6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Small Signal Circuits

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 11

1

Review:
Small signal notation vA = VA + va total operating point small signal

vOUT = f (vI ) d f (vI ) ⋅ vi vout = dv I v I =VI VS vI = VI + vi vi
VI RL

+ – + –
Lecture 11

vO = VO + vo

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Review:
I Graphical view (using transfer function)

vO
behaves linear for small perturbations

vI

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 11

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Review:
II Mathematical view

K (vI − VT ) vO = VS − RL 2
2

V − K (v − V )2 R  T L d  S 2 I   vo = dv I
v I =VI

⋅ vi

vo = − K (VI − VT ) RL ⋅ vi gm
related to VI constant for fixed DC bias

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Lecture 11

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How to choose the bias point, using yet another graphical view based on the load line
i DS
i DS < K 2 vO 2

Demo

V v i DS = S − O load line RL RL

input signal response VI
vO
v I = VT

VO

− 1 + 1 + 2 KR LV S v I = VT + KR L

Choosing a bias point: 1. Gain

g m RL ∝ VI

2. Input valid operating range for amp. 3. Bias to select gain and input swing.
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III The Small Signal Circuit View
We can derive small circuit equivalent models for our devices, and thereby conduct small signal analysis directly on circuits e.g. large signal circuit model for amp

R

vI + –

vOUT K 2 iD = (vI − VT ) 2

VS

+ – 1

We can replace large signal models with small signal circuit models. Foundations: Section 8.2.1 and also in the last slide in this lecture.

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Lecture 11

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Small Signal Circuit Analysis
1 2 3 Find operating point using DC bias inputs using large signal model. Develop small signal (linearized) models for elements. Replace original elements with small signal models.

Analyze resulting linearized circuit… Key: Can use superposition and other linear circuit tools with linearized circuit!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 11

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Small Signal Models
A MOSFET

large signal

vGS

D iDS = K (vGS − VT )2 2

Small signal?

S

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 11

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Small Signal Models
A MOSFET

large signal

vGS

D iDS = S K (vGS − VT )2 2

Small signal: K 2 iDS = (vGS − VT ) 2

∂ ids = ∂vGS

 K (v − V )2  ⋅ v gs T  2 GS    vGS =VGS ids is linear in vgs !

ids = K (VGS − VT ) ⋅ v gs gm
small signal

v gs

D ids = K (VGS − VT ) v gs S ids = g m v gs
9

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 11

B

DC Supply VS

large signal

iS
+ vS = VS –

vS = VS

Small signal

∂VS vs = ∂iS is + vs – vs = 0

⋅ is
iS = I S

DC source behaves as short to small signals.

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Lecture 11

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C

Similarly, R
iR + vR R – v R = R iR

large signal

vr =

∂ ( RiR ) ⋅ ir ∂iR iR = I R

vr = R ⋅ ir

small signal

ir + vr R –

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Lecture 11

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Amplifier example:
Large signal
RL vO

Small signal + V – S + vi –
RL vo

+ v – I

iDS

ids

iDS

K 2 = (vI − VT ) 2 K (vI − VT )2 RL 2

ids = K (VI − VT ) ⋅ vi ids RL + vo = 0 vo = −ids RL vo = − K (VI − VT )RL ⋅ vi = − g m RL ⋅ vi

vO = VS −

Notice, first we need to find operating point voltages/currents. Get these from a large signal analysis.
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To find the relationship between the small signal parameters of a circuit, we can replace large signal device models with corresponding small signal device models, and then analyze the resulting small signal circuit.

III The Small Signal Circuit View

Foundations: (Also see section 8.2.1 of A&L) KVL, KCL applied to some circuit C yields:

+ vA +

+ vOUT +

+ vB +

1

Replace total variables with operating point variables plus small signal variables

+ VA + v a

+ VOUT + vout + VB + vb +

Operating point variables themselves satisfy the same KVL, KCL equations

+ VA
Leaving

+ VOUT

+ VB

+

so, we can cancel them out

+ va

+ vout

+ vb +

2

But 2 is the same equation as 1 with small signal variables replacing total variables, so 2 must reflect same topology as in C, except that small signal models are used. Since small signal models are linear, our linear tools will now apply…

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Lecture 11

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