than the production O'f celestial visions. appear qualities. . its all the glowing realism of the Pitti Paloif one example Fra Angelico might almost cold. have the same general In the friar. it Before analyzing the picture. first place. He him was trained near Assisi. with his time devoted to prayer. we realized that in is any work of this unique master there sure to be something of significance. is well to consider what a contrast there Angelico and that of is between the work of Fra pictures. living the unreal of a monas- tery. THE STANZA OF PROMETHEUS Amidst ace. and might be called the father of Umbrian art.CHAPTER IX. many whose tO' upon a superficial glance.

.tlbe Stanza ot Iprometbeu^ 247 He was his ideal a spiritual painter. the he conceived his the lights of heaven. as Ruskin has said. In him. as his was his art. lofty soul . and the delineation of the face of Jesus or Mary was a sacrament of divine religion service to his mind. but his darks. the most unadulterated and." His gelico real name was Giovanni. for the sake of the more full pre- cious qualities which are too rare in our later artists. there reverence so profound that effects of the detail it forgets sometimes the values and whole in its ardour to accomplish each in equal perfection. and after his death the Church conferred upon him the prefix of Beato. as his aim was finest do homage with the purest pigment. there is " the out- pouring of the sacred spirit. we gaze upon is conscientious finish and delicate lines and touches. lights. Should a man whose art was his religion." One must be lenient to some technical defects in the work. " his shadows themselves are colour. we begin to realize that there more here than is simple miniature painting. His was a most pious and had been from early youth to devote his talents to the Lord." says Ruskin. dare to treat the spiritual if it body were which he attempted to portray exactly as a portrait of an earthly to woman? No. not intellectual. — his lights are not the spots. as gold. " Angelico lives in an unclouded light. He was called An- from his angelic qualities.

the following quotation : " On the character of the physiognomy three cubits. monasteries there were artist-monks. for instance. prepare. a " Treatise upon Various Arts. height her complexion the colour of wheat. of the Mother of God. a monk of the eleventh century. then. technical points is He gives which were also strictly observed. Artists were not expected to depart from these rules. is in — The Her most Holy Virgin is her middle age. the men who frescoed the walls and illuminated the books of their convent. containing down from exact recipes for the arrangement and treatment of religious subjects. How to Represent the Tree of Jesse. as. 248 tibe art ot tbe t>ttti palace which was almost as much an honour as canonization. a fountainhead of quaint information." didactic directions are also given " The most Paint the How to Apocalypse. called the Byzantine Guide to Painting. eyes are brown. Theophilus colours." so. tells how to grind. in which was used *' such religious houses (where in models were not encouraged art!). and were hardly ever known to do Another book.." by Theophilus." which had come the tenth or eleventh century. an eye painted according . and they followed a certain text-book. and mix Imagine." " etc. The painter of Fra Angelico's day (1387— In most 1455) was much hampered by tradition. her hair and beautiful eyes Grand eyebrows and a middle-sized nose and long fingers.

and if me yo'U do not feel the pathos of the inadequate " I." more For rendering hair. and in the hair. wishing to overcome sloth of the mind or wandering of the soul by useful manual occupation. send a recompense of heavenly price. Listen to the tell preface of this holy man. and mark them out with black. . result of such consecrated labour.Ubc Stanja to this recipe fill : of iC)rometbeU5 little it 249 " Mix black with a white and yet up the pupils of the eyes." the art training (aside One can hardly realize that these perfunctory conall ventional directions were from the invaluable education of personal experience) that the artists of the early period received. but him be thankful from whom . and through whom all things are received. this simple suggestion seems to have been all-sufficient fill : " Mix a little black with ochre. the arts. Theophilus. an humble to all priest. and in the eyes on both sides. as received let from himself and not from above: in the Lord. fill add to white. if Skilful in let no one glorify himself inwardly. most beloved son. Therefore. naive and insufficient teaching there lay a wonderful spirit of devotion. . and that " ca- But behind this pacity for taking infinite pains " which under mod- ern conditions develops geniuses. you will not doubt that the Spirit of God has filled your heart when spirit you have adorned his temple. Theophilus. servant of the servants of God. Through the .

. as pre- scribed. The Child is also in . that the vice of covetousness or avarice may Blessings on the pure soul of Theophilus! reading Do new With not these old pictures in Florence take on a meaning after his exhortations? Browning " How Utter shall fit we prologuize. the time. and the means of the work. and is a good deal restored. . the destination. The decorative quality of the halos and accessories are charming." a pious consideration. Unfortunately." (And here " a touch of very practical religion. us examine this picture of Fra Angelico's. things upon art and history Feel truth at blood-heat and falsehood at zero-rate. In the centre the Vir- gin with the Child standing on her knee. of understanding. the ure. Through the spirit of piety you regumeasfollows late the nature.: f ) ^^o Zbc Art ot tbe iC^ittf ipialace of Intelligence you have acquired the faculty of genius. then. Make of the want of the age no mystery '* ! With a tolerance. ) And through not steal in. sits It framed as a triptych. how shall we ? perorate. . as let is all tolerance. clothes the Virgin. bred. The is persistence of mis- sal-painting on a large scale received. the chief impression A blue mantle over a pink robe. giving a blessing. the price of the fee. it is not a very creditable specimen it is of his best work.

09 3 (U (U P4 r1 "J u c < o .

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the lily founder of Fra Angelico's order. holding a a book. The faces do not bear comparison with those of the Paradiso in the Academia. inal . probably of some perfume or unguent. a small figure of the Virgin balances the angel side. Peter Martyr. It it is more interest- ing in detail than in mass. on the other Over the gilded framework of the tabernacle scenes two small may be observed . Thomas. On the left is St. since these scenes were not included in the regularly prescribed rule for such a picture. nor yet with those of the familiar angels with musical instru- ments which surround the Madonna of the Like all Ufifizi. paintings of its school. the extent of the central composition. little and Abo've these two figures is an exquisite Annunciation angel in a quatrefoil ornament! On and the right of the triptych are St. with more independence. It is interesting to have in the same room with . ot lPrometbeu5 251 In her right hand Mary holds a box. was painted for the monks of St. John the Baptist holdSt. who holds an open book showing These are both in the Gothic lettering. Dominicans painted preaching and exhorting with some spirit. Dominican Above them. in a little quatrefoil. ing a cross. Peter Martyr St. habit. with his fur robe draped by a long mantle. This is — not orig- the delicate work in the background should be noticed.Ube Stansa rose colour. In the same panel stands Dominic.

monastic choice." says Fra Lippo. he gave the good monks a deal of trouble. " You should not take a fellow eight years old. He had ample opportunity for studying the frescoes of Massaccio in the Car- mine Chapel. full of the flavour of their time " Having thus received a Sta. He early developed a talent for drawing. In the durance of a religious house (being of a roving and merry temperament). Never was greater variance between two artists. in Browning's poem. so the prior became interested in his talent. using his time in making caricatures. Otherwise there is little known in of his life except Vasari's romantic story of his love This rare scapegrace Orders conducted himself in a highly scandalous way in the monastery tO' which he had been consigned. Fra Angelico was a monk by by temperament. his monk through dians sent circumstance. and elopement. commission from the nuns of Margherita to paint a picture for the high altar of their church. and he was instructed in art. he one day chanced to see the daughter of Francesco .252 XTbe Hrt ot tbe pitti palace Fra Angelico's work a Madonna by Fra Lippo Lippi. dying when he was only eight years guar- him to a Carmelite convent. Fra Lippo Lippi was a His father and mother old. girls " ! in better words than and the Vasari's. " and make him swear to never kiss the One cannot tell the story romance of the episode.

painter fell The result work he was then of this was that the and at violently in love with Lucrezia. to whom she bore a son. being born in 14 12 and dying in 1469. away from the nuns on a certain their keeping. who was exceedingly beautiful and graceful." Fra Filippo was a little later than Fra Angelico. and he bore her from By this event the nuns were deeply disgraced. having given a glance at Lucrezia. whether retained by fear or by some other would not return. A very human . Fra Filippo. but their periods were near enough together for them to have done work of a similar kind. and who eventually became a most excellent and very famous painter like his father. who was also called Filippo. but remained with Filippo. . so persuaded the nuns that he prevailed upon them to permit him to make a likeness of her for the Virgin in the executing for them. 253 who had been sent to the convent either as novice or a boarder. for such was the name of the girl. ent! And yet how differ- No Byzantine Manual here! The joy of por- traying a lovely zeal woman has superseded the holy recommended by Theophilus. every possible effort regain his child. . length found means to influence her in such a man- ner that he led her day. a citizen of Florence.XCbe Stan3a of iprometbeus Buti. and the father of Lucrezia that he never was so grievously afflicted thereat more recovered tO' his cheerfulness. and But made cause. Lucrezia. .

as little chil- dren do when they are interested. in the corners of the eye and yet a touch and mouth would produce a most witching and arch expression. one than subdued. — the seed of the pomegranate may have been loveliest used. like the true As much as pea and pea is ! 'tis devil's game ! Your business not to catch men with show. Browning has delightfully summed up the charm is and feeling of Fra Lippo's work. like amusing himself any baby. legs. to symbolize the shadow of death. but a more exquisite delineated by him. The child. and bodies. Lippo telling how the monks criticize his work because of it his venturing to paint nature as he sees " How. is one of the types of Florentine Fra Filippo Lippi has painted- many beautiful this Madonnas. bless us Faces. . instead of bestowing a blessing on the world. The Virgin art. and rubbing his toes and the soles of his feet gently together. what's here ? all Quite from the mark of painting.: ! 254 XEbe art of tbe ^itti lialace did his best realistic man is work in this picture. arms. was never is The lids expression on her face the evidently intended to be eyebrows are raised and the drooping. certain conventional methods of expressing sadness have been observed. holding up the seed of a pomegranate. Of course there may in be a deposit of serious teaching in this act. a half-pagan way.

in the Stanza of .MADONNA AND CHILD By Fra Prometheus Filippo Lippi.

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Give us no more of body than holds soul.not to be found in that of the saintly Angelico. not of heaven. in their order ? ! . Why Make Both lift each foot in turn. fear. It is The You Prior's niece — Patron if it so pretty can't discover Sorrow or joy. must go farther — — And can't fare worse can't a painter his flesh liker. Saint. never mind the legs and arms Lippo's soliloquy follows this tirade: *' A So fine ill way to paint soul." Verily Fra Lippo had grasped the principle expressed by D'Annunzio. You God invents That's somewhat and you'll find the soul you've missed Within yourself. . . Can't I take breath and try to add life's flash And then add soul. when you return him thanks. and heighten them threefold ? Or. ignore it all Make them forget there's such a thing — — as flesh. Won't beauty go with these ? never saw it — put the case the same) else — . his soul and more like ? Take the prettiest face. • ••••••••• ** ! Paint the soul. the eye can't by painting body stop there. • If you get simple beauty and naught get about the best thing ." But it is the joy of earth. " to create with joy. — there is a sensual appreciation in his painting. Suppose I've made her eyes all right and blue.! Ube Stan3a of ptometbeus 255 With homage to the perishable clay But lift them over it. . say there's beauty with no soul at (I all means hope. .

Filippino Lippi. is showering rose leaves upon the baby. and white veil indicate. Burckhardt considers these scenes in the background to represent the Visitation It is and the Birth of the In every Baptist. such scenes might easily be rendered almost alike. On the right with their wings just fluttering tist is and hands folded. the Virgin in the centre adoring They are surrounded by exquisite angels. equal to some of Benozzo Gozzoli's. and on the other side ing displayed to is represented the birth of Mary. is way this in one of the most satisfactory of the pictures the gallery.2s6 Ube Hrt ot tbe pittt palace The Madonna in the Pitti. at the — Anna and Joachim are seen meeting Golden Gate. are two angels kneeling. It is a round picture. has also a Holy Family in this room. and said to be a portrait of Fra Lippo's mistress. The proprieties of art are observed in so far as the pink garment. with the usual well-strapped-up bambino beits admiring friends. is of the Pomegranate. The little Bap- kneeling before the child. a matter of interpretation. The composition It is of the picture is quite elaborate. blue robe. Number 347. rounds the grass-plot on which the scene and . which hangs is a round picture. one of them standing at the left the infant. the son of Fra Lippo. A balustrade^ suris set. who lies on the ground. Lucrezia Buti. almost a biography of the Virgin.

one of the pupils ran to hide in this crack some- thing which he did not want to be seen. He died in 1505. Most of he painted in Florence. ment of beloved. and his ability to paint is Hfe. his life his best work directly from their but these things will happen. while in the dis- a peaceful pastoral view. which a cleft represented in that was so naturally rendered one evening. because still Fra Lippo died when Filippino was he was born 1460. when some one knocked at the studio door. He studied with Botticelli. Filippino was taken off in the height of his power by a sud- den and virulent attack of quincy. In one of his pictures there the ground. was employed across do some of church. after all that to had occurred. while he was working upon a Deposition for the Church of the Nunziata. Sta. in the forty-fifth year He had inherited the happy temperajovial father. His father's sin . when Filippino. a youth. this has rarely been surpassed. cities but did work in Lucca and some other well. influence of his master. as An anecdote is told of his management of still perspective. and shows It in his work the must have annoyed the nuns of Margherita in Prato.TLbc Stansa ot lPromctbeu5 a rose hedge tance is is 257 seen all around. of his age. artist his and was popular and In readiness and inventive genius. Filippino was not a pupil of in his father.

and afterwards The episode chosen is by Filippino for the subject of and and told his panel the mohas ment when Lucrezia. held it in chase. Near by are the husband. in poor revenge. supported by Brutus. astonished with this deadly deed Stood Collatine and all his lordly crew Till Lucrece's father that beholds her bleed Himself on her self-slaughtered body threw And from the purple fountain Brutus drew The murderous knife. and as it left the place Her blood." The second division shows the corpse of the wife of Collatine in the midst of the Court of Justice. killed herself. and other friends. stabbed herself. a nar- row. is who pulling the dagger out of her heart. scenes. here. The divided into two The first represents the dying Lucrezia at the door of the hous^. Another picture by Filippino hangs of Lucrezia. with expressions of grief and horror. In Shakespeare's graphic words " Storm-still.: : : 258 Ube Hrt of tbe iptttt palace for in his blameless. representing scenes from the Death The pathetic story of Lucrezia is well known latine : how this chaste and virtuous wife of Col- became the victim of the rapacious Tarquin. cheerful was more than atoned life. having assembled her relatives friends them of her picture is distress. father. long panel. some . with the populace and the relatives all about.

the work of his pupils. conformed at- no acknowledged or obvious type of beauty. and said by many be a studio piece.. as usually critics to It supposed. Walter Pater has analyzed the quality of Botticelli's Madonnas : " Hardly any collection of note is without one of these circular pictures. the more representative and undoubted work of the master. and often come back tract to . holding a dagger. has some of Sandro's character- and will serve to illustrate certain phases of until his in manner one has opportunity to examine. you more and more. the royal apartments of the palace. at the right." The Tondo sibly not of a Madonna. is posis by Botticelli. In the centre. Number 348. And so to publish Tarquin's foul offence Which being done with speedy diligence The Romans plausibly did give consent To Tarquin's everlasting banishment. Brutus presses for- ward. Ubc Stansa testifying to their grief of prometbeuB 259 and others to their rage. Perhaps you have sometimes wondered why to these peevish looking Madonnas. " When they had sworn to this advised doom They did conclude to bear dead Lucrece hence To show her bleeding body thorough Rome. Mr. and inciting the populace to vengeance. istics. the recently rediscovered Pallas and the Centaur. into their heads so which the attendant angels depress naively. near Liicrezia.

not by Botticelli). seated. tO' is holding the in- and he reaches up affection. one open and one . child. In the centre of the circular picture are the mother and fant. whose gaze always far from and who has already that sweet look of devo- tion love. you may have thought that there abject even. . leaning upon a balustrade. In the closed. At the left the young John. The Virgin. kiss her with a thoroughly human On lily. the right the Archangel Ga- briel is seen. which men have never been able altogether to and which still makes the born saint an object of almost suspicion to his brethren. stands with his hands crossed upon his bosom. with a slender cross resting against his shoulder. although not in so marked a degree as in the two round paintings by Botticelli in the Uffizi. for the abstract Httle nobleness. is He carries the Annunciation bowing in adoration. He wears the robe of Behind him stands the Archangel this face is certainly Michael (very badly drawn. . Her trouble in the very caress of is the mysterious child her.26o Ube Hrt of tbe fiitti palace you when the Sistine Madonna and the Virgins of Fra AngeHco are forgotten. carrying a naked sword. . foreground lie two books. At first contrasting them with these. and St. these qualities are traceable. camel's hair. is was something mean or hnes of the face have is and the colour wan.'' In this tondo and in the Madonna of the Rose- Bush near by.

" no classical feeling in him. so that the result was a well-combined Greek and Gothic. if laid in and commenced by him. Though and squareness of modelling may remind There treatment is is us of his immediate predecessors. tempera. There is a sort of bloom. there are certain evidences that pupils also it. Botticelli painted in oil paintings. His pictures are do' Casual observers not always realize what is the difference between his method and that of other painters whose pictures may hang near his in a gallery. he has a grace and freedom that they never reached. and signifies " little cask. . Count Plunkett very aptly describes the peculiar position held by Bottiin the art oi his time: find "In its Botticelli's work earlier we an escape from the rigidity of the school. picture was touched up by the master. " and he might have been a naturalist mere among them. not He was a mystic. had a hand in or. Vanni Filipepi . But this was not enough Sandro Bot" Botticelli " for him." Sandro was a celli pupil of Filippo Lippi.tibe Stansa ot prometbeus Probably 261 this as so often seen in religious art. was a nickname. and yet a survival of his angularity spiritual feeling. the son of a tanner." in di was born Mariano Florence in 1447. ticelli He is a visionary painter. Mediaeval applied to Greek myth or classic orna- ment. " Botticelli lived in a generation of naturalists." says Walter Pater.

dealing with art. would temper with very fine. kinds of technicalities in A glaze of albumen in was sometimes sometimes also quite dry and applied to the finished work." and he adds " And now it is time to leave your work and rest . though not in this connection. . and oil was rubbed naivete when all was some set. It is " A common grayness silvers everything. Egg all beaten up with water was used by Cennino Cennini. gums of various kinds. like The colours must be ground water." Later. . Cennini evidently recalls that he is ad- dressing a " gentleman in velvet. after a disser- . You must know may paint col- that painting pictures the proper employment of a gentleman . parchment flour and even sometimes a paste of and water. XTbe Hrt ot tbe Ipttti palace Browning. you should always take pleasure in your work. Cennini's instructions have of the mediaeval of Theophilus : " And now by to teach the grace of God. consisted of the paint ground to a powsize. glue. yourself for a short space . says." After several other minute directions.: 262 as. with velvet on his back. always putting much of the yolk as of the colours which you it." the dusty quahty of the water-pigment contrasted with the oil vehicle. he . You must temper your ours properly with yolk of egg." he says. . what he as pleases. " I should like you to colour is pictures. Tempera der. who wrote a treatise in 1437.

tachius. when the reaction against so-called religious painting in was merged exactly." The " explicit " is or conclusion to its this interesting old book touching in sweet. evangelist and painter. St. St. unworldly devotion to the conception of art as a religious ministry. One can imagine what must have been the teaching of Filippo Lippi to the young Botticelli. and Anthony of Padua and that to may those give us strength to sustain and bear in peace the cares and labours of this world. " Praying that the most high God. So concludes Cennino Cennini St. Francis.: ttbe Stanza of prometbeus : 263 " These tatlon on the painting of fabrics. Luke the St. he has a quaint. ascetic way of dealing with the subject. In fact. sO' that by the sweat of their brows they may live peaceably and maintain finally their families in this in that world with grace. as a master in the Renaissance. he says draperies will please you much. Amen. the passion for imitating nature he stands almost unique. John." rections '' He gives di- How to colour water or a river with or without fish. — how he must have rejoiced in his bud- ." The same spirit is observable in Botticelli's work. Even when he is painting a pagan deity. EusSt. particularly the draperies in which you paint God. our Lady. who it study this book they will give grace to study well and to retain it. and which is to come live with glory for ever and ever.

" To Botticelli the symbol of that common was which was beyond human manner He delighted in long. for he tellect. Botticelli is the artist of a transition. slim figures. which will be treated later. and the anatomy.264 XLbc Hrt of tbe pitti ©alace ding genius. so Botticelli is the painter of the nerves. peaceful saints of an elder day. This is ticeable in the Pallas. and often as Perugino. and his kinship with the soul of the art which was so all fast sHpping away and being ideals. pictures. attractively human their faces dolls which are so with full far removed from the beautiful pink cheeks who were winning on every side. gives action in the same by no- poising the figure on one foot and allowing the other to have the appearance of dragging. He stands at the point where the Gothic and the Renaissance is meet. sion. is way into the popu- lar heart " Botticelli's method. and as Titian the painter of the smooth and healthy fiesh. into the language of his art every-day Raphael lifted above the but the expres- common." says Count Plunkett. and of the intellectual. This is one reason why his so long unappreciated. " of Raphael. re- placed on sides by new The joy to the master must have been great when he found that there was to be at least one more painter of the sweet. generally the converse of that first makes it his picture in his in- and then translates life. As Michelangelo a painter of the physical. is the muscles. appeal so to .

which are firm and unalmost uses an outline. He and never allows his colour to model his lines away. Some criticize his rendering of landscape. he he is is supreme. standard. 265 Every it normal person of any age can enjoy Raphael. He uses more brilliant colour. ever he does introduce it is very happily treated. as an anatomist. As a draughtsman. He delights in carmines and has a wonderful way of glazing a colour so as to . upper half of a picture than in the foreground. extremely faulty. story. detail and flowers are painted with much ical and botan- accuracy. erring. blended in his work. characteristic His colouring and drawing are both only of himself. he takes the story independently of all the tradition sculpture. of its former rendering illustrates it in painting or and according to the dic- tates of his own mediaeval aesthetic nature. strenuous mcxiern temperament.tCbe Stansa of lirometbeus the active. The real and the imaginary are he represents a classic artists did spirit. although not always accurately placed as regards proportion. takes a certain amount of culture and a certain in the strain of the exotic to appreciate Botticelli. When — he does not do as the Renaissance try to reproduce Greek types in a Greek rather. Some critics complain that his pictures are only tinted drawings. but whenit. is His colour subordinate to his lines. generally. They follow no preconceived and violets.

Does any one know exand yet does any one fail what this quality to enjoy it? The Madonna by. they float. is He had a great heightening sense of what freely in his effects decorative in art. to whose scientific tests does not entirely respond. frequently this lightly overdone. While work is exquisite. it but doubted by Morelli. leading to is unprecedented result. the extreme stoop of the Virgin's figure and that of the Child. tion to " depicting actual contour and illusive His people are and stimulate the rela- His pictures occupy the same as that art tO' held by Spenser's " Faerie Queene actly literature. and indulges in fine detail. mony. His power does not imagination. John. from . on a first glance. There a very beauti- fully painted rose-bush in the background. It is chiefly remarkable.2(>(> XEbe art of tbe it l&ittt ffialace give lucidity and transparency. is of the Rose-Bush. hanging near considered to be genuine by most authorities. is. as she lowers this him to embrace St. he lacks a feeling for proportion and general har- — almost a shape. O'f ornament and by delicate hatchings gold. It is the grace and expression in his figures transitory quality lie in — which charm. His figures are always is in action. and are often too his detail poised for earth. for the strange experiment in com- position. which has led Botticelli to dispose the fig- ures horizontally instead of vertically.

in the Stanza of Prometheus .MADONNA OF THE ROSE-BUSH By Botticelli.

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profile no beauty. There is a quaint picture in this room. though is still named aright. This is is certainly not the lady in question. or. wooden way. Ulmann con- to be by Botticelli himself. that this is not Well painted. treated Number by an unknown . and safe to assert. and married to a noble member of the family of Vespucci. crooked neck. with her long-nosed white head-dress. It has which suggest the work of painters. 336. This panel represents a much less ex- alted personage. seems from what one knows of the in a rather aesthetic tastes of the family. the daughter of one Cattani. says. Botticelli never painted the if portrait which it is called La Belle Simonetta. and clad in a quiet brown dress and She is certainly. unconvincing. an allegorical subject. probably of less expensive tastes." La Belle Simonetta the mistress of Giuliano de Medici. " and her long. She was a Genoese.Ubc Stansa ot prometbeus its 267 which the picture derives siders it name. it not impossible it. these experi- ments and whimsical arrangements of figures are quite characteristic of the certain things about it work of Sandro. in the collection of the Due d'Aumale. in France. especially some of the modern decorative probably those of the English school. he did. as Woltmann was it Simple to excess. however it is that Botticelli may be responsible for Vasari but mentions a portrait of Simonetta by it is Botticelli.

— the snake has turned upon him. In the background is the city of Flor- ence. right sits the painted in commemoration of some but this part is clear enough. under a laurel-tree. ture is The twining itself gracefully round his ankles. which he holds in his hand. of the for it was probably private injury. In the re- foreground the same youth has experienced a verse. Bianca. the cupola of the cathedral may be seen. playing with a serpent. as his ribs. crushing at him. its and he seems to be enjoying society. The I. and striking It is he lies overthrown full on the ground.. the picture Pestis is inscribed the motto. having removed for that purpose his brother. Number 337.268 xcbe Hrt ot tbe ipitti palace Across Florentine artist of the fourteenth century. and also the tower of the Palazzo Vecchio. that there is no worse evil than the is treachery of a trusted friend. as has been lated already. is who was the sixth to the throne of that of Ferdinand son of Cosimo I. A great patron of the arts. and his wife. and succeeded after Tuscany in 1587. is This picture rendered in the hard early manner of Florentine but the faces are expressive. de Medici. significance not possible to follow the picture. portrait. in substance. At the Eternal Father. art. Ferdi- . re- Francesco L. A youth seen in crea- the background. '' Nulla Deterior is Quam Familiaris Inimicus/^ which to say. just about to discharge a bolt of winged lightning.

Lord of Porto. of Pos- in the Isle of Elbe. of Florence and fourth Duke. He arranged the historic match between his niece. in Palace. his galleys being recognized Italian ports. the Siena. he would and not have wasted his time in collecting jewels bibelots. Castiglione. and he had." Where his personal interests were menaced. tinue his external until was diplomatic enough to consanctity of life for some years. into which anon- ymous missives might be dropped. of France. he was heard to remark sen- tentiously that if only Francesco had realized the importance of soul-culture. the Third Great Mas- of the Religious Military Order of St. ot C>tometbeud 269 who had been a cardinal ever since he was fourteen years old. little recesses in the walls.Ferario.death.Ube Stanja nand. He was the leading merchant of his dominions. ter and the Isle of Giglio . His titles ran thus . Lord of arid canio. He Don the was a great in all diplomatist. Count of Suianus. : " Ferdinando. . Stephen. his the rumour of crime had blown over. Grand Duke. bandits were instantly put to. Petigliano and a Prince of Capistrano. by the grace of third God O'f Tuscany. he the Pitti administered justice freely and firmly. to inform him of any plots that might be discovered or hatched. Marie de Medici and Henry IV. When he looked over the accumulated treasure of his deceased brother.

At St. The quite playing with a bird. Duke 1609.. her profile. all known indis- He would not allow a large and to be criminate group of retainers in his court. a red robe the left. ried in 1588 to Christina. succeeded him in Tuscany. . which on Greek lines. tO' spent his time concocting antidotes poison. in a rather disinterested attitude..^10 ttbe Hrt of tbe pitti palace to his honin his There are many statues and inscriptions our in Tuscany. child is A closed book in his right hand. not wishing surrounded by more people than he could watch. He was marCosimo HI. in and a green mantle. Number 338 Bellini. classes of workmen than any of the Yet he lived in a constant dread of being poisoned in his turn. staff. also holding a large closed book and a pilgrim's employed. holds the infant on her knee. He died in February. It is is a Madonna At is of the school of the a pleasing bit of the highly finished early Venetian work. and. being shown. occupies the right of the centre. of Lorraine. in his advancing age. daughter of Charles IH. His eldest son. the Virgin. Cathis erine kneels in adoration. partly from suspicion. his feet St. for he was more universal all patronage of Medici. James. The combination side of a landscape background is on one and a curtain on the other There are some reasons for questioning the au- thenticity of the picture representing the Epiphany.

dealing in minute and a lover of pageantry. but Pin- turicchio and his followers delighted in portraying in a group. Pin- turicchio. literal-minded dealing with large sacred subjects characteristic of the Umbrian masters of the period. the feminine faces not full enough of the tender beauty which artist. who was born Umbrian in Perugia in 1454. and reproduced here because is almost the only example in the Pitti of that crowded. ticulars a casual observer would be that this picture exhibited most of his characteristics. cession The in the a festal proit winding away background. but the drawing is not fine and clear enough. one observes at the right St. was a painter of the detail. using opalescent In these parinclined to think colours and sumptuous decoration. is possibly under his supervision. cially rejoiced. school. conscienticms. he would have been content to have painted the main figures with a landscape background. the actual number of persons concerned as selecting such subjects gave them opportunity effect of to revel in a pageant. as in does in this picture. Joseph standing and looking with pride . it is is inseparable from the work of It this more probably the work of general it is his pupils. was something which they espe- In analyzing this picture. a charming it picture. Perugino is much broader.Ube Stansa which is ot prometbeus 271 generally ascribed to Pinturicchio.

womanly type. " in whom the hues of the morning and the solemnity of the evening. is The Virgin are. the gladness in accomplished promise. are gathered into one lamp of ineffable love. an equally rich but even is more ornate costume. which would be of no real service as a shelter. with flowing beard and white just placed his hair. one of those purely imaginary buildings of the fifteenth century. king.:27a Ube Hrt ot tbe pftti palace and joy upon the Madonna and Child. and that presented by the carrying a vase similar to first His turban would indicate that he might be intended for the king who so often figures as a negro. but not so softly radiant as the is Madonnas of this master usually There lacking that quality which Ruskin notes in the Madonnas of Pinturicchio. and offering a vase of costly perfume. He is has also crown at the infant's feet. His draperies are soft and clinging. an aged man." knee. a sweet. These precious stones are painted with as care as any of the much more important parts of in the picture. and is quite majestic in his pose. He wears a turban. with his The child stands in on his mother's hand upraised blessing. They are sitting under an extremely In fact it is tall shed of very light construction. but he is here repre- . but are richly trimmed with gems. Before the child kneels one of the kings. the sorrow of the sword-pierced heart. Behind him stands another king.

in the Stanza of Prometheus .THE EPIPHANY By Pinturicchio .

i .

to the fu- and an intellectual old man. Be- tween him and the second Wise head. The figures thus far described the foreground. O'f He is has an extremely straight tight ringlets in the style His hair in the Sienese youths of that artist's day. from the composition. is The is collar of his mantle embroidered most exquisitely. The third king stands at the left of this one. careful man who has fill done his best. stout philosopher next him. worked out from a love of There no indication here of a picture ordered to repre- sent the Nativity at so It is much for the square foot. dressed all in rich velvets. looking off full of hope. : Ubc Stansa of ©tometbeus «73 sented as a white man. Each is a separate study of pertruth. at the right a cheerful. ture. his turban. left. In one thing the painter has been . and rather Florentine than otherwise in his style. successful : he has studied types and each man or woman sonality. is in this minute work is absolutely different from every other. with silken hose and jewelled hat is and as is collar. Immediately back of them come the Wise Men a solemn philosopher with a long beard with smiling countenance. on the extreme with bared head and short hair.. is Man a youthful its irrelevance at this point in probably the painter's portrait. with a pointed beard. which. His crown noticeable above his hat. the work of a loving. also the Moorish king's above profile. .

the mouth. set — all jovial face. As an allegorical complement to the scene. may be descried the scene of the Flight into Egypt. head is seen behind the second Wise Man. In the third row behind. catching A gay cavalcade follows in the distance. camels. One quaint a full. and are evidently fitted in to fill spaces . are seen filing through a rocky gorge in the mountainside. expressions of the human face. — the in Only Leonardo has thoroughly succeeded it. and the effort of an early painter to portray that most all elusive of smile. behind the hut. coming from the pleasant pastures beyond. this results in many of them being out of drawing. direct- . where only a part of a head or face shows. their men. riders on fiery steeds.. a74 it XTbe Hrt of tbe pitti palace quite like the portrait of Pinturicchio himself is in the Cathedral Library in Siena. is less attention is called to an angel flying. the faces get more confused. and hardly to be noticed unit. upturned corners. figured as usual by Joseph walking. and in the Mary and the Child riding on an ass sky far above. in the background. and evidently just catching sight of the infant toward people are wending their way. and Turks with turbans. with medallions of jewels. wearing a round cap laughing merrily. at the right. The road may be seen winding off for a great distance beyond the figures. with is its whom these The expression of is droll.

parsimonious and bigoted manof which Cosimo was saints' relics. ^73 Probably this is the angel which appeared to Joseph is in his vision. At the base of the picture.. while the court in a was carried on ner. and the money was simply rolled up in the state exchequer. who married Vittoria all Apparently the Medici were des- tined to be either brutes or prigs. for Joseph also seen asleep a little farther up the road. was a religious fanatic. or the toe of such says : a confessor. II. occur the arms of the Vitelli family. on the two opposite sides. were acquisitions of the utmost importance. is Altogether the picture interesting as illustrat- ing the mediaeval tenderness. his subjects and avaricious withal. de Medici. Cosimo III. and were taxed unmercifully. represents the infant son of that good Ferdinand della Rovere. The only extravagance guilty was the purchasing of An is amusing account of his taste in this direction given in Mark Noble's " Medici Memoirs. The picture was painted for them at Citta del Castello." He " The hand of such a saint. of Cosimo III. and the labour which an artist was willing to expend before time was held at such a prohibitive premium. by Sustermans. The regalia of Tuscany would have been . The fascinating child's portrait.tibe Stansa ot l&tometbeus ing them on their way. yet grasping He was morose and gloomy.

garb. so. and had been brought up in the gay French court." «76 trbe art of tbe BMtti iC^alace endangered by the offer of a whole dried or pickled martyr I Cosimo had been a great In traveller in his early youth. 1 66 1 his father married him to Margaret Louisa. which greatly gratified his vanity. in fact. beauty. and little relished the austere life to which she was thus doomed. and besought him to intercede . Cosimo objected equally to the lively manners of the French. In 1670 Cosimo had suc- ceeded to the throne. ecclesiastical So he arrayed himself in canonical and repaired to Rome. luxuriating in the dissipations incident to the ceremony of displaying the Holy Napkin. Cosimo's religious mania developed alarmingly as he grew older. go about Florence arrayed like an ordinary On one occasion a beautiful woman came to him. and the court became even more intolerable to the young Frenchwoman. Afterwards he was permitted to bestow a public blessing. the young couple were so entirely — uncongenial that Margaret returned to her father. Peter could do until he gave the Pope no peace he had created him a canon. as none but a canon of St. she was a great daughter of the Duke of Orleans. At one time he was seized with a sudden desire to embrace the Sacred Napkin in Rome. He often used to citizen. and was handsomely entertained in England.

The Magdalen Taken subject. are her it* straw matting and an altar with flowers upon . he had some skilled mechanics and pageant managers come and arrange a procession of saints' gies. for her husband's par- unfortunate gentleman had been bancould. III. nude. is — a large ex- panse. with small figures. At another it time. Cosimo died in 1723. having held the sceptre for over fifty years. is a strange picture and a strange treatment of the The scene is in the clouds. The grand duchy extended the Trappists during the reign of its hospitality III. each calendar saint would appear by clockwork. which only serves to enhance the impression of nakedness. and having done nothing of note. on the earth.Ubc Stanza with the don. and he gave her the necessary 500 crowns to admit her into a convent. to Cosimo When he became confined to the house by failing health. ex- cept that she covered from head to foot with a filmy veil. In the Magdalen is floats up to heaven. ished. Below. when his in the clerical capacity he had taken head to receive confessions. ot prometbeus 277 — the Duke Cosimo III. so that effi- on the day of his festival. to Heaven. Cosimo promised to do what he and into the pardon was soon received. a fair penitent con- fided to him that she wished to reform her life. by Zucarri. centre the the motive. the duke would then prostrate himself before the image.

is of course inferior to that painted by Michelangelo. much first the same attitude. of Lorenzo di Credi St. and the Angel Driving Adam and Eve out of the Garden of Eden. painted from de- numbered 367 and 378. is confusion.27S xcbe Htt of tbe Ipitti ipalace is The clouds are full of cherubs . represented as an old man. and his victims are twisted with terror as they flee his wrath. taste of the late sixteenth century angels in the hover about with their hair neatly parted. Joseph and the Virgin kneeling in the cattle-shed adoring the holy Child. summons Eve The woman's figure. and ire. the artist has of fagots. Farther up. By an represented the O'x and ass kneeling on their front . springing into life. the celestial choir is seen performing upon a pipe-organ. and viols. they represent the Creation of Eve. and singing their " joy over the sinner that repenteth/* A pair of pictures by Migna. In the first signs by Baccio Bandinelli. In the second picare being driven the man and woman All is out of the garden. but has ture. while the Al- mighty. forth. are picture Adam is shown sleep- ing peacefully in a careless attitude. is delight- It is a circular picture. who lies with his head supported on a bunch original thought. the scene almost as theatrical as a ballet spectacle. playing on harps. The angel positively in a temper. rapid action. lutes. from The Holy Family ful.

means would have been As Vasari be ob- says. and yellows. in what modern would If a crank. however." Lorenzo di Credi was born in 1453. The Virgin. holding the infant. and it is not very representative of his best manner. and was quite an aesthetic eccentric. almost too particular about the cleanliness of his colours. which for the most part are injurious. who .' Ube Stansa legs! of t>tometbeu3 279 The works of Lorenzo di Credi are always characterized by a tender religious sentiment. The only specimen of relli in the Pitti Gallery is work oi Luca Signoa Holy Family. and also a wonderful degree of finish. and for each shade he used a separate brush. he had each shade of every colour gro'Und separately. fact. also morbidly careful not in his studio. He was. there had been his no other means of attaining the end. justified. stands. to- He was dust. and doubtless some of Lorenzo^s superlatively neat ways were inherited from the necessarily careful the habits of this early teacher. at the right. blues. His father had been a miniaturist. and died in 1536. call have any move- ment going on for fear of raising artists He was. in fact. never mixing his pigments. " There should in all things it is served a certain measure. in a robe of harmonized reds. and always good to avoid extremes. so that often he would have as many as thirty colours on his palette at once . But the results are very lovely.

who sits at the table on the other side. as St. and the animals attend to render in humble worship what service lies in " A brilliant easel picture. is The Madonna rather lacking in expression. not a study of refined ist. and evidently causing much astonishment to St. Many others are gathered. executed while tradition governed the representation of sacred scenes. their power. who held the by his mother. Luca Signorelli was a real- as we know from his frescoes in Orvieto. womanhood. while in the other she holds a pen in the attitude of one preparing to write. Catherine. is one hand on the shoulder of the and seems to be speaking to her. Catherine. leans the comsaint. the centre is In seen the lowly cattle-shed. Ghirlandajo's Epiphany is a painting of very early Renaissance." is the testimony of Crowe regarding the Holy Fam- . more than any of the others. who is has a preternaturally small waist vital for the period. Joseph. is the kings do homage to the Holy Child. also St. filling introduced apparently for the sake of position.28o Ube art of tbe pitti R^alace appears to be in a rollicking mood. lifting one small foot. but it is the simple face of the peasant. where the still he must be seen to be fully understood. Wise Men. charming for its com- bination of the qualities of Leonardo and Credi. St. Within. Joseph. raising one hand in exclamation. the shepherds. rather a secondary piece of work.

in is the costume of the early fifteenth century. interis dressed in a dull red doublet. A delightful Florentine portrait. esting face. his The infant Jesus resting on the ground. " Gloria in Excelsis In the clouds above are three angels holding a scroll bearing the inscrip- Deo'' If the picture were of no other value. Number 365. but the chief charm of the picture in the crouching 'figure of is an angel on the left. his whole breezy and He a link between the Middle Ages and the Renais- sance. Number 372. The and subject has a clean-shaven. tion. it would be interesting for the charming bit of landscape so delicately painted in the central distance. by Castagno. these he takes as a baby would take any toys that left were given to it. curly. to him. is is His hair alert. and wears a red and cap. He it holds the nails in his hand . from which a long air scarf hangs over his shoulder in a dashing sweep.tEbc Stansa of fttomctbeus ily is 281 by Albertinelli. swathing clothes so loosened that he limbs. who offering to the child the symbols of the Passion. he is about to take the cross from the angel. Andrea ality. del Castagno was an interesting personhis portraits and by we may see that he was . also an olive-branch who is extending and a crown of thorns. tional may is feel the freedom of all his The mother adoring in a rather convenlies way.

and had lived a plain country from that time he grew almost to man- hood. a new coal. progress. until on a little farm life in Castagno. and the idea delighted him. who owned a great estate in this region. He was bom. and his straightfor- ward disposition. and he spent much on the time experimenting.282 Zbc Hrt of tbe Ipftti palace able to catch subtle personal qualities in a likeness. and invited the boy to Florence to be educated by the best artists. One day. using such pigments as char- and scratching with a stylus wall. led him to paint without . and Immediately he made as one of the was soon recognized painters of his generation. this time the artist the cowherd. where lived a man who made fairs. circumstances. life so long fostered by the uncon- ventional of the farm. was immediately interested. When he returned home. and he investigated the case. Andrea. while he was a cowherd. by painting pictures for the Just at was employed on a little tabernacle which a countryman had ordered. living in the rain. His first artistic inspiration was under rather strange in 1403. Finally the fame of this talented farm-hand reached his neighbour. life was awakened in him. he hapand ran for shelter his pened to be caught to a small house. Bernardetto de Medici. Castagno seems to have had an inherent ability for depicting varied emotions. he had never before seen any one draw or paint.

with artist. He disliked his associate Domenico Veneziano. It is not equal in appreciative feeling to his noble Christ Column. No one knew why he had elected to paint his own portrait as Judas in the Last Supper. among But some of the brutish nature of the beasts with which he had grown up and had clung to him. charging the priest to publish his so that no innocent person might ever suffer for his crime. all his savage instincts aroused. and had returned instantly after this dastardly act to his studio. He has another picture in the Stanza . as he did soon after this event. and. he lay in wait for him one dark night. where he was found quietly working when they came to him of the news of the crime. The tragic and dramatic career of Castagno came an Ecce to an end in 1477. exclaiming. competitor. Number 374 Bound to the is Homo by Sodoma. which visitors tO' Siena will remember. and he confessed guilt. " Alas. and murdered the disguised his He had own appearance. The murderer was not suspected during his lifetime. he was impetuous and ungoverned in his hates. for him to bear. upon the dead body with much simulation of grief.Ubc Stan3a flattery ot prometbeu0 283 and with much more realism than was usual his contemporaries. Appolonio. evil But on his death-bed the weight of his deed was too heavy it. in the Convent of St. my brother! " and tell He fell ran out.

" and few such pictures are to be seen. dwelling among an unimaginative and severe set of people. who seems to have rubbed him the joyous- wrong way. Annibale Caracci. pleasure-loving.284 XEbe Htt ot tbe pittt palace of Prometheus. and the energetic is movement in the act of expounding or original. a portrait of a man. Gifted with a strong sense of humour and grotesque. careless. is striking vital. which. Number 382. combined with the intense ex- — he demonstrating. as Vasari thinks artists should be. in Had he lived our generation. ready to be a jest himself create a would but serve to good laugh. first. He was made much of in Siena from the Vasari." writes his contemporary. name was Razzi or Bazzi. and The whole picture '' is very " Razzi " (Sodoma)' appears a very eminent master of the greatest taste. He wears a rakish hat. this man was greatly misunderstood." Among whose real the most picturesquely irregular lives of the Renaissance stands Sodoma. a fact which seems to have annoyed who can hardly speak temperately of this unique man. the artist of Siena. Probably he was not a digniall fied figure. no doubt he would have been recognized as one of the erratic geniuses to which we are so devoted. pression of his face. — of his hand. with good red tones predominating. not taking himself seriously enough to suit the . Sodoma was a man if it of much ness and cheer of nature.

very ark " The dwelling of this man seemed like the of Noah. squirrels. possibly not of great depth. their place in this Such people hold world of sorrows. Sodoma. and intended to be almost an endearment. so that. and jovial He was infer. obtained a nickname. which must have been highly divert- ing to a person of his temperament. as with disgust." When Sodoma was and the price was too engaged to paint a small. meaning arch fool. apes. on a larger scale. for he had together badgers. picture. which he kept for he also had a raven which was a great Vasari expresses it. not so careless of material things his as some who watched haphazard life might have been led to One of his patrons once com- . making sonnets upon the and sing- ing them to his He kept an assorted array of strange pets.trbe Stanja of Jirometbeus florid 285 lighter biographer. talker. subject. having withal a frugal and practical streak. but he art is was a buffoon only in his life. racing. the most delicate and spiritual of Sienese work of his period. often He lute. and. in spite of his generous exterior. A buffoon he may have his all been. 1479— 1554. and are not to be entirely despised. Mata name given him in taccio. dwarf asses and ponies. — sympathetic waggery. he did not take much pains with the work. laughed at this pleasantry. His character was in vein.

of his numerous zoological acquisitions. Vasari. and a chain about his neck. He immediately painted the most bewitching nude figure that he could portray. in Sodoma was quite a fop. exclaims. Lorenzo Costa. Sodoma had read the Pope. I If you care to pay more. at least. cil. clever featherweight squander his time and his money. ascended the papal throne. and died in a hospital in Siena. and for- began to give up painting as assiduously as merly. conspicuously in the race of San Bernaba his horse had an ape on its back. — and — one it much to the indignation of serious old betters. Sodoma his opportunity. am capable of doing better work. pontiff's tastes aright . when captured the prize." He was frank. a painter of Mantua and Ferrara . he was left almost destitute. he was promptly remunerated and made a cavalier by the delighted Sodoma was now a recognized power." replied II My pen- Mattaccio.286 tbe art of tbe Jbitti l&alace plained that he did not consider that Sodoma had '' put his best work into a certain order. ^' he grew old. amusing himself with horse-racing and such sports. " Best suited to a Jack Pudding or a mountebank. '' only dances in harmony with the sound of coins. with a short cloak of cloth of gold." So did this foolish." When Leo saw X. who can never forgive him. He won . dressing himself brocade doublets. and sent it as a present to his Holiness.

crowds of figures coming from the surrounding plains. Number 383. Lorenzo Costa He was an intelligent follower of Francia. is He has a heavy chain about his neck. one is the Scene in a Vineyard. which hangs here. treated of strong brown and is broadly picture with fine round modelling. The Epiphany. tones. One of the Wise Men in the act of kissing the foot of the infant. in the back. On a slight hill. is full This portrait. of the artist. with their retainers the horses are being unladen. the Wise Men at the left The three kings follow . is and with a close cap on ofi in the Florentine His hair chopped fashion.Ubc Stan3a work of prometbeus 287 between 1460 and 1535. the . This one of the few specimens of the paintings of in Florence. are seated upon some rocks. represents. Num- ber 376. is In the background seen a city. numbered 379. The came from the is Isolani collection in Bologna. Stanza of Prometheus: BentivogHo. them in procession. has a fine interesting ex- ample of his in the II. At the right the shepherds. the Virgin and Child are seen under a shed. low panel. is may be detected. and quite an imposing personage. are bowing before them. by Pontormo. A portrait facing the observer. having withdrawn. There are two pleasant pastorals by Bassano. on a long. at the right. in a doublet a portrait of Giovanni which fastens his head.

The other rustic scene by Bassano represents people who have evidently just moved to a new region. jugs. pans. drinking juice from the vat out of a cup.288 zbc art a ot tbe pittt palace I rustics are gathering the grapes. constructing the roof. A man and woman in the background. At the left a woman. who is arrangbetween two baskets. is in tree. is unpacking a chest of utensils. who have been employed in On the ground near the cenIn the middle of the com- woman on is her knees. One rustic. an axe. is On the right seen another ing a shoulder-slat they woman. sawing the beams. and await patiently the issue. except where a stray hen has wandered out to search for food. on the left. so that be carried. kneeling on the ground. and are about to build are seen several their home. and other implements of household convenience lie abcmt her. below. right. piles of linen. drawing a large tre is a tub. are examining vines. Two oxen are seen in the left part of the picture. in the centre the domestic animals are corralled. etc. At the busily right men and women working about a house. The poultry are with them. may the more easily A dog is seen on this side. position a boy treading the grapes in a small vat. and putting up the walls. In the fields beyond may be distinguished a sower.. reaching certain high portions is of the vine. one pouring the fruit from baskets into vats. Farther back two women .

A decorative panel. is the picture of Christ in the Garden.Ube Stansa are of lprometbeu5 it 289 making a fire. and a ray of sunlight striking down through the clouds. . representing respectively a man without hope looking into a grave. the three disciples sleeping in the foreground. A rainbow is seen in the distance. the kneeling figure of Christ receiving a chalice from an angel. and a flying typifying the resurrection. blowing with the bellows. figure opposite. just be- yond. and. central The arrangement is quite conventional . by Girolamo da Carpi. At the two ends of the picture are a couple of ovals. and evidently about to cook a repast. Number 385.

unharmed among wild beasts. exhibiting to received in battle. Some are milking their kine. and are difficult to examine. In the Age of Iron are more soldiers. Gold. There are two figures among the captives of war in the fresco representing the Age of a temple. Here the painter has depicted. and indulging in agriculture. in allegorical figures. THE STANZA BELLA STUFA AND THE STANZA OF THE EDUCATION OF JUPITER In the Stanza the della Stufa there are four large wall frescoes by Pietro da Cortona. the four ages. first and this is opportunity for studying this artist with any are satisfaction. Soldiers appear in the their leader the Age of Brass. as his frescoes in the other halls all on the ceilings. breaking into who have fled there for refuge.CHAPTER X. maltreating those 290 . The Age in the of Gold is symbolized by the innocent play of childhood. Age of Silver pastoral figures are seen. Silver. and Brass. Iron. wounds they have claiming recompense at his hands for their wrongs.

his life. Ber- called Pietro da Cortona. it is needless to remark. while to be painted his . closing his life in II. as tion. his frescoes and may many of the ceilings and lunettes in the rooms of the picture-gallery.. appeared at a time when art was at a low ebb. — an He abso- art which is lutely necessary to one whose work is and seen from below. and just they are about appropriate for theatre curtains. choosing Trajan's column for and lacking his favourite study. Rome. retini. to foreshorten. His figures show rather heavy . the influence of classic in delicacy. Rome 1669. He and his scholars.Ube Stansa Brass. in he became a lover of colour. be seen in the frescoes are all in florid taste. The frescoing of these vaults was the most important work of sources. not thoughtfully conceived or skilfully drawn. not startling in any particular. He acquired his style from many he copied bas-reliefs. which he uses acceptable way. was the founder of a school in Cortona in the late seventeenth century. an knows how on ceilings. who may are sitting in in the left illustra- an attitude of dejection on the ground corner of the picture. and did much of his in work in Florence. Under Ferdinand be seen in he was in- vited to Florence to decorate the Pitti Palace. — and. and their pictures are mannered and exaggerated. bella Stufa 291 —a The man and a woman. Pietro da Cortona was born in 1596. being Influenced by Venetian art.

" When the exposition was opened. by the sculptor Giovanni story of their Dupre of Siena. are the statues of Cain and Abel. and determined to create a genuine statue. He began his career by beautiful In 1840 he took the prize at the Academy. the just expression. he thought long of the Pieta. The statue was ready to be exhibited at the in 1842. however. Acad- emy in the September exhibition tells Thirty- seven years after. in the taste of his day. and though in exaggerates the action simple scenes. that being a subject little chosen by others. he his thrilling experience with this work. representing some sacred finally subject. yet. and therefore more original." where his life's He had then moved to Florence. in the Stanza della Stufa. work was accomplished. with a bas-relief representing " The Judg- wood-carving.292 tLbc art of tbe Ipitti ipatace themes are not he frequently intellectually designed. ist Giovanni Dupre was born in Siena on the of March. The making is so interesting that one canit not do better than repeat the works O'f here in connection with his early yet powerful genius. The imitation of the truth. The chief objects of attraction. he was a good decorator. but decided upon trying to portray the dead Abel. ment of Paris. He de- cided to attempt a larger work. the newness and . people gathered round the work. 1817.

Q X H <. H CO <J W Q < CO .I < Q < I— O CO H CA Pi a.

.

This amiable experiment was made in the evening. He was made and his to lie down in the position of the statue. Of course the measurements did not agree with those of the statue. . for it was dishonestly fact. should be thrown out of the exhibition. was full of indignation in his rebuke. in order to Antonio Petrai. I had made my figure four fingers longer less than the body of the model. when. awakened a deep The crowd around But it it increased from day first quietly. — that I was seeking to impose upon the Academy. . in body and limbs measured length and breadth and compass with strips of paper. at and soon more boldly and openly. who accidentally surprised them in the act. Montalvo. and . prove the fraud. that my statue was an imposture of art. that it was not the creation but the mechanical work of a moulder. began to be asserted. for. It masters and scholars. and the president. terest. and the public. in made from laying the soft ! plaster on the living model " The the figure of Abel was so absolutely natural could not believe that it that less clever men was work of a sculptor at all.: Ubc Stan3a ^ella Stuta 293 in- pathetic nature of the subject. without any design or thought about it. it thrust in there as a was only a cast work of art. and two fingers across the broadest part of the back. . Giovanni continues " At last they went so far as to strip my model. to day.

but that nuity of it would be a greater tax upon the ingeto accomplish a standing one. closer examination of the evidence. they awarded Dupre the gold alone. after more study.'* Suspicion was thus excited by the perfection of The same charge had been once brought against Canova. who Abel and two thousand for Cain. visited his studio to see the Abel about which there had been so much controversy. She admired the unfinished statue of Cain. again suspected. while he was at work upon the Grand Duchess Maria. in the performance. The first bronze casts taken from these statues were ordered . advised by his friends. it who would was easy to not let him began to say that make a recumbent figure. wife of the Prince of Leuchtenberg. The critics.294 XTbe Hrt ot tbe pittt palace did not spare these professors of the Academy who had taken part Dupre's work. and then turned and exchanged a few words with the prince. piece. ^^^ and were But when. the two were purchased by the Prince de Leuchtenpaid the of fifteen hundred scudi for berg. statues As a sum result of this visit. ited at the Cain was exhib- Academy the following year. the judges convinced that the sculpture was the genuine result of the artist's ability. Dupre So. Dupre decided upon modelling a companion this. the Cain. When the statue of Abel ^^ appeared at the Paris Exposition in 1855. medal of the first class.

well-fed body in contrast to the delicate purity of his brother's slender frame. lying supine in death. on the contrary. forgiving in seventy times seven." the violence of his brother. is His powerful. his face with hate. is in the act of rushing away from the scene of his crime. as the expression of his features filled indicates. The two human life. and loathing of the deed which he has just committed. the type of unresisting breath." Andrea Maffei speaks of " it in the highest terms." he says. Although the statue of Cain that is less pleasant it than of Abel. Cain.. has been sculptured by the artist with the same marvellous power that characterizes the description of the poet. to be placed Pitti Palace. until martyrdom." alluding to Byron's lines: " His eyes are open — then he is not dead lida. : a greater achievement of Bartolini says in this " Dupre has felicitously overcome a thousand times greater work difficulties than in the Abel. The feeling of terror first and remorse. the critics considered art. Death is like sleep. his last statues stand for two great verities in is The *' Abel. ^gs in the They were cast by Clementi Papi. ttbe Stansa &eUa Stufa by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. fear. " with which the homicide rushes away from the scene of his crime. while with brutish instincts he still shows no repentance. and sleep shuts down our .

" that most seductive and cinating Isis."! 296 His XEbc Hrt of tbe lips. Jbitti palace are apart. too. From the Stanza della Stufa one passes to the Stanza of the Education of Jupiter. my blood. yet equally famous. is this *tis • what — •••••••• I Oh. I But who hath dug that grave ? Oh. wet And yet there are no dews 'Tis blood. ful is a portrait of the model who is presented in the Sistine Madonna. one of the smaller rooms. decorated by Catani with scenes rep- resenting Jupiter's education. for a word more from that gentle voice bear to hear That may my own again " ! The fratricide continues his reflections until it is completely impressed upon him what he has done. so different. and shed by me. as its name indicates. it — why. yet I feel not. whose luminous same beauti- eyes seem to scintillate with vitality and the secret of perpetual youth. I Give thee back this Now for the wilderness ! 1 Giovanni Dupre lived forty years only. . earth. . he cries: The first grave yet dug for mortality. . My brother's and my own. he died in 1882. fas- veiled but not hidden. Let us look widely first at the two famous paintings. Raphael's Donna Velata and Guido Reni's Cleopatra. then he breathes ! And . " La Donna Velata. and then with one " last wail. oh. earth For all the fruits thou hast rendered to me.

Some say that she is the well- known Fomarina. and still lives in the canvas. where Leonardo da Vinci has given a perennial smile to the artistic world. is The world and to certainly disposed to agree with them. is gossip. tells a spell about this face which that some part of the heart and soul of the artist went into the work. for there it no actual legend or and was not even called the work of Raphael it Morelli and Minghetti pronounced to be indis- putably one of his finest achievements. the daughter of a baker. this charming portrait have transitory living expression. until whom is he is supposed to have been in love. Jameson says that Titian showed more taste . tiful for all common this The woman is beauin all time and for the fashions of little ages. a rapid glance lips as your eye meets hers. or just about to open. A little coquetry.XCbe Stan3a C^ella Stuta Raphael painted evidently a it 297 between 15 15 and 151J7. which Raphael has endowed the Mrs. Few Monna and representations of a human is face have ever had about them so much that illusive and piquant. She is Roman woman it of noble blood. Min- ghetti believes to have been taken from the mis- tress of Raphael. a surprise. this living quality with face. It is indescribable. Lisa in the Louvre. with All this tradition. and her seem either to have just closed after a smile. their welcome There is valuable and scholarly discovery.

is The only pedigree into possession of of this picture that it came Matteo Botti after Raphael's death. held carelessly together with one hand. is The way by a in which the chemisette held in place series of cords tied in tagged knots should also be noted. The hair sleeve has sheer. gives the impression that the outer dress fallen is being removed. back. whose function at is hangs far away is one The painting of textures equal to that in the portrait a necklace of large. in the middle. set each in a solid rim of gold. and that in . Pitti one compares Magdalen of the it with the Donna Velata in- by Raphael. this and '* may be acknowledged if one compares but if *' Flora with the Fornarina in the Rome. laid low from the shoulder. showing a chemisette. parted locks on each side.29^ trbe art of tbe l^ttti Jiat^ce than Raphael in his selection of mistresses. more intellectual The costume which she wears is in keeping with her expression. finitely would seem that Raphael shows and artistic taste. of Leo X. La Velata wears single stones. but the air of prim- ness which this might give fact that the feroniere counteracted by the (a chain which should be worn straight around the forehead) has slipped to lie exactly side. closely gathered Her is is in simple. tail There is a great deal of tender de- which will repay close study. and the jewel. The loose bodice. in the fashion which was revived a few years ago.

holding in one hand an asp against her breast. and was a portrait of his countess.Ube Stansa 1824 it bella ©tufa 299 at was brought from the Medici Villa is Poggio Imperiale. broad woman. o-f A basket of on the table at the left the picture. serpent. In sharp contrast to his portrait but the celebrated much overrated Cleopatra of Guido Reni. from which she has probably taken the little The asp is so very diminutive that he appears quite inadequate to the task of poisoning so vast an ex- panse of humanity. who had been betrayed into an indiscretion and was . a blonde Genoese. and the tones of the delightful. The person whom Guido has little called Cleopatra suggests the subtle charm and obvious fascina- tions of the irresistible Egyptian queen. Jameson as one of the chief gems of the Pitti collection. such loved to paint. inexpressive body and hands lack the vital action which the crisis demands. handsome bourgeoise. which impressed Mrs. It was painted for Count Barbazzi. dull." Guido's picas he ture represents a stout. She might be a Venetian or She and is partially clothed in a harmony of yellow and picture are very pure fruit stands white. but looks more like some honest. is There not a remote suggestion of Egypt in any detail of the composition. who was said to be " the sun of beauty. Her fat. while she turns her agonized face toward heaven.

The confidence of a young is child lying trustfully in his mother's arms. and Tintoret. Number 269. When the Cardinal Leopold de Medici paid 140 crowns (about $235) for it. Nevertheless. those of Murillo and other the Madonna recalls Spanish masters. tation in the Temple. — probably was painted altar-cloth . Titian. lightful little finely The is Child is faultless. The main impression. and that Raphael has painted a soul. portrayed with true feeling for nature. in the works of Veronese. The de- body foreshortened. is it The all pic- ture very dark. or any resource except to its escape by death. that Guido Reni has painted a body. and the flesh indifferent painted. The forms a great white value at the right. without any further interest in life.300 XTbe Hrt ot tbc ipittt palace repenting in a state of bovine despair. divorced from is subject. which was in- vading Italy in the sixteenth century. it comes is from the and much of the background in deep shadow. In the Presen- by Veronese. as a technical v^ork the picture mellow and exquisite in modelling. much darker now the light than was when altar. it must have undoubtedly appealed to his taste. One sees the Spanish influence. and the vari-coloured dress of a man who is kneeling reading at the foot of the . regardless and without anticipation of the future. in looking from is the Donna Velata to the Cleopatra. in 1640.

The composition show is . the cross does not base. may in the juxtaposition of the priest heavy brocaded robe of the ing mantle of the Virgin. emphathe rest is sizing the upper portion of his figure.Zbc 3tan3a subdued bella Stufa 3^1 altar g^ves richness to that side of the picture. and he ing are Venetian votive candle of the sixteenth century. strongly on the shoulder of The light is thrown the High Priest. there is only the group around Christ lying limp against the knees of . The rich Venetian feeling. as always the case in Veronese's work. Don Giulio Clovio's Deposition is in this room. —a its little picture on parchment in the minute style of this artist. all The textures of the paintis beautifully rendered. left side is The in tone. and looking at the holy Child over the shoulder of the High Priest. has some of his best qualities of handling. the and the shimmer- On the altar are certain touch of metal adding to the richness of the effect. is interesting. combined with the be felt Spanish. which is less stagey than Veronese's usual treatment of religious subjects. St. utensils. almost lost. Behind him another ecclesiastical figis ure emerges out of the gloom. Although this is not recognized as it one of Veronese's most typical groups. Joseph appears dimly carries a typical in the shade behind Mary. There part of is a feeling of reverence displayed on the all the beholders.

Don Giulio does not do He does not treat the parchment as a page to be flat decorated. being born in 1498. gum on vellum. his He studied Michel- and many of most diminutive produc- tions are powerful because they are inspired by such a standard. . The other figures more attention is are not paid to technique than to ideas. taught pigments with water and angelo. thoughtfully conceived. He was originally a canon in the Church. but simply as a surface. one this. his The exquisite exactness with which work is rendered can hardly be matched. His works are than really pictures rather ornament in books. relig- during which time his work was altogether ious . itself as and also have recognized the vellum factor in the scheme. His vellum. and living illustrations. Don painter Giulio of the Clovio was properly a miniature school. The great miniaturist of Verona. and painting with a finish seldom equalled by any artist in his line. although many have had a truer apprecia- tion of decoration as applied to book illustration. He stands as the last illuminator of note. Fra GirolamO' da art of laying Libri. was made a layman again by a papal He was him the a pupil of Giulio Romano. later he dispensation. for to such technical per- no miniaturist ever reached fection. — until 1578.302 Ube Hrt of tbe lC>ttti lI^alacc the sorrowing Virgin. Roman illuminating very elaborate volumes on vellum.

best Vasari describes his of known works minutely. for " They those who cannot see them : the benefit are almost all in the hands of princes or other great personages. of sovereigns. tures might as well have been executed His pic- upon card- board or paper. and little it was while staying there that he painted the Deposition which now hangs in the Stanza all oif the Education of Jupiter. he uses it as is most book. familiar figure of the boy St.TLbc Stansa ^ella Stuta as in this instance. I . artists use their canvas or panel. except in small high-lights. toration. a noble composition. — a beautiful happy. saying. thoroughly popular a picture as ever was painted. restful and has suffered It is much from injudicious res- an example of what Henry James . like ivory. really in itself a whereas. John the BapIt is as by Andrea del Sarto. of their friends. Clovio visited Duke Cosimo at the Pitti Palace. know some private persons who have small cases containing beautiful portraits by his hand. and he literally painting a picture instead of ornamenting a In this particular the earlier illuminators understood their craft better than he did.. is 303 covered up with superimposed pigment. vellum has creamy decorative quality which the best artists have always recognized and developed. greets us here. or of ladies whom they have loved.." The tist. It face.

and detail. (1605— 1665). Vivarini." colouring has been spoiled by these applications of cosmetics. is given by Morelli to one Boccaccio Boccaccino. he certainly . The is portrait of Philip IV. minute in finish and in keeping it the petty nature of the sovereign It is whom portrays. by Velasquez.304 XEbe Htt ot tbe IPitti palace dq)lDres concerning restorations. Philip II. and Giorgione. isters. and Spain. but the drawing and the sweet facial expression remain to enchant us in spite of the very pink surface. who served apprenticeship in Ferrara and Venice. King of was one of the weaklings on the Spanish throne who succeeded such men as Charles V. called La Zingarella. hardly a characteristic example of Velasquez*s best work. He was ruled by his favourites and minin a and a mere figurehead kingdom which required the strong arm of a soldier and a states- man. The best qualities in his art are those derived from Bellini. This painting with presents the monarch on horseback. bleeding It is quite true that the cuticle laid bare. of Spain. as " in the case of the beautiful boy figure of Andrea del Sarto. but was an element in bringing about. Philip IV. with its honourable duskiness all peeled off. and Heaven knows what raw. He did nothing to stay the decline of it Spanish power. If he painted this head. The charming head usually attributed to Garo folo.

in the Stanza della Stufa .LA ZINGARELLA By Garofalo .

.

On the whole. by admirers of Dolci and Guido. which are unusually well show that he could cope with the subtleties of rendering the face. be called. . about her head she wears a blue scarf folded almost like a turban. Another jewel hangs upon little her throat from a succession of chains. The head is that of a young girl. it would be more Garofolo's. human Morelli says that there are no other specimens of the work of Boccaccino in either Central or South- ern Italy. The eyes of the Zingarella are remarkable for their They seem to hold one in a spell. untamed gipsy look. Delia Stufa 305 The soft lines. but is severely parted above her brow. treated. and bound beneath her chin by a swathing of the same material. The features are rather large. and with none of the tawdry theatrical mannerism adopted by some painters to express a wild child of nature. interest- ing to believe that the his virile little picture hand than that it was one of it was by There are some cases in which loyalty to take seems almost like dis- away from a time-honoured . with a realistic. favourite his traditional credit but in this case the welcoming is of a new artist in Florence worth the sacrifice. the translucent eyes. and might honest. coarse.Ube Stan3a was a master. but falling at the back. On her forehead she wears a slender chain with a small pendent jewel. and is very spirited. clear gaze. Her She blonde hair strays out in curly tendrils beneath the scarf.

low's Michelangelo says: As Longfel- ". showing Descent from the Cross. his intelligence and was guided by the requirements Tin- of his picture both in dimensions and subject.. Number slight 248. but he in is artists whose work light. Tintoretto's effect." Tintoretto has been accused of using too great depth of shadow in order to give roundness to his figures. is rather theatrical. There are some one of the few irregularities in drawing. and gave the effect for which he he used aimed. A very Venetian Magdalen. with a delicate border of some wrought jewelled a green lining. If the Venetian painters knew But half as much of drawing as of colour They would indeed work miracles of art.. of the The heads women and the arrangement of the draperies are characteristic and most graceful. colour. such as Tintoretto nearly always commits. . her red mantle is slung carelessly over the right shoulder. with both arms extended wide.3o6 Zbc Hrt of tbe pitti palace wears a white chemisette. and effect really over- come one's prejudice so far that bad drawing is allowed to pass unchallenged. but effective in light and in shade and grouping. bends over the prostrate body of our Lord. He employed very sudden variations in it light and shade. In the matter of breadth of finish.

and Augustus stands near the the aperture into the sky. it he had a fault in com- lay in the toO' lavish use of contrasts in costumes. compositions by introducing a single bit of light it may have do such struck simply on the base of a column. Leonardo was admirers. Raphael was obvious. Many people cannot appreciate him. and neither style has prevented their being recognized as masters. although the event and the for portrayal are the same. subtle. for better repays the student. are both looking through The sibyl and Augustus the altar a fire young and handsome. On . seen through a window. moment chosen vision is The altar. numerically.. so that one might show up well against another. to make it service intro- most painters could only accomplish by If ducing another position. Ube Stan3a toret often bella Stuta in 307 made balance his . but rather to the thinker and student of human nature. the scene being laid in a temple. this is He did not paint the obvious. more Raphael. but Leonardo there are The Sibyl Showing the Vision of the Virgin and is Child to Augustus Caesar depicted by Paris Bor- done in rather a different manner from that by Garofolo. but he as knew how figure. not our contention Great painters have been both simple and obscure. or the edge of a book. is Whether praiseworthy or blameworthy the fact remains. for toi he does not appeal the uncultured taste.

They painted must have been at represent a little boy and a little girl in unaffected poses and in ordinary child's clothes of the period. (15 19— 1559) Henry would be an almost forgotten his influence king. by Jehanet Clouet. in spite of this concession. of France. of Mary. Queen of Scots. A II. earnest thetic. little faces are lifelike and pa- and the two small panels on which they are some time among the most precious possessions of their families. The portrait is example of early French painting The two solemn Their plain.3oS is trbe Art of tbe Ipitti Ibalace lies lighted. quaint portrait of Henry 11. children painted by Paul Vero- nese should not be passed over without comment. Carlo Dolci's portrait of San Carlo Borromeo may be seen. while the sibyl wears a cameo brooch. and the chiefly interesting as being the only in the Pitti Palace. remarkably well retained. hangs here. and on the step there a wreath of The costumes are not very historic. if were not for the fact that he will be remembered as the husband of Catherine de Medici. is while the likeness. so slight it was upon his age. in her childhood. The saint is represented in almost full face. numbered 262. the Roman Emperor being arrayed in a Venetian brolaurel. He is clad in a garment . Number 275. which disguises somewhat the unusually large nose which distinguished him. cade of the fifteenth century. guardian.

He was the founder of the cathedral at Bamberg. He was very devout. 1629.Ube Stan3a bella Stuta 309 with a cape and lace sleeves. The picture numbered 2y(). A halo behind his head. was a much beloved queen and a noble woman. " the em- peror comes hither to learn obedience which he can practise by ruling judiciously. by Mancini. until finally the signature." said he. and holds a crucifix in one hand and a cardinal's hat is in the other. Thereupon the prior advised him best to retain his throne. and tapestry forms the backIt ground. Medici. " for. When rumours were spread against her demanded the Trial by Ordeal. The canvas was long attributed to Dolci. At one time he considered renouncing his empire to become a monk." was found on the back." His wife. she were convinced of her innocence. but was unlucky in war. " Mancini F. her enemies character. St. The prior told him that. Henry of Bavaria and his wife. St. the first vow required of him would be that of obedience. was painted later for Cardinal to Carlo de the and was bequeathed Grand Duke Cosimo III. Henry replied that he had no objection to obeying. Cunegunda. represents St. .humbly.. After a promenade upon hot ploughshares. Henry of Bavaria was born in 972. Cunegunda. and became emperor in 1002. if he relinquished his sceptre.

She was two years of Julius HI. being killed in the presence of his by his father self. so in February. 1560. is The charming portrait of little Garcia de Medici Number 279. Evidently it suit. She was the sisrara. chastity. Duchess of Fer- numbered 277. He is dressed in a Florentine court with a sash across his breast. while he smiles benignly on the spectator." so he is invested with a bow and a quiver of arrows. But at the death of the Pontiff. is ter of shall Don Garcia. the figures appear only about to the waist. Cosimo considered Alphonse of Ferrara a better match. was his fond parent's intention to have him painted as " Cupid. de Medici. they are seen both in Florence. mother. itbe Hrt ot tbe iPittt ipalacc also Henry and Cunegunda founded the Church of San Miniato ing. whose portrait " as Cupid " we next examine. and married Alphonse H. and in the act of taking the lily. Bronzino's portrait of Lucrezia. the emblem of collar. As a child she was who was a nephew betrothed to Fabiano del Monte. with his hand on his heart. Poor little Garcia came to a sad end. of Ferrara. having in . crowned. Lucrezia was the daughter of Cosimo I. He wears an over his ermine Cunegunda is looking shoulder. Henry is is seen in full face. In this paintlily. his senior.3IO St. he him- as has been elsewhere mentioned. and was born in 1542. and with a St. she was given to him in marriage.

one little. declaiming or serenading after the manner of his kind. Francis Xavier is made altogether out of charis acter by Carlo Dolci. He carries a staff. There are numerous other Madonnas and portraits in the Stanza of the Education of Jupiter. . His attributes are a and a book. on his breast. most exaggerated it takes up as much room as the saint himself. With both his hands he halo is opening the robe on his breast. Beads are hanging is at his belt. having a face in the centre. the Archbishop of Pisa. As to the St. Niccolo de Tolenta of Dolci. so disposed that they look like a windmill behind him. and is arranged in regular rays. dressed in a showy robe covered lily with sunbursts. His figure so faultless that one wonders whether he wore corsets. can say except that he appears to be an Italian opera singer. St. for he as affected as most is of Dolci's saints.trbe Stansa bella Stufa his turn 3" murdered his brother. the central one. .

exquisitely proportioned figure of the Virgin in a visionary painting by Tintoretto. Tintoretto does not paint 312 . but a vision. holding the child. in which Mary. are more is in harmony with the standard of our own day Tintoretto his visionary figures appear than those of the painters of his epoch. floating in the heavens above the seen almost as perfect an aerial poise new moon. no exception to For it is not a rep- resentation. could this especial picture be com- pared with Titian's masterpiece. Perhaps as beautiful as anything in this room is the swaying. famous for the way to float in the air. The proportions of the female figure. as portrayed by Tintoretto. however. respect.CHAPTER XI. Numis ber 313. with as the Madonna in In no other the Assumption by Titian in Venice. is and the picture of the Madonna this rule. STANZA OF ULYSSES AND STANZA OF JUSTICE A VERY ornate and rococo little bath-room leads from the Stanza of the Education of Jupiter to the Stanza of Ulysses.

and they are they do not stand on one foot on conlike venient cushions of cloud-stuff. but they the artist's conception of as they fly . " serving " by " only standing and waiting. for little limit to the power of figure Tintoret to express the action of a human No attitude is too impossible him to portray. and it never failed him.stanza of xaipsaea 313 her as a living woman. more active imag- His angels may be restless. Nature and own . His compositions are beings some of his bold. he reads into the heavenly own them impetuousness. No model could serve as a flying angel of the type which Tintoretto paints. they may alive sometimes exhibit nervous energy. His vital imagination had to supply the ethereal quality of their attitudes. When he has to rep- resent a host of angels. the amiable float. them flying about in their in instead of ranging meek ranks of semi- indifferent but decorative adoration about the throne. proved too much for his No rules previhis ously observed hampered him. but as an embodied thought. is when ana- just as laudable an emotion as perfect res- ignation and pious self-effacement. but they whirl and sustained by a divine exaltation. reflect virility. lyzed. There seems to be as as with Michelangelo. and no multitude of figures ever ability. and shows eagerness for service. creations of Perugino." This passive idea did not appeal to his ination. which.

3H

Ube art

of tbe IPitti palace

imagination were his only guides.

He did
all

not paint

a scene in a certain

way because
it,

painters

from

the beginning had so presented

it;

he brought his

own

thought to bear upon

and painted the mental
facts as

image which was conjured up by the
rehearsed them.

he

Had

all artists tacitly

represented

the Last Supper by a
table,

row of

figures seated at a long

with Jesus in the midst?

Never mind; Tin-

toretto

saw

it

differently.

Putting himself, in his
table,

mind's eye, at the further end of a long
the lowest seat,

— he

in

paints a deep perspective, with
it,

the apostles seated on either side of
far end, distinguished
his head, the

and, at the
light about

by the aureole of
sits

Master

remote, not analyzed,

a

new and

original treatment of the subject,

and

Tintoretto's own.

Carlo Dolci's Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane.

Number

288, represents the chief figure kneel-

ing, with the drops of bloody sweat standing

on his

brow, while in the heavens

is

seen an angel,

who

comes to minister

to him, with a chalice in

one hand

and a cross

in the other.

Cigoli has painted St. Francis in an attitude of

meditation and study instead of adoration.
picture
is

The

Number

290.

He

is

kneeling before the

crucifix in a wilderness, with

an open book spread
hill

before him.
seen the
little

In the background on a

may

be

house of devotions, the Portiuncula,

Stansa of TUlpsses
where
St.

315

Francis spent so

many

precious hours.

It is interesting to

compare

this

with another picture

of St. Francis hanging close by.

Ligozzi has here painted St. Francis,

Number
left

289, kneehng on a high promontory on the
his picture, while

of

below him

lies

the valley, with

people crossing a rustic bridge and going up a road

toward the town.
Child are seen.

In the sky the
vision
is

Madonna and
scale
all

The

on an enormous

in proportion to the rest of the composition;

around the

central, figure

little

winged heads of

angels are floating.
Allori's

Preaching of the Baptist hangs here.

It is dignified,

and the figure of the
is

Baptist, standforceful.

ing under a palm-tree,

refined

and

The

crowd of
centre

listeners is also well

composed.

In the

may be

seen a

man on one knee on

the ground,

holding a scroll and pen, trying to take notes.
a

Quite

modern

touch.

In the distance Christ and his

apostles are approaching.

Alessandro Allori was

the nephew of Christofano, and the author of a " Treatise on Anatomy for Painters." He was inferior in

power

to his uncle.

His habit of

intro-

ducing modern touches into historical scenes often

became very objectionable.
and died
an
in

He was

born in 1535,

1607, in Florence, his native city.

In the school of Andrea del Sarto
agreeable
representation

may be

seen

of

Tobias

and the

3i6

Ubc Hrt
but
it

ot tbe pittt palace

Angel;
Biliverti
Iliad.

is

not so interesting as the one by
in the

hanging over the door
is

Hall of the
Child in the

There
school,

also a

Madonna and

same

Number
force.
is

294, pretty, but lacking in

originality or

Over the door
saying that
was,
it

a Temptation of St. Anthony,

by Salvator Rosa, which Ruskin commends highly,
all

the pov/er of the artist, such as
little

it

is

here manifested, and that very

about

is

objectionable.

"It

is

a vigorous and ghastly
is

thought, in that kind of horror which

dependent
effects of

upon

scenic effect."

There are striking
lurid green."

cloud in the background, " black flakes, with rents

and openings of intense and

All this

may be

true;

but this picture was evidently the

inspiration of

Mr. John Teniel

in

one of

his illus-

trations for " Alice in
ster

Wonderland," for the monis

which

is

pursuing the long-suffering saint

undeniably a Jabberwock.
in terror

The

saint

is

crouching

on the ground, and the mythical creature
chasing him hovers in the
air,

which
wock.

is

in

almost

the same position as that of the redoubtable Jabber-

To

say that
is

it is

ludicrous, as applied to a
it

religious theme,

to put

mildly.

The

picture

was painted
hope that
it

for Cardinal Carlo de Medici.

Let us

proved salutary.

Carlo Dolci's
ing, but
it is

Madonna

is

not strong as a paint-

a pretty picture.

The

halos which sur-

!

Stansa of XIllp56e6

3^7

round the heads of the Mother and Child are lavish
in
size,

and are arranged
called a
''

in

a series of defined
in

points; they suggest the

way

which swords are

placed in what
in

is

panoply/' as decoration

an armory.
Christofano Allori's
St.

John

in the

Desert

is

a

passably satisfactory picture, without special inspiration.

The

saint

is

not emaciated, as the mediaeafter
all,

valists delighted to

draw him; and,

per-

haps locusts and wild honey would be rather hearty
food; at
least,

they would combine flesh-produdng

ingredients

The picture of
is

the

Madonna and

Child with Saints

not unlike other paintings by Del Sarto in the

The two saints in the foreground are disposed very much like those in the Disputa. The Magdalen in profile, and the St. John, who kneels, are much like the St. Sebastian and the Magdalen
Pitti.

in that picture,

and might

easily

have been poses one of An-

of the

same model, and worked up from sketches
at the

made

same

time.

The

child

is

drea's loveliest creations, as he stands sturdily
his mother's knee, pointing

on

heavenward.

His other
is

hand, pressed upon her arm for support,
quisite piece of modelling

an ex-

and foreshortening.

Madonna
and

is

the usual type,

— Lucrezia, — maturer

The

stately.

On

the right of the picture stand St.

Sebastian, with arrows in his hand, and St. Roch.

3iS

tTbe Hrt of tbe
the left are St.

ipttti iC^alace
figure,

On

Lawrence and a nude

evidently

divine
hair.

Adam, who gazes into the face of the infant, his own face hidden by his sweeping
it

This figure has been called by other names,

but the consensus of opinion seems to be that
represents the father of the race.

The
hung

picture

is

on wood, and was painted for an
it

intimate friend of Andrea, one Cambassi;
for

was

some time in a church near the Chateau of Cambassi. There was originally a predella, showing portraits of the donor and his wife. This

was unfortunately lost. There is an unknown
in

portrait of a

a slashed court

suit.

This,

man by Number 316,
and

Dolci,
is

one

of the finest works of the
lights

artist,

a superb study of
is in

on

flesh.

He
is

wears a

flat ruff,

an

easy attitude.

Number 317

a landscape by Kornelis Polen-

berg, a Holland painter

who

flourished in the early

half of the seventeenth century, and
ruin, with

shows a Roman

columns standing

at the left, while shep-

herds of the classical-pastoral type are posing about
to give an air of life to the picture.

The

pictures

of Polenberg are very rare; there are four of them
in the Pitti Palace.

There

is

a restful but unintellectual Nativity here,
it

by Procaccino;

is

full

of glowing transparency

and of sweet Greek

idyllic feeling.

The

shepherds

Stansa of XHli^sses
are Greek;

319
child in

the mother

is

hugging the

an

ecstasy of maternal joyousness.

Camillo Procac-

cino

was one

of three talented brother painters,

Bologna between 1546 and 1626. He was famous both for his drawing and his colouring.
living in

He drew
was
us,

with

spirit,

and used
O'f

his shades well.

He
to

called the Vasari

Lombardy; although
him

who

are not so

much concerned with Vasari
as a biog-

as a painter as

we

are interested in

rapher, this seems scant praise.

Christoforo del Altissimo painted the portrait of
Clarice Ridolfi Altovito,
sents a fair

Number

327.

It

repre-

young

girl,

thoroughly enchanting.

She

has a lovely face, and wears her hair dressed close
to her head, with a bead head-dress.

In the
rietta
is

manner of Van Dyck
is

is
I.

a portrait of Henof England.

Maria, wife of Charles

She
It

seen in profile, and

resplendent in satins with

full gloss.
is

She

is

holding a rose in her hand.

a stately picture and worthy of a queen.

There
a

is

a cheerful landscape by Agostino Caracci,
river.

through the centre of which winds a

To

give

human touch

of

interest,

Caracci

has painted

youths bathing on the opposite side of the river,
while on the side in the foreground
sits

a

woman

turning away her head, and holding up her hands
in protest!

Agostino Caracci was that brother of

Annibale to

whom

allusion has been

made, and

who

320

Ube Hrt

of tbe IMtti palace
towards the style of

was somewhat
of Correggio.

serious, inclining

Tintoret, while Annibale reflected the lighter

mood
as his

Most of
is

his time

was occupied with

engraving, so that he did not paint as
brother.

much

He

said,

however, on his return from

Venice, to have succeeded so well in painting a horse
as to deceive the living animal which had been
its

model, and
alive.

who approached
is

it,

thinking

it

to be

Number 326
portrait
is

a portrait of Pope Paul

III.,

by

Paris Bordone, after Titian, whose original of this
in

Naples.

The

figure appears to be

somewhat out of drawing, the lower limbs being

much
But

longer in proportion to the head than

is

usual.

it is

hardly fair to judge at this late date, for

the subject

may have had

this peculiarity.
is

He

is

— much the same colour scheme
Raphael for Leo X.
nese,

seated in a red chair, and

clad in red

and white,

as that chosen

by

Paul

III.

and was

elected

Pope

in

was Alexander Far1554, when he was
a rabid opponent

sixty-eight years of age.

He was

of Lutheranism.

He

was, nevertheless, a corre-

spondent of Erasmus, although he established the
Inquisition at Naples, and confirmed the

Order of

the Jesuits.

Before taking sacred orders, he had
Paul
III.

been married twice.

was one of the most

noted Pontiffs concerned in the building of the Vatican.

He

appreciated merit in the arts, and con-

Stansa of
stantly

Xllli^00e0

321

rewarded such men as Michelangelo, Gio-

vio, Contarini,

Bembo, and others

for their labours.

This Pope was responsible for making peace be-

tween Charles V. and Francis
Proceeding
theus,

I.

of France.

now through the Stanza of Promewhere we have already spent some time, we
to
is

go beyond, through the Corridor of Columns, the Stanza of Justice. This Gallery of Columns
so called because of the

two valuable columns which

are engrafted in the architecture of the are

of

Oriental

alabaster.

room they There are numerous
;

miniatures and water-colours hanging here, which

were originally
pold de Medici;

in the collection of

Cardinal Leo-

but

it

is

rather a matter of con-

jecture to assume

whom

they

may

represent.

Here, after a long acquaintance with his estimate
of others,

work of

we have our opportunity to judge of Vasari. Number 393 is a St. Jerome;
is

the

the

temptation

being carried on unmercifully, and
is

the steadfast gaze of the saint

fixed systematically

upon the
all sides.

crucifix outside his hut.

He

is

beset on

Venus and Cupid are behind him, on the
is

left,

whispering seductive thoughts into his ear;
shooting an arrow into
is

another Cupid, blindfold,
his very eyes
;

while

still

a third

teasing

him from

behind.

The

lion at his feet is looking

up sympa-

thetically, as if to

encourage him.
Gossiping, inaccurate, imagi-

Dear old Vasari!

333
native,

Ube Htt

of tbe pitti ipalace
real

and yet our most fascinating quarry for
details

and apochryphal
day.

about art subjects in his
in the thick of

from 15 12 to 1564, the golden age of Italy; and it is
lived

He

to his diligent

and systematic taking of

notes,

which he used with
of our
all

copious amplifications, that

we owe most
in
life

knowledge of the men who flourished
partments of the aesthetic
earliest

de-

of Italy from the

times.

And
is

Vasari so readily confesses
of imperfections that

that his

book

full

we

are
all

quite ready to overlook them, in gratitude for

the positive information that

we

receive.

And

he

himself understands

human

nature well enough to

know
shall

that this will be so.
it

He

says

:

"

And now

happen according to the laws usually pre-

vailing that, having thus openly confessed

my

short-

comings, a great part of them shall be forgiven me."

What

matters

it

if

Giorgio Vasari was not one
If

of the greatest artists of his time?

he had been,

he would never have found time to prepare these voluminous biographies; and the world, richer by
a few more great pictures, would have been inestimably poorer by the loss of one of the most fascinating
editors,

works ever produced
errors.

in literature.

Later

with more reliable sources of information,

have corrected his
Italian art.

He

is

the Boswell of

He

deals with all the painters, sculp-

but. except on what we ate while standing. they can never compete with the best. change drawings." The narrator adds. man might They possess the did not even Nor did we breakfast in the morning. each copying the other's work. and engravers. so that in the long run each entire collection of sketches. Hke most clever persons with a diversity of gifts. aspired above all things to be recognized as an artist. " The desire of glory take time for meals : " was indeed ever mine exertions. with an unconscious confession. who had an inimitable genius for writing.Stansa of VH^q^cb tors. covering a period of over half a thousand years. Such in- dustry and zeal as he chronicles of his early years ought to have been rewarded by greater results. and that very frugally. But. when they would ex- they returned home in the evening. and. He tells of this special picture. Vasari describes at length those pictures which he produced." a sufficiently powerful stimulus to A most prolific painter. and small talent for painting. He tells how he and his contemporaries used to go to the Sistine Chapel to copy the frescoes of Michel- angelo. Vasari. lect Rome and Florence one of t^e pictures to They would each sework from. . 323 architects. or to the galleries of to copy Raphael and others. ally well They were usudrawn and mildly acceptable. among the works of the Golden Age.

I To express this condition of things intelligibly. but Vasari never erred on the side of modesty respecting his own talents. making the ure of the saint the size of plation life. and has fall suffered the quivers and arrows of her son to to the earth. Ubc art Jerome. who had published some material on the subject of the arts . delicately hinting to him how well it would be to devote himself to architecture. Christ. are shot at the saint turn ers. and it : of tbe ipittt ipalace will quote his we own words I in describing " In a large picture. as he most fully us in his own writings. and simply saw in this advice a form ** of general encouragement. The idea of writing his " Lives was first suggested to Giorgio at dinal Farnese's. The arrows which Cupid has falling. depicted Venus with Cupid in her arms. and leading she is a laughing Love by the hand.324 St. he is in conten> on the death of cross. of the Painters a supper at Carjust Monsignor Giovio." Michelangelo was a kind and wise friend to Vasari. moreover. exefig- cuted a San Girolamo in penitence. while he drives far from him those mundane thoughts which tells did not cease to assail him. even in the most remote deserts. broken toward himself. the place flying from made sacred by that devotion. whom he has before him on a and is striking his breast. while oth- caught as they are brought back to Venus by her doves.

TEMPTATION OF By Vasari . ST. JEROME in the Stanza of Justice .

I .

Lorenzo This was done. he constructed the corridor which. Giovio was so impressed by what Vasari showed him that he unhesitatingly turned the work over to him. etc. was completed in five months. . and it was suggested torical student. that Giorgio himself should assist in this undertaking. Accordingly he went home and arranged his material his notes.. from Cimabue to his own times. it Duke Cosimo author to give Torentino. leads to the Uffizi from the Pitti. travelled a good deal in Italy. and the work went forward. The cardinal and Giorgio Vasari began to talk over this proposition. in order. This bridge-like structure Vasari visited Rome. he being recognized as an his- Vasari agreed to contribute to the volume.Stanja ot xaii^sses in his *' 325 Eulogies/* was mentioning to the company that he contemplated adding a treatise concerning men who had been famous in these arts." Vasari thus began the " Lives of the desired the monumental book. painting vigorously wherever he went. saying this work yourself. to the ducal printer. Vasari superintended tivities incident to all the decorations and fes- the marriage of the Duke Cosimo running L. above the houses on the Ponte Vecchio. When Artists " was finished. "I would have you undertake for I see that you know perfectly : well his how to proceed therein. and presented to Giovio. piously kissed the toe of the Pope.

and useful one. being then sixty-three years of age. and holds an apple in her for keeping while the drawing fingering With her other hand she is a jewel which hangs round her neck." He died in June. quaint little portrait is that of Elea- nora of Mantua as a artist. She looks thoroughly uncomfortable. still She is stiff hand. but noblesse oblige — royal children cannot be expected to have a com- . Her made! is lace collar stiff and tall. active. and so far as me lies will be ever ready to promote and work for these most noble arts. high and firm. He was much lamented. and he has a priceless heritage to lovers of art in all nations and times. arranged with artifice. top of her youthful head. His life had left been a steady. to his honour and for the service of in my friends. his life was closes the biographies with an account own career. 1564. painted by the Flemish Franz Porbus. reaching almost to the In her hair are flowers. — perhaps the reward is with brocade. child. A charming. who have thus arrived amidst many labours to the age of fifty-five. having in- numerable friends and few enemies.: 326 zbc Hrt He ot tbe pitti palace until and continued hale and active ended. but I am prepared of his " And to live so long as it shall please God. the last sentence being this now it shall suffice me to have spoken thus much of myself. The picture is numbered 391.

He had always denied himself the joys of court even refusing the crown of Hungary. Leo X. Number 392. in his various pictures of the saints. although the picture mannered and overpolished. Casi- an intensely pious youth. is no exception to the rule of his affectations. She was a daughter of the noble house of Gonzaga. born in 1443. and was crowned Queen of Bohemia in 1627. drawn. the son of Casimir of Poland and Elizabeth of Austria. — spontaneity. and. still a young man. Casimir. but. He composed various hymns.Stansa of tll^sses fortable time of it. and he is is in the act of writing portrayed by Doki . he died of a decline in 1483. we may tiful be allowed to admire the remarkably beauit face which the artist has here is anatomically a much more ascetic and intellectual . he was a student and a recluse. perhaps weakened by his sedentary course of life. as those chosen His attitudes are as affected by ambitious amateur actors who Ruskin speaks of Carlo have studied just enough to 'take from them their only charm. St. 327 Eleanora of Mantua was the wife of Prince Ferdinand. life. Vincenzio Gonzaga being her father. canonized him." There was nothing very original about mir's sainthood. Several hundred varieties of ecstasy are portrayed by Carlo Doki St. He was Dolci as one " who' finishes for finish's sake.

and a very independent child age. At the extreme left there and some women are holding clothes before the blaze to warm them for the infant. It is finer than the St. is full Judith. vast hall. after they in may be intended as cupids. helping herself to soup. It represents a the right of which is a bed. Peter by the same artist. and otherwise disporting themselves during the preoccupation of their elders. perhaps. which In the is being presented by attendant damsels.328 trbe art of tbe pttti palace face than usually appears in saints of this period of art. It seems to be a large family into which the newcomer has arrived. is about which Ruskin complains that there too much cock. at numbered 394. Scarcelino's Birth of a Number is 91. and that it might be the portrait of a its poulterer. The maid carries a basket . little is urchins on a fireplace. of swing. it appears to be for tender Naked children are running about. of the same age. whereon it is the mother is is lying. This is its chief merit. playing with dogs. being encouraged by some of these the right. judging from attributes! This pic- ture has been seen in the Hall of Mars. Noble Infant an amus- ing picture. A dog-fight is progress. the new baby its being bathed by several court ladies. and the other children all appear to be about all. by Artemesia Gentilleschi. central portion of this large hall.

these subjects. classically clothed per- sonage. viati was an intimate the friend of Vasari from hood. who painted chiefly domestic fowl. Here ber 403. he was a great student in early youth. She does It not so much suggest patience as durance. cannot Salchild- be called a thoughtful rendering of the idea. is swans. but occasionally birds of a more dignified sort. both in the government and in his private enter- . and is physically unstrung. Salviati's Patience is a fat. and often they worked together. chained to the wall by her ankle. 329 Perhaps it takes a woman is to portray a woman's feeHngs at such a moment. Dutch pictures is a canvas by Honde- born at Utrecht in 1636. 1536. kind interesting for those who admire I. as if to say.. is Bronzino's portrait of Cosimo Num- Cosimo was born on the nth of June. Among coeter. peacocks.Stansa of xai^66e6 with the head in it. and Judith is distinctly nervous. etc. and In January. She is starting forward. 1519. " Hush what noise was that? ! She is humanly overawed at her own act. and laying her hand on the shoulder of her com" panion. he was saluted Duke and Governor His genius expanded of the itself Florentine Republic. The figures are graceful. Quite a barn- yard of its here to be seen and certainly good work . ambitious and devoted to the arts. although she shoul- dering her sword bravely.

painted jointly by Sustermans and Carlo Dolci. and car- rying a book of devotions. Her whole costume is . prince in erected In the words of a biographer.330 trbe Art of tbe pitti iC^alace time he became the first prises. " He so many and such superb structures. inasmuch as she elected to be painted as Vestal Virgin while she was of an age to look the part. but usually given to the latter. holding a cross on her bosom. is Number 404. and better furnished than those of the greatest monarchs. grew stouter. It shows how the lady grew less older. But she seems to have been a pious dame. Eleanor who bought of Toledo. . and in later years she seems to have en- joyed being represented as a sort of demi-nun. which hangs in the Hall of Jupiter. Men in his famous every branch of learning were sure to find protection court. His palace was as more elegant. was interesting in her appearance as the years went on.' Florence the it truly the magnifi- and in became the seat of the arts. statues. . wearing a veil. so that in Italy. and he fair ' one of marble." Such was the character of the man the Pitti Palace for his wife. . left ' He found a city of stone. and it obeHsks that was with ' justice that he said. A later portrait of Vittoria della Rovere than the delightful Vestal Virgin. and the most ample provision large.' * He made cent.

if the persecutions of fleet the Waldenses did not cease. nand who so greatly admired Cromwell. In Number 408 Oliver Cromweirs face looks out of place in the Pitti Palace. was born in 16 18. Peter Van der Faes.. was executed by order of the Grand Duke FerdiII. for more likely that his father changed some unexplained reason. the painter II. saying proceed up the Tiber.Stansa of Xllli^eses ss^ reminiscent of the religieuse. is and better known as Sir Peter Lely.. Charles and Cromwell. that. from Van der Faes to Lely. his home. directed . The special occasion on which Ferdinand had been so greatly impressed with the great Puritan when he had sent his messenger directly was to Pope would so Alexander VII.. pendently for Charles IL. He painted portraits quite indeI. We wonder why it should hang here patriots until among the Medici and their comits we learn the historic reason for being in the Hall of Justice. both for his courage this portrait and his character. of court beauties of Charles that his There is a legend name was given him because his of a lily which occurred over the door of the perfumer's shop. the English This threat. but this is not generally ac- It is name. painted It This picture was in when Cromwell was his fiftieth year. but of no particular order. a master of Flemish art. which was cepted. that he ordered by Sir Peter Lely.

Both by Jan Both. but it would be more accurate describe as a grotto with St. caused Duke Ferdinand to have a lively respect for Cromwell. . Number 217. two by Hollanders. dying at Rome in 1690. he worked also in The other Italy. because. also be seen three by Tintoretto a delightful St. In the Hall of Justice fine portraits may . similar to the one in the Hall of the Iliad. a John EvangeUst by Carlo Dolci. Through another punc- ture in the side of the cave the scene of an assassination is being enacted. and being drawn through a small aperture by angels. called Herman dTtalia because he also adopted Italy as his field for operation. from hell fire. although he who was called d'ltalia. Madonna by Manozzi. through the intercessory prayers of the saint. Number 396. where he died.332 Zbc Htt ot tbe pttti palace it boldly at the very source of Italian stability. Number 397. was born in Utrecht in 16 10. it. Domenico one corner of where he kneels centre. The light comes from the At the right are souls rising. at his devotions. in 1650. There are several landscapes here also. The menico to picture in Number 406 it is usually called St. is by Swanevelt. Numthe first ber 411 and Number 412. in Venice. as was then understood. Doin a Grotto. II.

For the first twelve years of his life. ideas of sculpture and preceding the modern which govern the men of to-day. which is almost as famous for Canova's well-known statue Venus as for its paintings. was a stone-cutter. in which he first saw the light. he lived in a mud-lined hut in the Alps. following the decadence which had occurred during the early part of that century. a genial old man. and the young Antonio from the first was free with father. and who was a genius 333 . link Antonio Canova was the sance and between the Renais- modern sculpture. the mallet and chisel. who brought him up well. 1757. He was the greatest man in his art in the eighteenth century. He lost both his parents while to live in the he was a child.CHAPTER XII. THE STANZA OF FLORA AND THE STANZA DEI PUTTI We of pass next into the Stanza of Flora. and continued same in his place with his grandfather. He was Saints' born in Possagno on the morning of All Day. His Pietro Canova.

come before Near his home Repairs lay the great estates of Signor Giovanni Falier. unassuming manners. The story of an appreciative public interesting. with his his lithe and Antonio grandfather often worked there. The servants were in despair. at this place. grandfather. and everything was being done on a very superb the steward scale. were continually needed able boy. but the old man could think of nothing that would be appro- priate. also a in representing the some talent knowledge of architecture and a good deal of ples of his human figure in marble. became intimate with Antonio. Examwork may still be seen in the Church of his first opportunity to is Monfumo. his son. One day. The was cheerful old also who was quite a wit. The amiface. Giuseppe Falier. they went to Canova's grandfather for a suggestion. but with young figure and beautiful head and and attracted the signor. Suddenly young Antonio exclaimed that he idea. an ob- ject of interest to the family. had an and asked for a large quantity of but- . at a festival which was taking place at the Falier estates. the Venetian nobility were present.334 trbe Hrt of tbe pittt palace stone-cutter. a member and his of the patrician family of Venice. but possessing humble way. when suddenly saw that there had been an oversight: the domestics had neglected to provide any large decorative piece to be placed in the centre of the table.

he entered the hall. attract for a moment the regards of the sorrowing .Ube Stansa ter. intermediate work we have no time years. and. are my instructors . an attendant nymph. equally with nature. like remain at a humble distance. blushing. then. according to the taste of his day. Casince Michelangelo. ot jflora 33s When this was brought. The guests as a body voted to send for Antonio. therefore. *' The Greeks. it behooves me. to preserve the deference is which due from a scholar to shall his preceptors. the greatest when in the Napoleonic wars Italy was stripped of many of her art treasures. At nova was elected to supply the modest in loss. Canova constantly produced work estimated to be. accepting this offer. For many and Rome. who. he immediately modeffect that elled a lion with such when it was placed and asked upon the table the guests all exclaimed for the artist. very saying that " he He was wished to avoid the imputation of appearing to deem himself capable of producing anything equal to the Venus de Medici. the celebrated Venus de Medici was carried away from Florence. The empty pedestal was to be filled. in her absence. in a letter. in Venice or occasion to deal. to the noble Vene- From his this time forward the boy had patrons who were With ready to examine and purchase his work. where she had so long reigned. last. and was presented as a new discovery tians." and adding. My may Venus.

prototype. " a triumph of dess. these particulars he has improved upon the proportions of the original. more She active. " It is. has his made In goddess slighter." she says. Jameson the difference between Venus and the Venus de Medici seemed very but she adds that Canova's tion. she embodied exactly the round and smooth ideal of the early nineteenth century. is represented. like the Medici. for the suggestion of graceful limbs and other charms which issue from the folds that she has hastily caught up before her is rather piquant than otherwise. but she is draped more than the is classic statue. who saw it when it stood in the private apartments of the duke in Florence. little Canova. though less modest in a certain sense. because it shows a consciousness of . a very beautiful crea- The statue attitude is of this famous and well-known its similar to that of it. foreseeing. perhaps. a of what changes were to come over the and tastes of an increasingly intellectual generation. This drapery no defect. but not is copied from While the Venus de Medici rather short and stocky for our modern taste.336 Ube Htt of tbe pittt palace This was in votaries of the departed divinity. taller. Jameson. is great. as having just issued from the bath. Canova's Venus made a great impression upon Mrs." modem art." 1806. but not a godthis To Mrs.

> O < o H > O 1x4 o < N <: c/3 .

.

in imagi- when he nation. little oversight is a justification of Ruskin. ideal is The is more if spiritual left. The head turned to the and in this is a little unnatural. The is right arm is concealed by the mantle. but not enough to prevent the beautiful modelling from being seen. The nova's ginal lines of the upper part of the figure of Cawith the slight and vir- Venus are delicate. but the arm is undraped. in front. so that the extremely is graceful line from neck to ankle left unbroken. of flora falls 337 obliquely One corner of the drapery and the Greek rest falls gracefully to the ground in small folds. which is . as is the whole side. with the left foot a little behind. asserts that Canova was lacking not. which she has evidently heard. which left thrown entirely over the right shoulder. turn in the throat.Ubc Stansa nudity. side first. charm of early youth. would have been to drape that whereas Venus has been careless about her This left side. and her well indicated by the exquisitely graceful. the instinct came from that quarter. while throwing the mantle fully over her right. the left knee drawn in close to the right one. because the sound of approaching steps. it But whether natural or startled expression is is effective. rather than with the voluptuous maturity of the Venus de Medici. The figure is poised on the right foot. The hand holds the garment up to her breast. and more tender.

Canova. in order to redeem for the Florentines the lost art treasures which had been filched from them during the war. and little it certainly is not modern. too afrepre- and apologetic. has an air of being in the taste of a special period. he makes her as unconscious as did the Greeks. comings of but it which is so good in parts. In an ode by Missisini.33^ It is ^be art of tbe pitti palace hard to analyze exactly what are the shortthis statue." Canova remained in Rome for a period of fif- teen years. This statue of Canova's is too obviously a woman who is used to being thor- oughly dressed. When a modern man sents Venus. too' self-conscious. is " Venere che esce dal Bagno/' this unintentionally admitted: impression " Shrinking she seems from her own view In trembling conscious modesty. is it no recognition of the nude is as be- shown fairly and freely. except for a few short journeys in Italy. In 1815 he was entrusted with the important mission of visiting Paris. he was equal to his task. It is per- haps a fected too timid. there ing indiscreet. with no attempt is at disguise. and turned with a majority of the losses made good. amidst all the adulation which he re- . As the trusted re- agent of the king. and therefore shocked at herself for being discovered in a state of nudity.

in her appearance. He is clad in a armour. sought refuge guise of gardeners. earnest. with is delicate embossing. He had the honour of enter- . 339 last. — she is positively flirtatious The portrait. a twentieth century man. remained a modest worker to the He died in 1822. with a ruff of immaculate is His face smooth. It gives us pleasure and promthis ise of an amiable and good-hearted man. it is not and yet it gives the sitter his due. The head might be that of The portrait is extremely flattered. by Sustermans. wonderfully fine. not a young man. well painted. Ferdinand grew up to be. suit of decorated stiffness. Vasari's Holy Family does not this is differ enough which from other treatments of require analysis here. of Grand Duke represents Ferdinand active. its The rendering of the metal. who had been persecuted by Richelieu. and at different times opened his doors to the unfortunate. At one time the Duke in Florence in the dis- and Duchess of Lorraine. He made in the Pitti Palace an asylum for the home distressed who his needed protection. it familiar subject to There one point is in is rather unique: the Virgin actually making eyes at the spectator. but with a better expression than that of most of his family. being of too long a cast of face for regular beauty.ttbe Starts^ of J^tora ceived. and his hair is short. II. handsome. and II.

and she brought riches to the Pitti Palace all the personal collections of the ancient family and valuable of Rovere. He also materially helped Charles when he was an exile. Ferdinand II. Ferdinand cap- tured thirty-five galleys from Mohammedan pirates He was strict a just ruler. attributed his success to Our Lady of Loretto. Grand Duke of Tuscany. court. in 1623. He bought the portrait of Cromwell by Sir Peter Lely. punishing vice and rewarding virtue with some system. she being the only daughter of that house. March 24. dedicated this to the blessed Virgin for preserving his galleys from the plague. and a silver galley four feet long.340 tibe art of tbe liittt palace to taining Christina of Sweden on her way Rome. and. " Ferdi- nand de Medici. he being a great admirer of Cromwell. 1670. which has already been noticed. although he was a tax-collector. inscribed. An account of which was one of the most magnificent died . and sent to her shrine a missal with twelve topazes on the cover. and received the Russian ambassadors on to their way the papal II. stition of his With the superall family. other naval acquisitions. Vittoria della living. and numerous other kind and hospitable deeds are recorded of him. his subjects realized that they received the value of their expenditure in good protection and improved conditions of This prince married.'^ Among in 1642. Rovere. He his funeral.

the knights of St. lay in very grate state eight dayes. foure dayes after. and English horse. march lastly. son velvet. and St. the officers of the late Duke. "A 1671. died the great Duke Ferdinand.500 monckes with tapers. beginning till at nine. but they were from that time it the morning before of the was all all : finished. the bishops and arch- bishops domain. tions. is 341 given by Mr. being dressed in all his robes. after the corpse several horses." . At it St. a grate number of coaches with sixe horses. viz. finished the ceremony. afterwards buried at Lawone in The funeral was very august. his bodye was embalmed. while the panegyrick was speaking. the Pope's Nuncio and other prelates received the bodye. who Sir placed under a very rich pavillion. and in who wrote writes as Voyage in Italy" follows: "This May 27. John Finch was pleased to procure me a windowe in the Palace of the Duke of Strozzi. all and the Duke's own pad. who was present on that occasion. then putt it in the vault. of an apoplexy and dropsy.ttbe Stansa ot flota pageants ever witnessed in Florence. there were 1. Style. Stephen in their robes. white sattin and crim- the present Grate Duke accompanied their by his brother Prince Francesco. with their broken bas- a horse-guard of Germans. rences'. mourning cloakes carried up. He 1670. Lawrence's chapel door. beating a dead .

but composed what he considered a " handsome picture. and who painted there until his death in 1675. rolled up over one another In fact. butting at one an- other with a will." He admits that Poussin's pictures have often serious feeling and solemn colour." there is nothing too severe . Ruskin complains that Poussin's distances are too indefinite. but that otherwise they are virtueless. so far as any clear indication is concerned. that he did not study nature. a river is seen winding between bluffs. with their unpleasant edges cut as hard and solid and opaque and smooth as thick black paint can make them. like a dirty sail badly reefed. while the treated as an undulating val- In a third.342 uhc Hrt ot tbe pittt palace in the Four landscapes by Poussin hang of Flora. of who was but the principal master called Claude Lorraine. He further berates Poussin for introducing " wreaths of cloud. the ruins of a temple are seen at the right of the picture ley. Stanza In one They show a in the certain similarity. In another. or they might equally well be five miles distant. Caspar Dughet. not Nicolas. is left. — that they might be fifty miles away. who was a native of Rome. and cows and herdsmen are foreground. a satyr and a goat are having a pitch-battle in the foreground. born in 1613. These are typical landscapes of Poussin. Poussin. and that the admiration which has been is lav- ished on them unintelligent.

selected the most enchant- ing scenes and the most beautiful aspects oi nature. con- taining so exactly the you cannot tell same number of touches each one from another. in the eighteenth century. hands of the severe Now to look for a moment on the other side.: Ube Stansa for of Jflota 343 Ruskin to say about Poussin's interpretation of His foliage elicits similar compliments. against circular line. Hear the Abbate Lanzi. the spreading plane-tree. is which it cuts with the and cov- then begins to decline again until the canvas ered. the graceful poplar. gently undulating hills. what is there in this which the most de- termined prejudice in favour of the old masters can for a moment suppose to resemble trees? " at the So does Caspar Poussin suffer Slade professor. villas delightfully situated. as it recedes from comes to the edge of the next. always the size. Just hear Ruskin on the subject of Poussin's trees '' Circular groups of greenish touches. until it made darker same sharp. " laid over each other the shade being most carefully each. his tree-trunks are likened to carrots or parsnips. . with about as much intelligence or feeling of art as a house-painter has in marbling a wainscot . verdant meads. sin. and sky." They are like fish-scales. and distance from each other . : about a hundred years earlier than Ruskin " Pous- contrary to Salvator. same that shape. calculated to dispel the . . limpid fountains.

or poets crowned with laurels." tures Evidently Lanzi was soothed by those feaset which Lanzi mentions as a virtue what Ruskin conideal landin the demns as a sin: that Poussin composed scapes. in Caspar everything displays elegance and erudition. and to add to the delights of Ruskin's very teeth on edge. like those imagined by Tasso asserts that it Gardens of Armida. Lanzi further admires this ideal quality Poussin.. In his leaves he as varied as the trees themselves . ing parties. " Everything that Caspar expresses founded in nature. In the eighteenth century a man the used his painter imagination and inventive faculties. He is the opinion of land- many is that there is not a greater name among is scape painters.344 trbe Uxt ot tbe ipttti iC>atace retire- cares of state. stands at Nature has not changed." That is the key- note to this difference of opinion between the eighteenth and the nineteenth century ideals of landscape. or hawk. as in in all else. instead of shepherds and peasants the whole is and min- finished in a style almost equal to iature painting. in aesthetics ment. After presenting these two extremes of criticism . should be was the in the nineteenth it century the painter really is who the could portray nature as head. remarking that his figures are either historical.. and fashion determines the standard. who it could most readily suggest a country-side as finer artist.

rather artificially. power of the Calvart was a painter of the Flemish school. showChild. the left At of the picture stand two if angels. writing. Numbers 416. 436. fair and the open pages of the volume when sub- jected to the test of the redeeming cross. A crucifix stands it on the and below rests the an open book. : There may be a significance in this the sealed volume of the earthly grave. is St. emphasizing the beauty of the face. 345 to the we recommend reader a study of the four specimens of his work. Carl Ruthart. of which Rem- brandt might have been proud. There are two landscapes here by the Flemish artist. by Calvart. but nothing can detract from the handling its of the light and shade upon the bent head. visitors fail Many to notice a painting of St. especially the head of the central figure of the saint. upon the facial angle of one of them. The lights are thrown very efifectively. and 441. 421. who worked from 1660 to . Jerome.ttbe Stan3a of jflora regarding Caspar Poussin. it Jerome. The accessories are a trifle modem. because has unfortunately darkened with age. but the original work must have been one of unrivalled beauty. ing an illumination of the Madonna and upper half of a Near the inkstand skull human on a closed book. sitting at his table. table at the right. living between 1565 and 1619. with mist of white hair merging into the shadow.

to the Almighty. At lie lute. and other bits of armour. lions. Number . Number all 438. other. is who. a spear. is The Genius Riminaldi. His attitude the left side and graceful. O'f It is a restless and inartistic ar- rangement unpleasant beasts. and leopards are pouncing on him from all quarters. — he looks as if he might Fran- have been intended for one of the apostles. the fatal tree. . bows and arrows and a helmet. 346 1680. wreathed with laurels. in this composition there occur also scales. the attributes of the arts are lying about him in disorder on the extremely a lithe floor. 418. and a rapier. Adam and Eve is something of a de- parture from the usual treatment of the subject. of Art. and brushes. being a representation of wild creatures of sorts tearing a deer to pieces panthers. would have been an acceptable circus poster. Adam and and his wife are confessing on their knees in attitudes of pleading. and Number 422. and all is with wings. The Genius Furini's himself is seated on a fragment of archi- tectural ruin. nude. seated under The representation of the heavenly Father is entirely human. while at the right stands on a higher plane a globe made of framework. palettes. trbe art of tbe lC>ttti iC^alace One The of these. is painted by represented by a youth.. having been walking in the garden. represents aniit mals in a state of domesticity looks like a cattle show.

ALLEGORICAL HEAD By Furini . in the Stanza of Flora .

.

uality to and then allowed play. original. was the visualizing of the emotions and ideas in physical shape. He was ordained priest flesh tints when he was forty. in spite of of the Florentine school. and in his later pictures this mannerism becomes so marked that model for Eve in this picture appears there seems to be almost a mist about his figures. it a more exquisite pose of head and would be in profile. ancient painting. He handled his with great mellowness. Apelles it might be called a psychological allegory. rather. as The theme of Apelles in his we learn from Lucian. his own individ- have free He studied and planned his pictures for a long time. by Franciabigio. Calumny. he entered the fact that he into their spirit. He was was a great student of other masters. but the actual rendering of them was a quick process with him. difficult to find. He was and lived until 1649. shoulder the face graceful.Ube 5tan3a cesco Furini of jf lota 347 was called the Guido and the Albano born about 1600. he did not allow any traces of their work to creep into his own manner. The beautiful again in an allegorical head which hangs directly underneath. scription is based upon the de- by Lucian of a picture of the same name painted by Apelles. artist was a Greek who was famous for his . In each case is The in type is most alluring and The girl the small picture holds a chalice in her hand.

Nothing could be contrived possible conception to look less like any of the Virgin. Lucian how his jealous brother artists had maligned Apelles to tector King Ptolemy. Truth. A mediaeval missal lies is open on her knees. rance. cence dragged by the hair by Calumny. a naked appeals tO' heaven The Madonna and seventeenth centuries. is much more She sits interested having her portrait painted. by Cigoli.348 colour. of Calumny. Child. She is accompanied by Hypocrisy and in Envy. took his revenge by painting Inno- the King of Egypt is as Midas with ass's ears. facing the audience. group. Treachery. The king listened to the and Apelles. change in the attitude of his patron. as erect and self-conscious as the sentinel of an arsenal when under feminine observation. represented as the mother girl. holding a torch. — a rather disagreeable painter of the late sixteenth and early — is most unsatisfactory. who had been his proup to this time. precedes the The king listens to Suspicion and Ignoin and holds out Falsehood his is hand approbation to Calumny. although in a perfunctory she in is way pointing to the book. for justice. Zbc Hrt and ot tbe ipitti ipalace painted his many allegorical subjects. dull clothes. learning of this gossip. and the industrious Child following the lines along with his finger. though none of tells works have survived. while his mother. .

He wears a fur mantle. tions All na- seem to have turned out to hear him. however. is The ex- pression on the face of the horse forcible. on a slight exhorting the motley crowd of listeners. dying in Rome in 16 14. behind with a tall. or else a Russian. people are also approaching in A self. Lavinia was the artist daughter of Prospero Fontana. what a crowning success this painter might have had as designer for a fashion paper had he lived to-day devised ? ! Was ever a more is fascinating sleeve Number 431 St. a man in a short-skirted robe. John Preaching. She is here represented as rather a hair dressed in the young woman. is a turbaned Turk on horseback. and behind him a black Moor with the features of a negro. She was born in 1552. A poor family in the foreground. — he There is probably the conception of an Indian. John stands on the left.Ube Stansa of iflora 349 Note. by Tassi. a St. is In the centre boots. intended to be evidently the animal ! is is being converted seen in a wheel- by the preaching barrow a boat. painted is by her- seen in Number 433. and lived to be sixty-two years of age. stately collar of stiffened lace . with her approved manner of the time. elevation. and a Bedouin appears in another place. portrait of Lavinia Fontana. with high and a hat with feathers and artist's quills. an of Bologna.

usually called Manozzi. Giovanni da san Giovanni. which presented to the spectator. flared away from His hair in the brim. but refined to the verge of neatness. and strings of pearls hanging far her corsage. dress There is no more charming in a picture in the gallery than the Repose in Egypt. and is in the other a knife with which he it. Scripture Christ and the Woman chief of Samaria. He wears a heavy scarf flung over his is shoulder. Her work not intellectual. because she treated their jewels and brocades with more elab- oration and sympathy. blocks. and the Roman to employ her better than any man. bon bow back of his neck in fact. and painted scenes. ist She was better as a colouris than as a designer. has painted a cook tion. is rather long and tied with a rib. he is quite coquettish.3SO xrbe Hrt of the pitti palace her head. and the face looks over the about to shoulder. being among her ladies liked works. the back left is slightly turned. by Van Dyck. In one hand he holds a chicken. down on Lavinia Her mantle sleeves artist is cut about the edges in and the large are of brocade. art. at Naples. Fontana was an several of some note. with a fur hat his face. She was an accurate and minute painter of ornament. It has been engraved more flowery period of under . who seems superior to his posiwith much action in the He is a jaunty individual.

they savo'ur of the beauty of earth. is This was from the Gerini A picture of some originality that of Jesus as an infant crowning the Madonna. possibly until cupids resemble angels.XTbe Stan3a ot flora the it 351 title of " is. — — but for that matter. The little angel who stands in an attitude of ineffable grace at the right toward the centre of the upturned picture. and hanging over the door which leads to the Sala dei Putti. The mother and are seated on a rustic bank in an exquisitely restful landscape. Joseph all is near by in an attitude of and about are these cheerful holy for the little children making melody and diversion boy on the Virgin's knee. The child on her knee reaching up to crown her with a chap- . really The Queen of Angels. How shall we know we have picture an opportunity to compare them? Gallery. painted by Alessandro Allori. It represents the Virgin Mary up in the dress of a peasant girl. the front locks being at the two is sides with little bows. Ruskin might think that these angels resemble cupids. perhaps they do. although still. St. the joyous spiritual grace in their small bodies stands almost child alone in creations of its kind. relaxation. his arms both exbliss tended and an expression of infantine face. lives on his long in one's memory. with her hair tied hanging down her back." And such The baby angels are heavenly.

Her attendant raises an expostulatory hand. the Flemish landscapes which Bril. We on the go now ceiling. she has a most disinterested look on her face. and un- Among are graver. also' strik- Two ing. being thick infantile in his proportions. hang here two by Paul who was a painter and en- bom in Antwerp in 1554. file. The mother. as if the sight were going to prove stolid to for her. But Judith looks too be affected by such an episode. so called because of the winged cupids A sweet Madonna and Child. Peace Burning the Arms of War. Gentihschi has again painted Number 444. canvases of flowers and fruit are Numbers 451 and 455. who lies rapt in slumber. in pro- holds her child on her lap. In Salvator's landscape. They are painted by a Dutch artist named Rachel Ruysch. into the last small room. He is not so suc- cessfully painted as the Virgin. the Stanza of the Putti. and casts down her too much eyes. by Del Sarto. in the act of raising the sword to slay the unsuspecting Holof ernes. in his other hand he holds the crown Judith. of thorns.35* let XTbe art of tbe pitti palace of flowers . is seen at once through the door from the Stanza of Flora into the Sala dei Putti. like one who is swinging Indian clubs for exercise. Ruskin alludes to the "pure ignorance .

stolen One of his sylvan train has is round behind the couple. In the Sala dei Putti there are four examples of the work of Willem von artist of the Aelst. and trying to possess himself of Cupid's quiver. Number evidence of his genius in this is direction. acteristic Correggio of his Extreme minuteness is a charwork. who was a painter of Delft. and evidently has designs upon the goddess. may 462. and the delicate vase of here be seen." This picture Number 453. His treatment bright and sunny. and the trunk of the support the foliage is tree could not for a moment it is loaded with. an same fruits. and embraces Cupid who stands by her. called the Jan van Huysums has been of flower painting. hangs here. marine. by Jan Dubbels. He style. He was a painter of the Number Dutch school who flourished about 1729. which has fallen to the ground unobserved. Jan . Their specialty was dead game and A 457. flat upon a couch composed of rock. born in 1620.Zbc Stan3a ot flora : 353 of tree structure " displayed " Every one of the is arrangements of the tree branches impossible. in the Sala dei is flowers which Putti. Number 461 Venus left lies is Domenichino's Venus and Satyr. A satyr at the looks jealously on. studied with his uncle.

in van Huysums died he was Amsterdam. In the midst of a group of trees. who was a Dutch artist born at Emden in 1631. John.'* She endowed with wings." in the vision also appears "another great wonder heads. Here also hangs a marine by Ludolf Bakhuisen. where bom in 1682.354 Xlbe Hrt ot tbe pttti palace in 1749. John on Patmos. with wings spread for flight. but the visions are too far heavens to be properly balanced St. to the proportions of the picture. John is seen The vision is of a " woman clothed with feet. Salvator Rosa's Diogenes is Number 470. reclining. with peasants as spectators. In Number 465 away in the Carlo Dolci has painted the Vision of St. and behold a great red dragon the em- having seven heads and seven crowns upon his On a jutting rock by the saint is blematic eagle of St. He thus denies himself this artificial to drinking because he has been impressed by watch- ing a youth dip his hand into a stream and drink . woman were might given two wings into the wilder- of a great eagle that she fly ness." in heaven. and the new moon under her and is upon her head a crown of twelve also stars. Diogenes is seen in the act of throwing away aid his cup. is crowded with boats pitching in at every Bakhuisen died at Amsterdam 1709. according to the : Scrip- tures " And to the . This marine angle. the sun.

She never went out except when she was always escorted by guards and drawn by eight horses. occurred in 1743. who in resembled the Medici in his tastes. the death of her only brother. so that in this way his petty gallantries be- came known to be a to her. by After at the Douwen." and screens. She was and married to Prince John William. in the Pitti. the last of her illustrious family. was every way fitted to adorn this position.Ube Stanja of fflora 355 from it. tables. But the lady was of a suspicious temperament. Ruskin says of this picture that it is " rendered valueless by coarseness of feeling and non-reference to nature. The furniture of her bedroom was described after her death as being all of silver. When he died. she lived Pitti still Palace in great isolation and state. veiled. Her regal death She was buried with a will of bequeatihing to one a mag- and left some generosity crowns to her distant relatives. and the marriage did not prove happy one. the Elector Palatine. stools. and she used to follow him about. chairs. she reigned supreme to church. . and to the King of Spain a jewel worth one hundred thousand crowns. of the Princess Maria Anne Louisa de Medici." There are four quaint portraits in this room. She had collected many valuable art treasures and jewels during her life. or at night. string of pearls valued at sixty thousand . possibly not without cause. nificence.

the shape of strange pasties and moulded figures. in Number 478. The first Maria to have been dress dress slight of figure. lace apron . tightly. and the achievements of her genius. is cut with high neck and long sleeves." as an old author expresses Of little the four portraits of this eccentric lady. 3s6 *' XLbc Hrt of tbe rich iptttf palace more and singular and extraordinary than it. Again she appears. is holding a gun in one hand. handsome. with her husband. She is stand- ing out-of-doors. in the other she is in the full regalia of a huntress. There is a hall window background at the right.. are seen on a table near. and while the other hand favourite dog. They stand in a hall at the end of which is . In Number 471 is the redoubtable Anna Maria de Medici She wears a point in displaying her art as a cook. plumes. resting is on the neck of a Her hair hangs free over her shoul- and she wears a three-cornered hat with Both these portraits are very jaunty. one represents her standing. and at the left a curtain is draped. and elaborately trimmed with bands of in the rich embroidery she wears a small ruff and a short cape. the Elector Palatine. extending her hand for a shows Anna fact she dog to jump over it. which emphasized by dressing very is is Her headHer high and ornamented with pearls. ders. trait In the second poris Anna Maria's tight-strapped costume car- ried out in quite a military manner.

here. In speaking of the French. Canova showed . to inveigle Napoleon tried his best into remaining in France. The costumes of both are The lady is elaborate and dressy in the extreme of the fashion of a flamboyant age." In those days this was probably true of the French nation. wine-pot. is merely a love of display. Canova ing Paris for the purpose. by Canova. but the sculptor was true to his native country. " They are not inspired with genuine love of art it . One of the conversations quoted by Canova's stepbrother. and lending his genius to the glorification of his new empire. covered with pastry swans and Anna Maria has already been repcomposing. Retracing our steps to the Hall of Prometheus. and he returned to Italy in due season. There are interesting accounts given of the sittings with which Napoleon favoured the sculptor. Canova used to say. we turn to the left and enter the after the artist little long Galdecorated leria Poccetti. or pointing to a some large piece of bric-a-brac which stands on the floor at the right. versations their con- must have been quite edifying. its ceiling. who took notes on the interviews between Napoleon and the sculptor^ is worth repeating.Ube Stan3a such moulds as resented as of jflora 357 spread a vast table. life in The visit- bust was modelled from Canova 1802. named who is The bust of Napoleon.

" In a painting by Tiarini. in sign of that peace to which the wishes of all good men have long inclined. conceal his indignation his wrath. Citizen Canova." Na- poleon was unkind enough to show Canova the arrangement of the statues and pictures which had been brought from Italy. he was quite a philosopher. " No. not Lavinia. The " sculptor could hardly but he managed to conceal : he replied They were certainly bet- ter placed in Italy." sword. — you must be a have left me without defence. asking him if he did not think them well placed. picted as a transport of rage fleeing in fear and lies despair. Number 488. Alessandro Tiarini was a painter of the Bolognese school. I have only hung up the sheathed sword. At this the sculptor pointed out a sheathed which he had placed against a support saying : in the statue. Sire . They are horrified. but of a he was obliged to fle^ quarrelsome turn. Not seeing Napoleon plot any arms or weapons exclaimed ^' : in the composition. born in 1577. Abel dead in the fore- ground. Adam and Eve have just discovered the murder of their son. there against me. the father. daughter) He was a pupil of Fontana (Prospero. Abel.358 Ube Htt of tbe ptttt palace the emperor his design for the statue of Napoleon as it was to appear when completed. as . from . Cain is and awe. the . and express their emotion The first grief is dein true primitive fashion.

the figure almost inverted in the if it and looks perfectly well balanced. The whole picture attractive and mellow. that is the chief is criti- cism. dying in 1688. life. much too gentlemanly io appear in his present state of insufficient costume. hovering above. and to It be so brutal in his behaviour toward a lady. and did not return for many in foreshortening. He knew how human is to depict the various passions on the face. and this accomplishment was one reason for this.Zhc Stanja of if lora 3S9 Bologna on account of an altercation of a serious nature. whose hands are tied before her. Cecilia there is a strong feel- ing of Christian fortitude expressed in the kneeling figure of the saint. The angel. . and preparing to take her He is a good- looking young man. which he treated with much dramatic force. He was expert and noted for always choosing melancholy or tragic subjects. and as itself in could poise a hundred similar attitudes. tiated. delicious way. the emotions are well differen- Tiarini lived to be ninety years old. is a picture in high society. and is is in exquisite foreshortenair. floating in a most ing. The is executioner is holding her by the hair. selectfull ing such a crisis as The picture of dramatic power. years. In Riminaldi's St. and yet never lest it give one any anxiety carries a is might fall. The angel wreath and a palm.

be classed in two dis- tinct divisions. a Jesuit confessor of Cosimo III. Padre Pietro Pinamonte. In the an angel ministering to him. painted true to the by another Jesuit like himself.3^0 tlbe Srt of tbe Ipftti i&alace tree. This painter was a clever brother oil who painted both in and fresco. in his ''. I have not cited these resemblances between the followers of the sister arts simply as an exercise of ingenuity. and he is as well filled with arrows as the most sky- enthusiastic persecutor could is demand. — one of those Cupid-pseudo angels which annoy Ruskin. Number 496. He lived from In summing up the characteristics of Italian Schlegel. the old and the new. and that the same stages . the masculine and wondrous conceptions of Mantegna. in Turin.Esthetic Essays. The face is upturned. If the simple grandeur of Giotto. like its poetry. while Titian and Correggio seem alike representatives of Tasso and Ariosto. Sebastian is bound to a His hand. gives his figure a picturesque attitude." says : art. Padre of his Andrea Pozzo. much work was accomplished 1642 to 1709.. being tied to one of the upper Hmbs. Guercino's St. life here appears. " Italian painting nnay. the beauty of Perugino may no less aptly be compared with Petrarch. remind us of Dante. but rather to illustrate the one simple yet important principle that nature in similar spheres observes the same order of productions.

and the sweet inspiration of Marini finds a corresponding analogy in the capricious Albano.'' . — the pithy sweetness of Domenichino assimilates completely with the poetic Guarini. 361 of progress are apparent to tween Italian poets and painters still The parallel bemay be carried manner of farther.Ubc Stansa of iflora all.

and helmets. seasons. on the walls are prelife sented the most memorable acts in the of Lo- renzo the Magnificent. is the great The hall was decorated in 1633 by Giovanni Mannozzi (known by the name of Giovanni da san Giovanni). the months painted as are holding laurel marble figures. other figures in bronze. shields. palms. simulated iti Here may be seen the four gold. wreaths and festoons On the correspond- ing sides are represented allegorical figures of Day and Night. who was considered one of the best fresco painters in Italy. the right of the entrance by the portico hall. THE ROYAL APARTMENTS AND THE BOBOLI GARDENS The On remaining attractions of the Pitti Palace are the royal apartments and the Boboli Gardens. are scenes of allegorical significance. In the vault apropos of the nuptials of the prince. 362 One would . and other expect devices which are intended to recall the deeds and achievements of the Medici. with The angles of the vault are ornamented laurels.CHAPTER XIII.

further satyrs. which is an original but thoroughly displeasing idea. Pegasus is pray for admission. Among the allegorical subjects in this compre- hensive fresco are Love Leading a Lion. from a deHcate have been omitted. a chestnut-tree. to Mars in the person of Ferdinand IL Flora and the Nymphs of the Arno. intro- Alexander the Great and Mahomet are both duced into this exotic composition. by satyrs troupes of philosophers scurry away all to seek refuge under the gracious patronage Aristotle. . who are bestowing upon her a cart-load of garden produce. but these. poets are chased over The Muses precipices are put to flight . and Dante. forerunners in history. placed on the House throne of Venus. holds aloft the crown of victory. Homer. Time satyrs destroying a neat library of books which are being offered to him by a group of . A female satyr. of Lorenzo.Ubc IRopal Hpartments 363 to see a few dripping stilettos and poison vials in- troduced into the design sense of tact. Sappho. . which is said to symbolize the of Rovere. the centre of attraction in one group. bearing lighted torches. apparently for the express purpose of demonstrating the superiority of the Medici to all their . in another Pallas is seen introducing Virtue to Tuscany in her best society manner. Flora being admired by the god Pan. climbing up to Parnassus. the Florentines doing homage .

and. from whose mouth he had knocked sion of age. and their effects upon later generations. one see in the red robe of Gonfalonier.. an attendant angel stands by with the Scriptures for his consultation. while the other " infant industries " are grouped about. founded by Lorenzo at Caraggi Marsile Ficino and Pico della Mirandola and Politian here disport themselves. Little angels float about in the air. On by the fourth side of the hall the paintings are Furini. A real scene without symbolic meaning follows this: Lo- renzo receiving from the hands of the boy Michel- angelo the satyr's mask. In another place Pru- dence and Lorenzo are indulging in a discussion on ways and means in government. painted by Cecco Bravo. he welcomes Apollo and the Muses by cordially extending his hand to them. dence forbore to thwart Lorenzo's Octave Vanni (Vannino) has also contributed his share to the decoration of the hall. The statue of Plato . which he had so cleverly modelled. 364 Ube Brt Lorenzo of tbe Ipitti palace On may another wall. these depict Francesco the famous Platonic Academy. holding an inscription indicative of the Christian virtues of Lorenzo. as every reader knows. Flora and Pru- dence conduct the infant Genius. Evidently Pruwill. to give the expresis In another compartment Faith seen doing her duty by pointing Lorenzo to heaven. a tooth.

at base of which Philosophy seated. The It painting. the picture disappeared. whereas up to this time four of Botticelli's pictures had always been accredited to the Pitti. There are many interesting pictures apartments his best : in the royal a Madonna. for some mysterious reason. after reported. one of works. has long hung in the Pitti Palace under the name it of An in it Allegory. a charming round Botticelli. when tion. The series is con- cluded by the death of the Magnificent. surrounded by books.Ube IRopal apartments 365 is occupies the altar. emblematical of his being saved from the waters of oblivion. Then. appears a swan. to the manifest discomfort of Peace. Mars prepares to devastate the earth once more. on the shores of the Lethe. In the Elysian fields. holding in his beak a medal with the effigy of Lorenzo. is one of the most interesting pictures in Italy at present. Pallas and the Centaur.'* was alluded to as an " eccentric composito Lorenzo il relating in some vague way Magnifico. eral 1856 only three were The Pallas was stored away among sev- unimportant pictures when the Archduke Ferdi- . but the chief art possession the great picture by Botticelli of Pallas and the Centaur. and. the Madonna is of the Roses. and Frassinetti engraved in 1842 an illustrated work upon the Pitti Palace. by Carlo Dolci.

is The as exquisitely especially decorative shade of the blue in the sky is noteworthy. a noted artist. he observed the great picture hanging there. with a more regular type of beauty than that often chosen by this artist. as " were demanded by the director of the ing accrued to the state. certain changes were inaugurated In 1 86 1 " all pictures belonging to the Palatine Pitti. as he passed through a room. upon the earth.366 Ube Hrt ot tbe iPftti palace for at that time in the gallery. The picture is a very beautiful composition. mained hanging in a dark. it they decided that was unquestionably the lost Botticelli. floor. Her type sort. and is the colouring. He called the Marchese Enrico Ridolfi into consultation. is rather intel- although of a cheerful by no means as severe as the classic ideal of Minerva. collector. although the vehicle as deep and rich as an oil painting. critic. and. and. tempera. high comer of a small apartment on the second notice. Pallas havthe re- and in some way and was overlooked in this transaction. Pallas is represented a young woman. and at once ex- claimed that it must be a Botticelli. where it escaped Mr. and was visiting the Duke d'Aosta at the Pitti a few years ago. nand of Lorraine was married. She car- . known as the Volterrano apartment. Spence. after a minute examination. and the fluttering of her light draperies suggest that she has just alighted lectual.

in the Royal Apartments .PALLAS AND THE CENTAUR By Botticelli .

I .

is as Minerva. The jection. A rich green mantle is falls gracefully about free. her. and slim. triumph is — calm and peaceful — over brute force evidently the intention of the painting. his incapacity to defend himself. clinging tenderly to her body. The device of Lorenzo. centaur. and his bow is not raised for action. when Lorenzo de Medici visited Naples and made this agreement posis The real dress of Pallas most exquisite in its ethe- quality. are dis- posed at intervals in the texture of the gossamer fabric. bound the closer on the arms and breast by twining olive-branches. she most lovely. linked rings in groups of threes and fours. and a shield slung on her back. subduing a more complex goddess. but the only warlike suggestion is about her the firm clutch with which she seizes Intellectual the hair of the centaur.XTbe IRopal ries a halberd in is Bpartments 367 a disinterested way. but not an is attractive subject. artistic embodying is also purity and symbolism. in an attitude of cringing sub- He evidently acknowledges his inferiority. to symbolize the securing of peace between the Pope and Florence by a triple alliance in the king at sible. and her blonde hair or whether she hanging Whether she stands simply evil. equally well handled. . that it Authorities claim was painted 1480.

which illustrates Botti- celli's convincing and yet simple manner of defend- ing himself when he was imposed upon. ing. stone. while in the middle distance.368 xrbe art of tbe pitti palace is The background very delightful little : a bit of low- tide shore. The unassuming. it course. plied that he also intended to Botticelli re- do as he liked in his . that any jarring or disturbance would be to bring through his neighbour's down with a crash The weaver. Vasari an amusing anecdote. of roof. The jarring and noise produced all these machines rendered Sandro's house al- most uninhabitable. there is a tall ledge of striated which looks almost like the ruin of a build- The rocks meet the ground very squarely. A cloth weaver set up eight looms in the house next to his own by in Florence. left. Pallas tells is quiet firmness of this figure of typical of Sandro's own nature. — and had liable monolith which was reported to it fill so balanced upon the wall of his own dwelling. which was higher than the weaver's house. with a graceful boat at anchor. this nuisance. or almost in the fore- ground on the rocks. protested at such an outrage. He requested an abatement of and received no answer except that the weaver intended to do as he liked in his house. own an —a So the wily Botticelli obtained an enormous entire cart. almost like a planned wall.

The statue by Valere de Settignano. Many statues adorn the gardens at One is the fountain sometimes called Bacchus. The result he had his fingers in the centaur's Who can entirely disassociate the Pitti Palace from the Boboli Gardens ? " tangled vastness. said that this fountain is a portrait.Xtbe IRoigal Bpartments was satisfactory. of Pierre Barbino. a in the court of man distinguished Cosimo I. quarries. There used to on the Boboli Hill. 369 Verily own house. . little the " because the figure is is diminutive and he mounted on a turtle. city. hair. We must not leave the palace without the Boboli Gardens through the taking a peep into the gardens." as calls Those shady. in the following August. comes from the mouth of the it is reptile. or rather a caricature. once so trim and formal. the work was carried forward by Buontalenti. Howells ingeniously them. all points. and at his death. and the water In reality. now a mass of Mr. One approaches be. That was probably one reason why limits of possibility to it was within the employ such huge stones and plan for the gardens many made by so of them. for his gallantries is and his dilettantism. court in the middle of the palace. The was Tribolo in 1550. from which stones were taken to pave the and these quarries were again exploited in building the Pitti Palace. overgrown walks." squat.

so well On a plateau is a small meadow. and is called the Bacchino.370 Xtbe Srt ot tbe called this statue Ipitti ** palace This fact is Cosimo is Margutte. however. The rest of this bizarre edifice was constructed statues at the insti- gation of Cosimo L. Piatt calls minable avenues in relentless straight ** which climb one hill after another. this the time of Marie Louise for the court. in niches." here. during of Etruria. two statues of Apollo and Ceres by Baccio Bandinelli. built in part A famous grotto may be seen it by Giorgio Vasari. groves and long. his plans but the artist changed and made it into a Ceres. the first owner of the Boboli Gardens. which was used time of the Medici and as a football ground in the Duke Leopold. in order to accommodate four unfinished angelo. were to have been a part of the tomb of Julius IL. them. and the figure known as the " little Bacchus " that the entrance is named for it. by Buontalenti. but. and presented them to Eleonora. with an attendant Adam." not generally known.'' as Mr. in their unfinished condition. " interlines. they were given to Cosimo by Leonardo Buonarotti. was the riding-ground little There are many delightful picturesque walks . was to have been placed behind the altar of the cathedral. nephew to . latter The was originally intended for an Eve. by Michelthey commonly known as the Prisoners. to which he added an Apollo. and has. and.

Ube Michelangelo. fishes it were to appear to be floating in the but was not practicable and had to be abanI. Opposite the grottO' a basin of marble. Cosimo Gaston. had placed there on from Cav- Rome in 1696. sciences as a studio for his son. 371 and The grotto is built in a curious way of those petrified shells. III. which abound on the Tuscan statues The unfinished are in the angles. which was supposed to look as if it is were in a state of collapse. representing divers animals and reptiles creeping out of crevices. Gian who was a cultivated man interested in and languages. cut in this calcareous material . com- monly hills. in air which . The artist also has covered the grotto with strange human and animal shapes. doned. and even figures of peasants. High to the right is the little Garden delle aliere. he also' intended to introduce a crystal basin. called sponges. From city. In the reign of Francesco Poccetti orna- mented the vault and side walls with designs cor- responding to Buontalenti's plan. built by Cardinal Leopold over the bastion In this stands the small casino which built which was erected by Michelangelo to defend the town in 1529. this point there is a beautiful view over the One of the great charms of the gardens is the .. evidently alarmed at the im- minence of the destruction of the grotto. which his return Cosimo III. IRosal his Hpattments executor.

Ferdito the nand IV. containing vases and statues. in 181 the 1. the amphitheatre was used again to celebrate good news. it is near the palace. duchess Marie Therese and Prince Antoine de Saxe. Marie Caroline. again. in a royal no expense entertainment when Cosimo married Marguerite Louise d'Orleans. there was Then. and in 1739 the arrival of Francois of Lorraine and Marie of Austria was celebrated by a superb assembly in the amphitheatre.. and his wife. This amphitheatre hillside. which proximity made it very easy to adjourn to when entertainments were given there. on the occasion of the nuptials of Archalso a notable entertainment. Among the gala days in the amphi- theatre were a grand spectacle in honour of the marriage of Anne de Medici with Archduke Ferdi- nand of Austria in 1652. A and balustrade surrounds this set with niches at intervals. in shape. . where many festivities have been held by members of the Medici family while they were in power. a long oval. occurrence at this point. in 1785.372 trbe Art of tbc pftti lialace amphitheatre. obelisk well preserved. in 1661. When the King of Naples. was spared III. Here may be seen an Egyptian theatre. and in 1787. came Pitti. on the birth of the son of Napoleon Buonaparte. the festivities were held here. is well adapted to the to form of the ural in its and seems be entirely natIt is.

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thickly overgrown. and splashing waters. and also from various other points in this hydrostatic novelty. A covered avenue. which planted with a fountain. straight dis- tance to the large basin.Zbc The the IRopal Hpartments 373 Pitti Palace. Cosimo I. green. and has been described by a rather imaginative Italian poet as the ingenious work of one of the nymphs who retreats preside over is woods and fields! — shady Much of the garden in a fashion of luxury. seems to romance of the long-forgotten episodes which must have taken place amidst these long-covered walks. It is and a refuge from the sun. is common in Florence). benches rise one above another in the auditorium. overlooks this amphitheatre in somewhat Stone same way that the Palace of the Caesars in Rome if overlooks the Circus Maximus. It cool. Jets of water proceed In the centre is raised a rock carved into a triumphal chariot for the sea-^od. It is surrounded by cypresses and yews. leads for a long. from the trident which Nep- tune carries. high-walled grottoes. flowers. to compare small things with greater. with a colossal statue of Oceanus or Neptune. is situated a tiny Before it is a little meadow or bird-snare (once L'Uccellaja. and restful. in which island called L'Isolotto. so it may be called. . had this triumphal car copied from the one which had appeared in the great procession in Florence in 1565. called is On the island.

was a vacillating gentleman. is the work of Astoldo Lorenzo de is Settignano. it was made and was set up to commemorate a season of great entirely novel glory for plenty. without which . under Ferdinand Tuscany revelled in plenty. in his " Italian Gardens. and thereby hangs a de Medici..! 374 Ubc Hrt of tbe IPitti palace on the occasion of the " mascarade " of the Genealogy of the Gods. It was commenced by Giovanni da Bologna to be placed But Francesco. so exactly do they in with their surroundings. however. changes of attributes. the statue was again trotted out and completed as Abundance. When. This statue was a portrait of Johanna of Austria. and the statue remained unfinished. Grand Duchess of Francis I. and his lost interest in the statue of rather plain wife. II. tale.'* On the highest point in the garden stands the statue of Abundance. this With certain deft possible. The statue of Neptune dales. became enamoured of Bianca Capello. being at that time the only Italian state that was not indulging in famine and plague. who in the Piazza San Marco. hills This lake surrounded by artificial and Mr." speaks of the " cular terraces '' around the most elevated of the ponds as seeming to be fit "a natural formation. cir- Piatt. and to celebrate an the Medici — Peace no formal garden The Belvedere. Tacca. under -Giovanni's pupil. so he countermanded the order.

overgrown fountain. which Jeanne of Austria took it much in so that was called after her. black spires of cypress and domes of pine. occupying only a small. by Zanobi del Rosso. This was the favourite retreat of Victor Emanuele. its lawns. At in the foot of the is hill. terraces. netto the charming little Madama. It for refreshments." A trf more complete word-picture of the atmosphere it the Boboli Gardens would be impossible to find. stands on a sHght eminence. in the Boboli Deli- cious pineapples were grown Gardens the days of Leopold. its weather-beaten marbles. was complete and the in those days. its silly grottoes. and a lantern make is view more available. was built in 1776. who was very fond of this fruit Howells speaks of the " charming. under Leopold. upon which Giardi- the coffee-house stands. THE END. and the galleries. little There quite a clever stair- case in this building. interest. triangular space. elevation the view all From this this around the city is extensive. abounding age and whispering lovers. its its curtains of laurel hedge.tCbe Iftoi^al ilpartmcnts from 375 this. is not far casino. or coffee-house. masses of ivy-covered wall. its those sea-horses so much too big for wandering in talking alleys and moss-grown seats. unkempt with lake. . its grotesque. its sad.

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Guinness. Karoly. — Sacred and Legendary Art. 377 . — Life and Times of H. — Walks Florence. — Life of Canova. — Michael Angelo. James Howell. del Sarto. — History of Florence. Andrea del Sarto. S. Memes. Armstrong. in Italy. — Six Months Horner. — — — — — — Historical Guide to Florence. Berenson. Machiavelli. Fra Lippo Lippi.Bibliograpbi2 Grant Allen. Calvert. — Familiar HowELLS. — Legends of Monastic Orders. — La Peinture Europe. — Giovanni Duprd. BuRCKHARDT Die Cicerone. — Paintings of Florence. — Andrea G. Venetian Painters of the Renaissance. G. Crowe and Cavalcaselle. S. Frieze. Portraits Places. — Tuscan Henry James. — Life of Rubens. in Italy. HiLLiARD. Browning. Anderson. Lorenzo de Medici. — History of Painting Crowe and Cavalcaselle. Lafenestre. Browning. Titian. LuiGi Lanzi Painting Longfellow. Renaissance Architecture in Italy. in Letters. the in in Italy. Jameson. K. H. Cities. — of Jameson. H.

Mark Noble. — Art Schools of Mediaeval Christendom. — Ricci. — Guida Delia Palazzo G. — Lives of the Painters. B. Old Masters. Symonds. — The Renaissance Taine. Stearns. Italie. — Miscellaneous Studies. C. Woltmann and Woermann. T. Stillman. D. RusKiN. — Life of Giiido Reni. P. — Stones of Venice. F. — The Renaissance. Perrens Count Plunkett. F. Walter Pater. — The Renaissance SiSMONDi. History of Florence. G. J. Williamson. — Esthetic Essays. Walter Pater. — Voyage en Theophilus. — The Arts of the Middle Ages. J. . Rose. in Italy. Dr. — History of Europe. Travels in Italy. Sweetser.37^ 3Bibltograpbi2 — A. Williamson Fra Angelico. — Commonwealths of Florence. W. — Brunelleschi. Pitti. ScHLEGEL. F. RusKiN. Trollope. Leader Scott. — History of Painting. Passavant. C. — Life of Perugino. — Renaissance Masters. — Life and Works of Raphael. A. in Italy. Owen. T. Giorgio Vasari. — M. — Botticelli. — Life and Genius of Tintoretto. — Modern Painters. John Moore. Leader Scott. Memoirs of the Medici Family. A. Italian J.

Angelo Doni. Portrait of Clarice Altovito. 167. and Brass. Annunciation. John in the Desert. 105. 2. Bishop. St. 126. Assumption of the Virgin. Adam and Eve.. Apelles. Guercino. Bacchanale. Romano. Spanish. Campagnola. 191). Portrait of. 57. Apollo. 372. Christoforo. Gabriel. 8. Ariosto. 201. Bacchanale. 351. Altovito. 210. 102. Abraham. by Titian. 44. Apollo and Marsyas. Joseph. Giulio Allen. 209. Allori. 44. by Andrea del Sarto. 267. 191. Preaching of the Baptist. 103. 315. Alva. Julian. Christofano. 4. 278 Tiarini. Academy. 114. 290. Amphitheatre 23. (No. Grant. 319. by Paris by Augustus and the Sibyl.. by. by Guido Reni." 316. 319. by Lanfranco. i. Albertinelli. Arezzo. Alexander VII. 294. 353. Judith and Holof ernes. 94. Correggio. 86. tnbcx • Abbott (Lyman). by Cortona. 39. Silver. See Correggio. 255. 229. 152 (No. Armada. D'. in Boboli Gardens. Augustus and the Bordone. Ages of Gold. Iron.. Allegorical Subject. 346 Migna. Bacchus. Antwerp. Clarice. 69. 21. Alphonse II. 317. "Alice in Wonderland. Aretino." 374. 124). Sibyl. 307. 158. . 379 . 153. 30. Hall of. 360. Jesus Crowning Mary. Angel's Head. Alphonse d'Este. 62. by Del Sarto (No. Allegri. Garofolo. 310. Apollo and Marsyas. 6. Pietro. Sketch of His Life. 28. 225). Argentino. 68-99. 246. Era. 163. 238. 61. 216. by Titian. by Rubens. Altoviti. 24. 57 Furini. 229. 251. 78. Addison. 126. 200. 7. 180. by Raphael. Altissimo. Biliverti. 358. 292. 78. St. 115. 215. 347. Bindo. 201 . Aelst (Von). 364. 91 Sacrifice of . Abundance. 361. . 347. Albano. Annuncio. Angelico. Assumption. Ammanati. Durer. 107. 331. 89. Apollo and the Muses. 205. 243.

248. 292296. Pieta. 98. .. Botticelli. by. 21. by. Elizabeth Browning. Leonardo. ^7' and Job. Borghese Gallery. See Sodoma. 250. 369- Boccaccino. 328. Lucrezia of Ferrara. 193. Baccio. Andrea Abt Vogler. Boboli Gardens. Botti. Bushnell. 307. Barbizzi. 362. 160. 369. 287. Baldacchino. Paul. Bronzino. Pietro. 53. 168. 287. Baptism of Christ. Bella. . 295. Balia. by. 244 245. 62 . Fra 207. 312. Tobias and the Angel. 304. by. Benson. 43. 8 St. by. de Medici. Bril. 241. 120. by. 354. Isaiah Bourgognono. Giovanni da. by. 255. BandinelU. 42. i.. 232. 55. 224. 316. " Calumny.. 27. . Buonarotti. 329. . 49. 370. Buti. 241 Giov. 237. Cain and Abel. 233. 40. 102. Bartolini. 12. 199 See Courtois. Byron. 231 . 172. Cadore. Bacchino. Francesco I. Jerome. 38o •' irnbex Bologna. . 365. Bonifazio. 352. 15. ^33 Cosimo I. Madonna of the Roses. 18. Bartolommeo. Baldinucci. 298. 84 85-87^ 97. 345. of. 310. 58. . by. by Raphael. Repose in Egypt. 374. Baroccio. 8. by. rella. Bordone. 91 . 253. Portrait of Paul v. 266. 332. Robert. 69. Barbino. Ludolf. by Veronese. St. by ScarBiliverti. Browning. Byzantine Guide to Painting.. 197. 151. 177. 267 Pallas and Centaur. Bonaventure. 151. by. 9. Bazzi. B. by. Blanc. 122. 375- 19. Madonna of the. Cagnacci. 200. Charles. Brandt. 147. by Raphael. by. 270. Marc. Apollo and Marsyas. Belle Simonetta. 267. 57. by Titian. 2. Boccaccio. 154. 17. 369. Baldassare. Count. Bibiena. 259-267. 6. Christ in the House of 63 Mary and Martha. Lucrezia. by Botticelli. 371. Brunelleschi. 194. La. 11. Bellini. Enthroned. Constanza. 149. by Van Dyck. Matteo. Cardinal. 139. Bakhuisen.. " Cain " quoted. Virgin 199. Belle Simonetta. by. Compared with Raphael. Birth of a Noble Infant. 175- 2. 26. 123. 35. Buontalenti. Cardinal. 218. 30. 347. Bath-room. 238. by Costa. 320. by Veronese. Risen Christ. Horace. Daniel. Bentivoglio. 370. Assumption of the Magdalen. Madonna of the Rose-Bush. iii. by Schiavone. ** Bambocciata. 256. 252. by. Jan. 221.. cellino. by. Lippo. 365- 173. . 299. Pierre. 144. del Sarto. by. Cosimo I. by Dupr^. II. 62." by Franciabigio. 304. 226. 257 . 35. Paris. by. Calvart. Augustus and the Sibyl. 47 Catiline. Barbaro. Bentivoglio." 370. 264. Isabella. Tondo. 250. 125. Catherine. St. Bassano. . Sketch 259. Zinga- by. Botta. Burckhardt. Portrait of Federigo of Urbino by. 196. Both. Fra. 295. y Bianca Capello. 20." by Dossi. 254.

Deposition. Cattani. by. 66. 331. St. See Depo. by Andrea del Sarto. Clement VII. 155. by. 97 by Clovio. Charles II. 304> 321Christ. 354. . by. 192. 321. 44. 219. 140. by. Magdalen. 232. Crowe and . by. 73 on Titian's Magdalen. 115. 2331 Venus. Deposition. by Caracci. by Reni. 230. by Cigoli. III. 333. 133. by Carpi. by Veronese. . Christ Enthroned. Correggio Annibale. Deposition. Pietro da. Diocletian. 191. 127. by Dolci. Disputa. 180. 82 on Madonna of the Chair. Caravaggio. 306. Dante. 15. Castagno. 308. 230 on Titian's Christ. Dolci. 280. by. 233- Capello. by. Christ in the Garden. 121. by. Battle. Madonna. 126. P. by Rustici. 56. 65 Frescoes. Girolamo. Cavalcaselle. Credi. 294. Lorenzo. 122. de. " Treatise. sition. by Cigoli.. 301. 319. by.. 336-338.. no. Canova. 50. Oliver. Cellini. 166 on Portrait of Cardinal Bibiena. 314. 231. Peter. 197. 289. 49. Bianca. III. Lorenzo di. 214. 216. 204. Cortona. by Guido Reni. 195. and Henrietta Maria. on Ippolito de Medici. 219. by. 67 St. 94. Cigoli. 278. Corteccia. 281. Antonio. Cromwell. Holy Family. . 87 by Tintoretto. Adam and Eve. 340. Head of. Conti. 80. Andrea. 227. 214. on the Disputa. Christ in Garden. 314. Christ and Peter. 169. . Ecce Homo. 137. 318. by Van Dyck. 296-299. 290. Costa. 201. Martha. 286. Christ and His Mother. Henry II. Castiglione. Caracci. Sleeping Love. 41. Descent from Cross. Cologne. 35. 207. 210. 197. 176. 38. Pietro. 331. . Benvenuto. 360. by. Corridor of Columns. Napoleon. on the Donna by Titian. Corsini Palace. Clovio. 155. 230. Champaigne. 348. 212. 244. 269. Charles V. by. 225. Landscape. 231 on Al. Balthazar. 176. (Allegri). Crespi. Francis. 340. Andrew. 357. 33. 67. 226. by Sir Peter 262. 142. Conspiracy of Catiline. 320. on Titian's Bella. Crivelli. Canova.. 221. Courtois. Charity. Jacques. by. Carlo. Cerretani. 331. Don Giulio.. Castelfranco. 4." Cennino. by Salvator Rosa. Timothy. Christ in the House of Mary and Velata. on Leo X. by Rosa. 71. Carpi. 187. i. 9. 97. by Del Sarto. Diogenes. 212. by Bassano. Christ Enthroned. 186. bertinelli. 55. Cennini. 21. . 296. 289. 4. 297. 89. Lely. Campagnola. 301 by Perugino. Carpaccio. Charles I.. Cole. by. Clouet. 381 Cambi. 360. by. Cleopatra. ffn&ei Cambassi. St. 26. . Cosimo. Death of the Magdalen. 374.

Gentilleschi. and Gins. Ferri. Jan. St. Monaca. Federigo of Urbino. Conception. 364. 120. 8. by Sustermans. Garofolo. \ Farnese. 106. 25. 197. Luca and Silvestro. 330. Eleonora of Toledo. 225. 56. 355. 42. 324. 349-. by Raphael. 20. " Faerie Queene. 40. 175. 314. 365. Fontana. by Rubens. Zinga- Epiphany. . 200. Agnes." 266. by. Education of Jupiter. by Ghirlandajo. Sibyl." 45. John Asleep. Four Philosophers. 57-59. 158. MagArtemesia. 296. 137. . by. 6. Madonna. 287. 292-296. by. to. Adam and Eve. Fuseli. Nymph and Satyr. to. 280. 321. by. ascribed ascribed by. 171. 347. 128. 355. . 318. Carlo St. 320. 204. Monk at. 238. Fres- Ecce Homo. 225. Galileo. . Raphael's. 304. 129. Epiphany. iSenius of Art. 222. Giovanni. Finding of Moses. Monaca. by. Giorgione. 163. 351. 136. 283. ascribed Dupre. Filipepi. 270. Statues of Cain and Abel.. Eleonora of Urbino. 135. Frassinetti. Francis I. 8. 296. St. 333-352. Alexander. . Allegorical Subject. Fancelli. Dubbels. 206. Duplicity. 242 308 . 147. 287. 334. 297. Stanza of. by Pontormo. 328 Another Judith. Domenico. John Evangelist. 38. Gerini Gallery. Battle of Montemurlo. 140. Lavinia. Federigo of Denmark. by Cigoli. 309 Niccolo di St. St. Giov. Portraits of Anna Maria de Medici. 37. "Calumny. of France. 320. Judith. Dossi. by Pulzone. Francia. 353 202 St. Margaret. Flora. 135. 353. by. Ercolani. Franco. 159. . George. Venus and Satyr. by Sodoma. Ghirlandajo. by Pontormo. 349 Prospero. 361. 122. 347 . 261. Dosso. 198. Feti. 197 . Erasmus. 239. BorroFrancis meo.. rella. St. 81. Fornarina. Francesco Maria of Urbino. 382 Christ in Hn^cx Garden. 327." by. Duke of Marlborough. Goldsmith. Albert. dalen. 66. 352. 296-311. coes. by. 354. See Bibiena. 107. Donna Forty Saints. 31 1 Tolenta. 88. 55. 311. John on Patmos. by Salvator Rosa. no. 300. by Giorgione. by. Elector Palatine. Adam and Eve. Falier. Furini. Giordano. Durer. by Pinturicchio. 280. to. Eliot. Giovanni. 25. Immaculate Luca. Velata. 346. Cino. 53 . 1 Eleonora of Mantua. 70. 346. Dovizi. by. by Manfredi. Christ in the Garden. 98. Douwen. 316. St. by. 99. 23. 241. 194. 365. Xavier. 33. Fortune-Teller. St. the Clavichord. Gabbiani. 223. 235. Casimir. " Euridice. 60. Domenichino. 62. ^y. . Franciabigio. Stanza of. 192. by Riminaldi. 326.

Leonardo da Vinci. by Bronzino. Horner. Julius II. 297. 99. by Rubens. 327. La Henry 308. 177- Goldsmith. . St. by. 374. 3. Lanzi. 130-159. 343. by Raphael. 61 Raising of Tabitha. 40. Holbein. 137. 177. 46. Hawthorne. of S. Ligozzi. II. Laocoon. Hilliard. 141 smith. 369. Jameson. by Tintoretto. 109. 315. 232. 278 by Fra Lippo Lippi. 241. Henry. by Andrea del Sarto. 107. 83. 244. 235 274. 42. 42.. Henrietta Maria. by. on the Three Fates. Francis. quoted. 329. Hondecoeter. Stanza of. 172. 45. 169. by Vasari. Assumption. 119. 38 Hall of the. by Titian. 35. Judith. 137 on Sustermans. Mrs. 307. Huysuias. Marquis. 321-332. Gonzaga. Pllippino. Johanna of Austria. Gozzoli. by. 123. Inghirami. 298. Sebastian. of France. Kugler. 169. W. . 1n^CI Finding of 304Giotto. 177. Hare. France. D. 10. 6. Madonna of the. by. Lanfranco. 258. 189. Guidobaldo. by. 127. .. Justice. 258 by Palma Vecchio. Henry IV. Guiciardini.. 61 St. Holy Family. Leo X. 30. by Del Sarto. van. 320. 190. Nun. 319. 302. Libri. 235. . Hall of. by Raphael. Granduca Madonna. Fra Girolamo. Fontaine. by. GoldTreatise on Battle. Impannata. 375. 206- Moses. 245' 233' 332. 40. Duke of Norfolk. by. 360. 375.. Monna Leopold. 2^* 60. 29. Judgment of Paris. 256. 352.. 219.. 230. 350. Lisa. 324. 70. Howell. 362. 96. 71 289. 198 Susannah and the Elders. 370. 8. . portrait by Raphael. Guercino.89. by. 2. 44. Madonna della Rondinella. 121 by Luca Signorelli. iii. 297' 299. 134. 195. by Raphael. 68. Lippi. Joseph. 103. Tommaso. 353. Jupiter. Howells.. 320. 200 Iliad. 241. The. . 361. 113. J. by Allori. Prince of. 115. 314. 351. 328. . 7. James. 41. 256. by. 43. by Allori. Gravida. Leopold II. Honorius III. 171. Jesus Crowning Mary. Howard. 294. 370. 360. Leuchtenberg. 135. . 86. 201. 244. Life of Joseph. 147. 70. Holy Family. by. 303. 75. Guarini. Illumination. 214. Benozzo. 91 by Lorenzo di Credi. Apollo and Marsyas. 279. by Clouet. by Gentilleschi. 224. by. 124.. James. . 165. by. Giovio. Innocent IV. 179. 268. 292. 73. 242. . Giovanni da san Giovanni. 243. 302. . Lucrezia. 229. 339. by. 286. Kirkup. by Raphael.. St. 80. 157. 9. Grotius. G. Last Supper. 336. Inquisition.

231. Longfellow. 127. Marini. by Titian. 78. 218. Leopold de. 310. 300. 231. 202. School of Del Sarto. 229. 244 .. Ferdinand HI. 277. by Cigoli. by Raphael. 223. 81. Maratta. Francesco I. 332. 37 36* yiy 95» 147. 224. 24. 366. 99. Zuccari. 328. 371. by Mars. 8. Ippolito de. Sketch of. Portrait. 331 . Lorraine Family. 39. Sts. 137. Manfredi. 15. St. 2. 34. "Lives of the Painters. Hall of. 360. Mu- Ferdinand I.384 Lippi. 33.363. Bernadetto. . 107. 329. 76.. 253. . . 195. Return from the Hunt. 370. Lorenzo. Funeral of. by Murillo. Medici. 38. 195.. School of Bellini. 141 zino. 39. 268 Ferdinand II. 161. Lotto. 310. 339. . Anna Maria de. 244. by. 156. 34. 360. Philip Neri. Lucrezia. Aurelio. Lipsius. 238. 87. Manozzi. 81. by. 371. 14. 339. Madelena Doni. Manetti. Magdalen. 76. 372. 341. Don Garcia de. Magdalen. Luini. Marriage of Titian. 373. Catherine de. 100. 226. 371. 136.. . 99." by Parmigiano. 10. Marie Louise. Catherine. 229. 234.. by . 81. 35o» 362. Portrait of. iii. 12. 78. Mazzolini. 74. by. by Tintoretto. 160. 9. 95. 275. Marines. 374. 275. 309. Henry and Cunegunda. 267. Madonna Raphael. 44. •ffn&ex Mann. 317 another Del Sarto. 169. 1 58 by Perugino. imo I. 317. by 362. by Raphael. 37. 282. 144. 41. 40. Woman 270. of the 368. 226. iii. Carlo. 256.. by Gentilleschi. 268. 309. 39. Pomegranate. 238. 115. Gian Gaston de.." sari. by. 316. 352. by Rubens." 370. Massaccio. of the Rosary. Portrait of. . 170. 4 Madonna. Portrait of. by . quoted. 268. Madonna. 64. Mantegna. Louis XIII. Massaniello. 36. 96. St. Mancini.. Fra Lippo. 316. . Mary Queen of Scots. 24. " Madonna of the Long Neck. M7 Cosimo III. 24. by . 18. Cardinal Carlo de. 295. by Lippo Lippi. Taken in Adultery. 19. 7 1 . 361. Bart. 36. 309. by Salvator Rosa. 306. 226. Guercino. 198. Lucrezia of Ferrara. 76 Another Madonna. 180. Louvre Gallery. 39. by Va54. Lucian. by life of. 310. 60. 355. 32. 40. 252. by. Portrait and Madonna Madonna rillo. Dolci. 127. Mazzafirra. 41. 23. Cos. 122. Sir Horace. 52. 252-256. Luigi. 49. 225. 224. 99" Margutte. 82. 75. 87. Cornaro. 347. Madonna of the Chair. by Cigoli. Giulio de. 62. by Bron115. 291. by Del Sarto. Andrea. Mars Preparing for War. Madonna. 14. 88. 44. 348 70. 308. Luxemburg. 308 Cosimo. Julius de. Massimi. 146. 30. Maria Theresa. del Rondinella. 59. 100-129. 324. Cosimo II. 374. 242. Madonna della Lucertola. 155. 316. 93.. Maffei. by Bronzino. wife of Del Sarto.

49. Palma Giovane. Michelozzo. 16. Peace Burning the Arms of War. Parlamento. 142. by Gioigione. Monk at the Clavichord. Adam and Eve. by Rosa. irn6ei • 38s 321 . Pietro. Pietro Leopold. Noble. 177. C. 280. 7. 218. Parmigiano. Don Diego da. Morelli. Satyr. Nuremberg. 169. 214. and the Centaur." mosaic. Migna. 228. P e r u g 209 on Botticelli. to Ma- 76-78. by. " Pietra Dura. 364. 122. 70. 123. 146. 350. on Three Ages of Man. Petrucci. 73. Owen. 39. 30. 44. by Bordone. 138. . Origin of Italian. Lorenzo the Magnificent. Passavant. 18. National Gallery. 12. Mendoza.. 44. 122. 266. 24. Pallas 59. 90. J^ymph and tgz. 2. Parable of the Vine. Claude. by Domenico Feti. 176. 226. 357. Alex. 352. 54. Philip IL. Bastion. . by. 135. Motley. 323. 86. 49. 72. on the . 295. . Piero di Cosimo. by Passignano. 44. Padre. Jacopo. Pinamonte. 41. 37. 278. 36a ." Passerini. Monaca da (the Nun). 215. See Deposition. 58. 304 Magdalen. Deposition. 239 271. Monk at the Clavichord. 370. by Titian. 371. 232. Missisimi. 313. 15. 304. . 121. 18. 115. 360. Phillips. 52. 65. 297. 38. Ottaviano de. 206. Cosimo. Paris. 324. 320. by. 161. . 182. Parigi. 15. Mengs. Pieta. 15. 45. School of. Morone. 288. Napoleon. 287. 318. 17. Opera. 170. 39. 357. ascribed to. on Granduca donna.. of Money. Walter. 159. Clementi. 89. Cardinal. 11 Montalvo. 17. Papi. Virgin and Child. 226. 215. Lelio. 365. 360. Memmi. Moore. 338. Three Fates. 306. Pastorals. by Leonardo Vinci. 200. 362. A. 135 169. 261. 1. " Madonna of the exhibited in.. by Pozzo. by Velasquez. 73. by Canova. Advice a Prior. Nativity. Nativity. 148. Marie 367 Lucrezia de. by Bot365. 235. 304Philip IV. Orsini. 163. on the Granduca Madonna. 180. 58. Murillo. Paul v. 164. 171. 228. Mark. on the Vision of Ezekiel. Petrarch. 116. Muntz. Naples. 42. Orsi. Procaccino. 199. 375. Giorgione. Panciatichi. Pater. 93 2 i n o. 242. by Bassano. 175. 278. . 16. Michelangelo Buonarotti the Younger. 293. London. 320. 70. Prisoners. Long Neck. Minghetti. 73. 171. by ticelli. 54. 176. Peri. on the Zingarella. Michelangelo. 209: Abel 294. Milton. 259. Dr. Lippo. 264. 268. on Giorgione's Moses. 300. . 134. Palma Vecchio. Orvieto. Pescia. 66. Monaca. 178. 209. Titian. Opinion of.. 66 of the Lost Piece . Paul IIL. John. 44 de. 209. 136. on Botticelli. 268 Matteo de.

Battle of I. Nativity. Madonna Impannata. Pontormo. by Fra Bartolom- Poussin. 303 Four Examples of Polem232 rations . . Pugliese. 74 Impannata. 3. . 330. Piatt's " Italian . D up lie it y. berg. 17. 300 Angelo Doni. 296 Bacchus. Bar- tholomew. 339. . 352-357. 98. Donna Velata. Catiline. Poccianti. 86. 318. Pitti. 296. 326. Sebastiano del. by. 204 Epiphany. Three manners of. 62. 172 Vision of Ezekiel. 195. Madonna of the Chair. Apollo and the Muses. 169. 7 50. 291 Cain and Abel bought. 18-20. Guido. History and Building. 350. Caspar D. Cleopatra. Charity. . 69-70. 184. de Medici. 121. 225. 386 Pinturicchio. Pitti. 12. 4. 318 I. 142 . by Salvator Rosa.68. 223. CardiInghirami. by Romano. . 320.. Architecture. Return from the Hunt. Montemurlo. 23. 23. 69-74. Compared with Botticelli. Life of. Holy Family. Franz. See Sodoma. Piombo. by. 323- Razzi or Bazzi. 340. i. Re299. 246- Lucertola. 72 . Poet. 357.. 27 on. Polemberg. 205. 9-31 Public Offices held by. 75. 29 42. 144. 199. 4. 33. . Galleria. . Gardens. Stanza of. 374Poccetti. by. See Bassano. by. by. . 325. 300. 3. 37. 9-31 Fa9ade. Giulio. . 295 Clovio Francis I. 8. by. 60 . Ponte. Prometheus. Poet. the Diadem. 24 Fountain. . Buonacorso. 141 269 Decoby Cortona. 130. 38. 8. Ponte Trinita. Preaching of the Baptist. Rosa. 8. 109. 69 Madelena Doni. Procaccino. 362-369. 242. 75. 113. Leo X. . 366. 160 et seq. St. 8. 145. 2. . 47 characteristic picture by Veronese in. 75. . . Agatha. 318. Genius of Art. 59. See Francia. St. Rebecca at the Well. 159. by Reni. 321. 345. meo. Riminaldi. Allori. . Triumph. 315. Pordenone.. 346 St. 173. 71. 175 Gravida. 7174 Madonna of the Goldfinch. 186. Reni. by Van Dyck. 60. by Veronese. 32. 357-361. Porbus. 205. 175. Fortuna. . Building of Palace. 2. 42. 201. 88 Saskia. Pitti Palace. '^ni>cx 270. Ponte Vecchio. Presentation in the Temple. 75. in. 202. . Luca. 117. No 3. 10. Leandro da. 156. by Bordone. 19. 224. Forty Saints. 355 ments. Pulzone. 287. Repose lin Egypt.. 9. 359. 289. 236. 2. 167. Raphael. Vow of Marines. by. methods. 126. 302. 209. the Collection. 117. Ridolfi. Ribera. Home Anna Maria Royal Apart- Rembrandt. Defeat." 370. . 94 becca at the Well. 342. . Warrior. 82. 3. 140. Portrait of himself. 239. . . PuUi. Risen Christ. 264 . Battles. i. 227. Sala dei. of . . Salvator. 177. nal Bibiena. i. . Richelieu. 7. by Manozzi.. Granduca Madonna. Madonna . by. Madonna of the Baldacchino. Cecilia. 88. 1 14 Vision of Ezekiel. 44 Gallery . Peter. 22 Rustications 14 Garden Front. 351. 24. 65 Portrait of himself. . . . Portraits. by. Raibolini. Madonna of . 125. Martyrdom of St. visits. Julius II.

64. ascribed to. Luca. St. . 330 340. by Domenichino. 72 . 94. 152. on Allori's Judith. (No 215 225). 15. ' Rubens. by Ribera. 237 on Pous. 52. 283. 58 105' 157 . by Sebastian del Piombo. Rustici. 374. 62. 100-108 Ulysses. Andrea del. Scarcellino. by. Diogenes. on on Durer. 124.. St. 146. 10. 34. Sponsalizia. 13. Cardinal Luigi de. by Veronese. 106. . Rovere. Life of. 120. J. 329. John. by Bot- and tion his wife.. 266. 224. 22. Leader. Titian. Carlo Borromeo. on the Conspiracy of Catiline. 191. 136. Bacchanale. . Settignano. Spence. 352. Saturn. 121. 202. Valere de. 99. Scala. 130. on Pitti Palace. della. J Solyman. 11. 355 on Rubens. St. 157. Phillip. 147 Disputa. Fates. Rose. 108. 106. St. 328 on Canova. Astoldo. Hall of. . Francis. 352. St. Rosso Fiorentino. St. 227. B. 113. 160-205. Life of Joseph. Sodoma (Razzi or Bazzi). Agatha. Settignano. Scott. Emperor. 112. Sappho. St. 196. ir6. Agnes. Seneca. Benedict. 216. Vittoria della. Severi. 342 . 42. on Dolci. iii. 100. 225. 16. Rosso. Holy Family. Palazzo. 181 on Giorgione. 99 Portrait as a Vestal. Sistine Chapel. 150. 316. 60. Signoria. 202 . Soggi. 13. Ruthart. 58. 126. 328. Ruysch. Signoria. 148 186. Four Philosophers. Ruskin. 64. 9. 102. . Zanobi. . Rose-Bush. Spagnoletto. by Dolci. . of 150. St. Spanish Influence. 366. 323. . 189. by. Portrait of himself. 206 on Fra Angelico. Schiavone.. 345. Homo. 192. Rachel. Madonna ticelli. Annunciation. 106. 3. 53. by Allori. Agatha. on Salvator Rosa. 71. Holy Family. 25 82. 38. on Cupids and Angels. 191). . . sition. . 258. Matteo. Carl. Salembeni. 144. 61 Mars Preparing for War. Italian Painting. 59. . 66. 244. 134. on Veronese. Life of. 360. Ecce . 89. Niccolo. 2. 354. 230. Soderini. Francis. 158. •ffn^ex Peace Burning the Arms of War. 14. 85. Love. Rubens. 37. 303. Cain and Abel. 300. Portrait of himself of. Augustine. on Luca Pitti. 387 87 . 327. Rudolf. 201. 342. by Caravaggio. 148. Sacrifice of Abraham. Depo- St. 17. 98. on on St. 200. Salviati. Peter Paul. Shakespeare. Casimir. Signorelli. 352 Landscapes. sin. " Patience. 375. Giov. by Piombo. 317. 272. Bartholomew. by." by. 244. Sabatelli. 202. 7. The. by 279. 175 . Sleeping 221. 60. by Manetti. 369. 247 on Pinturicchio. Savonarola. Holy Family. 275 by Sustermans and Dolci. the Virgin (No. G. John the Baptist. St.. Sarto. 121. Schlegel. on Perugino. Roselli. 308. 23. 126. Assump: Rossi. or' Raphael. 60.

207. Mendoza. . 290-296. by Sarto. 35. Cecilia. Sebastian. and the Elders. 108. by in a Grotto. St. 137. St. 55. 217. John Asleep. 112. by 126. 1[n^ex Susannah St. 311St. St. 46. 241. 349St. in. 102 . Cigoli. by. by Bordone. 306 Virgin. St. 49. 131. 127 Another. 189. Madonna of the Chair. 179. 194. 3. 90. 65. J. George. Rosa. Theophilus. 56. Jerome in the 57> Forest. 20. 300 Deposition.. Joseph. St. St. by. by. 52. 349. 311.. 95. 51-57. 314 . by. Paradise and Crucifixion. 170. 61. J. 121 Assumption. Marriage of 40. by Dolci. Temptation of St. Swanevelt. by Palma Vecchio. by Allori. 132. 358. Venus and Tintoretto. 332. by Ligozzi. St. 216. John Preaching. by. by Pietro da Cor. Vulcan. 317. Taine. 91. Baptist. St. 109. by Rubens. Duke of Norfolk. 8. by Lotto. Catherine. St. Strachey. Peter. 122. 90. Stillman. by Fra Bartolommeo. by Dolci. Supper at Emmaus. by Veronese. 94. by. 360. Federigo of Denmark. Rosa. of. by.. 7. Niccolo de Bari. Symonds. St. 3"St. 242. 129. in Venice. Reparata. by Dolci. by. 51 102 Luigi Cornaro. St. in Pietro Magdalen. 79. 135. Vittoria Rovere. by Maratta. . 51 by Vasari. 195. . . Jerome. by Dolci. by.. 126. by. Mancini. 360. Monaca. 196. 78. Cunegunda. 339 Madonna. by. . 209. Sts. Margaret. 224. Stufa. John St. . A. Niccolo de Tolenta. 303. 6. . Teniel. 81 Aretino. 99. Titian. John Evangelist. 329. 238. Strozzi. 345 . Tennyson. Marc. Tassi. Guido Reni. St. 47. by Bassano. 96. 225. Francis Xavier. 70. by Guercino. Margaret of Cortona. 193. St. Andrea Vesalius. 309. 136. . St. by Calvart. 47. 201. 192. by. by. 224. Tiarini. by 239» 332. by. 2. Henry and Cunegunda. by Dolci. 320. Bella. Raising 96. 7 tona. Domenico St. by Riminaldi. by Tintoretto. Peter Martyr. Philip II. 78 . 2. 63. by Tassi. 68. 146. 332. Philip Neri. Martino. . Stanza della. Three Ages of Man. 248. . John. by Dolci. 244. 22. 374. 197. John in the Desert. by Guercino. St. 132 193. 205. Tacca. St. Cosimo III. Tiberio Tito. St. 226. 154. by Allori. 180. St. Francis. Howard. 244. 354St. 359. Adam and Eve. Three Maries. by. 316. by. 275. John on Patmos. 226. Ferdinand II. 51. .Tinelli. by. St. by Guercino. by^ . Catherine. 163. by. 332. 315. 311. Tempera painting. 46. by Dolci. 316. Henry. 388 St. St. by.. by Michelangelo. Tasso. 9. by. Sustermans. Three Fates. by Dolci. 262. St. 309. Julian. by Tabitha. by Guercino.. 324. St. Anthony. 226. by. St.

Venice. dren. . 46. 300 Two Chil. Tolstoi. * Treatise on 315. Veneziano. 133. . 79. 223. Virgin. 325. . . Zuccari. 77. Enthroned. 300 320. 2. 130-134. 141. 304.. Zingarella. Bridge. by. Vivarini. 20. 102. Baptism of . Christ. Virgin Van der Werff.36. Venus and Satyrs. 231. Warrior. 283. . 80. Uffizi. by. in Egypt. 90. Vatican. 275. Hall of. 61. by. Octavio. Vincenzio of Mantua. on Perugino. Viterbo. 389 . Venus. 130. Victor Emmanuele. 47. 311. 8. by Domenichino. Virgin and 239- Child. 252 on Botti. 150. Jacopo. 335. 137. 360. by Boccaccino. by. Ulysses. 169. 320. 195. 312-321. Stanza of. Vasari. 368. 223. 364. 284-285 on Clovio. 227 Barbaro. 155. by. by Roselli. 304.109. 53. 121. 60. 221 St. Ippolito de Medici. Christ. Magdalen. 370 Estimate of. . lori. Venus de Medici. 319 Repose . 225. 132 Christ and Mary. by. 90. Walpole. Tornabuoni. 218. 123. by Titian. 59. . 192. 47. .. by. 50. Viollet le Due. 35. by Tintoretto. Vesalius. 341. Zelotti. 39. Triumph of David. Andrea. by. 325Ulysses. Velasquez. 120. 277. " Treatise on Painting. Vignole. 46-67. 236 on Parmigiano. del 199. by Mazzolini. 303 319. School of Del Sarto. celli. Pieta. 369. by Rubens. 251. Marriage in Cana. by. Cardinal 122 177." by Al- Veronese. Bentivoglio. 197. 181 on Giorgione. 279. 47. 90. Grotto. 56. Venus and Vulcan. Vinci. 239. 321 Madonna. Disputa. fn&ci 228. 241 F 1 o r a. St. Volterrano. 339. 243 on Lippi. 167. 173Vitelli. Wife of Veronese. 297 298 264 School of. 72. Tobias. 267. . 40." Leonardo. 49. by Perugino. 315. Tribolo. 16. 193 . 236. 54. " Turner. 6. Torentino. . . 57 His Wife. on Ghirlandajo. Madonna Arpie. 321. 21.115. . 176. Sacred and Profane Love. Vanni. Woltmann and Woermann. 190. by Raphael. Philip IV. by Biliverti. 184. 84. 131 Three Maries. Timoteo. 353. 64. 196. Venus de Milo. by. 74. 308. 237. . See Leonardo. Triptych.56. 250. . Viti. Salvator Rosa. 42. Van Dyck. . Anatomy. 228. Jerome. 350. by Fra Angelico. by Tintoretto. Benedict. 238 Presentation in the Temple. Voyage in Italy. 304." by Style. Woman Taken in Adultery. 193. by Fra Bartolommeo. 229. Deposition. 55. 87. Fates. 47. Vision of Ezekiel. 102. . Frescoes. on Sodoma. 128-129. . 375.

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200i^ Brigham Young University . SLC.Harold B. APR 2 8 200ft APR 1 ^ . UT 4/26/05 91 Date Due All library items are subject to recall at anj time. Lee Libra 3 1197 21166 2140 Utah Bookbinding Co.

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