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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Small Signal Circuits

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 1


Review:
„ Small signal notation
vA = VA + va

total operating small


point signal

„ vOUT = f (vI )
d
vout = f (vI ) ⋅ vi
dv I v I =VI

VS
„
vI = VI + vi RL
vO = VO + vo
vi +

VI +

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 2


Review:
I Graphical view
(using transfer function)
vO

behaves linear
for small
perturbations

vI

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 3


Review:

II Mathematical view

K (vI − VT )
2
vO = VS − RL
2
V − K (v − V )2 R 
d  S 2 I T L

vo = ⋅ vi
dv I
v I =VI

vo = − K (VI − VT ) RL ⋅ vi
gm related to VI
constant for fixed
DC bias

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 4


How to choose the bias point,
using yet another graphical view
based on the load line Demo
i DS
K 2
i DS < vO
2
V S vO
load line DS R − R
i =
L L

input signal
response
VI

vO
VO
v I = VT
− 1 + 1 + 2 KR LV S
v I = VT +
KR L

Choosing a bias point:

1. Gain g m RL ∝ VI
2. Input valid operating range for amp.
3. Bias to select gain and input swing.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 5


III The Small Signal Circuit View
We can derive small circuit equivalent
models for our devices, and thereby conduct
small signal analysis directly on circuits
e.g. large signal
circuit model
for amp R +
VS
vOUT –
K
iD = (vI − VT )
2
vI +
– 1
2

We can replace large signal models with


small signal circuit models.
Foundations: Section 8.2.1 and also in the
last slide in this lecture.

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Small Signal Circuit Analysis

1 Find operating point using DC bias


inputs using large signal model.

2 Develop small signal (linearized)


models for elements.

3 Replace original elements with small


signal models.

Analyze resulting linearized circuit…


Key: Can use superposition and other
linear circuit tools with linearized
circuit!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 7


Small Signal Models
A MOSFET
D
large vGS K
signal iDS = (vGS − VT )2
2
S
Small signal?

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 8


Small Signal Models
A MOSFET
D
large vGS K
signal iDS = (vGS − VT )2
2
S
Small signal:
K
iDS = (vGS − VT )
2

2
∂  K (v − V )2 
ids =  2 GS T  ⋅ v gs
∂vGS vGS =VGS

ids = K (VGS − VT ) ⋅ v gs ids is linear in vgs !


gm
D
small v gs
signal ids = K (VGS − VT ) v gs
ids = g m v gs
S
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 9
B DC Supply VS

vS = VS
large iS
signal + vS = VS

Small signal ∂VS


vs = ⋅ is
∂iS iS = I S

is +
vs vs = 0

DC source behaves
as short to small
signals.

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C Similarly, R

large iR + v R = R iR
vR
signal R – ∂ ( RiR )
vr = ⋅ ir
∂iR iR = I R
vr = R ⋅ ir

ir +
small vr
signal R –

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Amplifier example:
Large signal Small signal

RL + V RL
vO – S vo
+ v iDS + vi ids
– I –

K
= (vI − VT ) ids = K (VI − VT ) ⋅ vi
2
iDS
2
ids RL + vo = 0
K
vO = VS − (vI − VT )2 RL
2 vo = −ids RL
vo = − K (VI − VT )RL ⋅ vi
= − g m RL ⋅ vi

Notice, first we need to find operating


point voltages/currents.
Get these from a large signal analysis.

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III The Small Signal Circuit View
To find the relationship between the small signal parameters of
a circuit, we can replace large signal device models with
corresponding small signal device models, and then analyze the
resulting small signal circuit.

Foundations: (Also see section 8.2.1 of A&L)


KVL, KCL applied to some circuit C yields:
" + v A + " + vOUT + " + vB + " 1

Replace total variables with


operating point variables plus small signal variables
" + VA + v a " + VOUT + vout + VB + vb + "
Operating point variables themselves satisfy the
same KVL, KCL equations
" + VA " + VOUT + VB +"
so, we can cancel them out
Leaving
" + va " + vout + vb + " 2

But 2 is the same equation as 1 with small signal


variables replacing total variables, so 2 must reflect same
topology as in C, except that small signal models are used.

Since small signal models are linear, our linear tools will now
apply…

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 11 13