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VIJAY AGARWAL PHYSICS CLASSES

THERMOMETRY THERMAL EXPANSION AND CALORIMETRY

THEORY AND SOLVED QUESTIONS

4/14/2013

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 57

12.1 Heat.
T he energy associ ated wi th confi gurati on and random motion of the atomsand moleculeswi th i n a body i scalled
i nternal energy and the part of thisi nternal energy which istransferred from one body to the other due to temperature
di fference i scalled heat.
( 1) Asit is a type of energy, it i sa scalar.
( 2) Di mensi on : ] [
2 2
T ML .
( 3) Units: J oule ( S.I .) and calorie ( Practical uni t)
O ne calori e isdefi ned asthe amount of heat energy requi red to raise the temperature of one gm of water through
1C ( more speci fi cally from 14.5
o
C to 15.5C) .
( 4) Asheat i sa form of energy i t can be transformed into othersand vice-versa.
e.g. Thermocouple converts heat energy into electrical energy, resi stor converts electrical energy into heat energy.
Friction convertsmechanical energy into heat energy. Heat engine convertsheat energy into mechanical energy.
H ere i t i si mportant that whole of mechanical energy i.e. work can be converted into heat but whole of heat can
never be converted into work.
( 5) When mechani cal energy ( work) i s converted into heat, the rati o of work done ( W) to heat produced ( Q)
alwaysremai nsthe same and constant, represented by J .
J
Q
W
= or W = J Q
J i s called mechanical equi valent of heat and has value 4.2 J /cal. J is not a physi cal quantity but a conversion
factor whi ch merely expressthe equi valence between J oule and calories.
1 calorie = 4.186 J oule 4.12 J oule
( 6) Work i sthe transfer of mechanical energy i rrespecti ve of temperature difference, whereasheat isthe transfer of
thermal energy because of temperature difference only.
( 7) G enerally, the temperature of a body riseswhen heat i s suppli ed to i t. H owever the following two si tuati ons
are also found to exist.
( i) When heat i ssuppli ed to a body ei ther at i tsmelting poi nt or boili ng point, the temperature of the body does
not change. I n thi ssi tuati on, heat supplied to the body i sused up i n changi ng itsstate.
( ii ) When the liquid i n a thermos flask is vigorously shaken or gas in a cyli nder i s suddenly compressed, the
temperature of li qui d or gas gets rai sed even without supplying heat. I n this si tuation, work done on the system
becomesa source of heat energy.
( 8) T he heat lost or gai ned by a system dependsnot only on the i ni tial and fi nal states, but also on the path taken
up by the process i.e. heat i s a path dependent and i s taken to be positi ve i f the system absorbs i t and negative if
releasesit.

58 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
12.2 Temperature.
T emperature i s defi ned as the degree of hotness or coldness of a body. T he natural flow of heat i s from higher
temperature to lower temperature.
T wo bodiesare said to be in thermal equili bri um with each other, when no heat flowsfrom one body to the other.
T hat i swhen both the bodiesare at the same temperature.
( 1) T emperature i sone of the seven fundamental quanti ti eswi th di mensi on [u ] .
( 2) I t i s a scalar physical quanti ty wi th S.I . uni t kelvi n.
( 3) When heat i sgi ven to a body and itsstate doesnot change, the temperature of the body ri sesand if heat i s
taken from a body i ts temperature falls i.e. temperature can be regarded asthe effect of cause heat .
( 4) According to kineti c theory of gases, temperature ( macroscopic physi cal quanti ty) i s a measure of average
translati onal kinetic energy of a molecule ( mi croscopic physi cal quanti ty) .
T emperature ki neti c energy
(

= RT E
2
3
As
( 5) Although the temperature of a body can to be raised wi thout li mi t, it cannot be lowered wi thout li mi t and
theoreti cally li miti ng low temperature i staken to be zero of the kelvi n scale.
( 6) H i ghest possible temperature achieved in laboratory isabout 10
8
K while lowest possi ble temperature attai ned
i s10
8
K.
( 7) Branch of physi cs deali ng wi th producti on and measurement of temperatures close to 0K is known as
cryogenicswhile that dealing wi th the measurement of very hi gh temperature iscalled aspyrometry.
( 8) T emperature of the core of the sun i s10
7
K whi le that of i ts surface is 6000 K.
( 9) Normal temperature of human body i s310.15 K ( 37C = 98.6F) .
( 10) NT P or ST P i mplies273.15K ( 0C = 32F)
12.3 Scales of Temperature.
T he Kelvi n temperature scale i salso known asthermodynamic scale. T he S. I . uni t of temperature i s kelvin and
i sdefi ned as( 1/273.16) of the temperature of the triple poi nt of water. T he tri ple point of water i sthat poi nt on a P-T
di agram where the three phasesof water, the soli d, the li qui d and the gas, can coexist i n equi li brium.
I n additi on to kelvin temperature scale, there are other temperature scalesalso like Celsius, Fahrenhei t, Reaumer,
Rankine etc.
T o construct a scale of temperature, two fi xed poi ntsare taken. Fi rst fi xed poi nt i sthe freezing poi nt of water, i t i s
called lower fi xed point. T he second fixed point i sthe boili ng point of water, i t i scalled upper fi xed point.

Name of the
scale
Symbol for
each degree
Lower fixed
point (LFP)
Upper fixed
point (UFP)
Number of divisions on
the scale

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 59
Celsius C 0C 100C 100
Fahrenhei t F 32F 212F 180
Reaumer R 0R 80R 80
Ranki ne Ra 460 Ra 672 Ra 212
K elvin K 273.15 K 373.15 K 100

T emperature on one scale can be converted i nto other scale by usi ng the followi ng i dentity.
scales all for Constant
(LFP) point fixed Lower (UFP) point fixed Upper
(LFP) point fixed Lower scale any on Reading
=

460 672
460
0 80
0
15 . 273 15 . 373
15 . 273
32 212
32
100
0

=
Ra R K F C

or
6 . 10
460
4 5
273
9
32
5

= =

=
Ra R K F C

12.4 Thermometry.
An i nstrument used to measure the temperature of a body iscalled a thermometer.
T he li near variation i n some physical property of a substance wi th change of temperature i sthe basi c pri nciple of
thermometry and these propertiesare defi ned asthermometri c property ( x) of the substance.
x may be ( i) Length of li qui d i n capi llary
( ii ) Pressure of gasat constant volume.
( ii i ) Volume of gasat constant pressure.
( iv) Resi stance of a gi ven platinum wi re.
I n old thermometry, two arbi trari ly fi xed pointsi ce and steam poi nt ( freezi ng point and boi ling poi nt at 1 atm) are
taken to define the temperature scale. In celsi usscale freezi ng point of water i sassumed to be 0C whi le boi ling point
100C and the temperature i nterval between these isdivi ded i nto 100 equal parts.
So i f the thermometri c property at temperature 0C, 100C and T
c
C i sx
0
, x
100
and x respecti vely then by linear
vari ati on ( y = mx + c) we can say that
b ax + =
0
0 ..( i) b ax + =
100
100 ..( ii ) b ax T
c
+ = ..( ii i )
From these equati ons
0 100
0
0 100
0
x x
x x T
c

x x
x x
T
c

= 100
0 100
0

I n modern thermometry instead of two fi xed points only one reference point is chosen ( tri ple poi nt of water
273.16 K at which i ce, water and water vapours co-exi st) the other is i tself 0 K where the value of thermometri c
property i sassumed to be zero.

60 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
So i f the value of thermometri c property at 0 K, 273.16 K and T
K
K i s 0, x
Tr
and x respecti vely then by linear
vari ati on ( y = mx + c) we can say that
b a + = 0 0 ..( i) b x a
r
T
+ = 16 . 273 ..( ii ) b x a T
K
+ = ..( ii i )
From these equati on
Tr
K
x
x T
=
16 . 273

kelvin
x
x
T
Tr
K (

= 16 . 273
12.5 Thermometers.
A thermometer is an instrument used to measure the temperature of a body. It works by absorbing some heat
from the body, so the temperature recorded by i t i s lesser than the actual value unless the body i s at constant
temperature. Some common typesof thermometersare :
( 1) Liquid thermometers : I n liquid thermometers mercury i s preferred over other li quids as i ts expansi on is
large and uni form and i t hashi gh thermal conducti vi ty and low specifi c heat.
( i) Range of temperature :
oi nt) ( boi li ng p poi nt) ( freezi ng
350 to 50 C
( ii ) Upper li mit of range of mercury thermometer can be raised upto 550C by fi lli ng ni trogen in space over
mercury under pressure ( which elevatesboili ng poi nt of mercury) .
( ii i ) M ercury thermometer with cylindri cal bulbsare more sensi ti ve than those wi th spherical bulbs.
( iv) I f alcohol i sused i nstead of mercury then range of temperature measurement becomes 80C to 350C
( v) Formula : C
l l
l l
T
c

= 100
0 100
0

( 2) Gas thermometers : T hese are of two types
( i) Constant pressure gas thermometers
( a) Pri nciple V T
K
( if P = constant)
V V
V V
T
t
c

= 100
0 100
0
or kelvin
V
V
T
Tr
K
16 . 273 =
( ii ) Constant volume gas thermometers
( a) Pri nciple P T
K
( if V = constant)
P P
P P
T
c

= 100
0 100
0
or kelvin
P
P
T
Tr
K
16 . 273 =
( c) Range of temperature : H ydrogen gasthermometer 200 to 500C
Ni trogen gasthermometer 200 to 1600C
H eli um gasthermometer 268 to 500C
( d) These are more sensitive and accurate than liquid thermometersasexpansion of gasesismore than that of liquids.
( 3) Resistance thermometers : Resi stance of metalsvarieswi th temperature accordi ng to relati on.

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 61
) 1 (
0 c
T R R o + = where o i sthe temperature coeffi ci ent of resi stance.
Usually plati num i sused i n resi stance thermometersdue to high melting point and large value of o.
R R
R R
T
c

= 100
0 100
0
or kelvin
R
R
T
Tr
K
16 . 273 =
( ii ) T emperature range : Platinum resi stance thermometer = 200C to 1200C
G ermanium resi stance thermometer = 4 to 77 K
( 4) Thermoelectric thermometers : These are based on Seebeck effect according to whi ch when two di sti nct
metalsare j oined to form a closed ci rcui t called thermocouple and the di fference in temperature ismai ntai ned between
thei r j uncti ons, an emf i s developed. T he emf i s called thermo-emf and if one juncti on i s at 0C, i t vari es wi th
temperature as
2
c c
bT aT e + = where a and b are constants.
T emperature range : Copper-iron thermocouple 0C to 260C
I ron-constantan thermocouple 0C to 800C
T ungsten-molybdenum thermocouple 2000
o
C to 3000C
( 5) Pyrometers : T hese are the devicesused to measure the temperature by measuri ng the i ntensi ty of radi ati ons
received from the body. T hey are based on the fact that the amount of radi ati onsemi tted from a body per uni t area per
second i sdi rectly proporti onal to the fourth power of temperature ( Stefan slaw) .
( i) T hese can be used to measure temperaturesranging from 800C to 4000C.
( ii) T hey cannot measure temperature below 800C because the amount of radiationsistoo small to be measured.
( 6) Vapour pressure thermometer : T hese are used to measure very low temperatures. T hey are based on the
fact that saturated vapour pressure P of a li qui d dependson the temperature according to the relati on

K
K
T
c
bT a P + + = log
T he range of these thermometersvari esfrom 120 K to 0.71 K for different li quid vapours.
Sample problems based on Thermometry
Problem 1. T he graph AB shown in fi gure i sa plot of temperature of a body in degree celsi usand degree Fahrenhei t. T hen

( a) Slope of li ne AB i s9/5
( b) Slope of li ne AB i s5/9
( c) Slope of li ne AB i s1/9
( d) Slope of li ne AB i s3/9
Solution : ( b) Relation between Celsi usand Fahrenhei t scale of temperature i s
9
32
5

=
F C

C
e
n
t
i
g
r
a
d
e

100 C
32 F 212F Fahrenheit
A
B

62 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
By rearranging we get, C =
9
160
9
5
F
By equating above equati on wi th standard equation of line c mx y + = we get
9
5
= m and
9
160
= c
i.e. Slope of the li ne AB i s
9
5
.
Problem 2. T he freezing point on a thermometer i smarked as20 and the boi li ng point at as150. A temperature of 60C on
thi sthermometer wi ll be read as
( a) 40 ( b) 65 ( c) 98 ( d) 110
Solution : ( c) T emperature on any scale can be converted i nto other scale by
LFP UFP
LFP X

= Constant for all scales

o
C X
0 100
0
20 150
20

=

X = +

20
100
130 C
= = +

98 20
100
130 60

Problem 3. A thermometer i sgraduated i n mm. I t regi sters 3mm when the bulb of thermometer i si n pure melti ng ice and
22mm when the thermometer i sin steam at a pressure of one atm. T he temperature in C when the thermometer
regi sters13mm i s
( a) 100
25
13
( b) 100
25
16
( c) 100
22
13
( d) 100
22
16

Solution : ( b) For a constant volume gasthermometer temperature i n centigrade i sgi ven as
C
P P
P P
T
c

= 100
0 100
0
100
25
16
100
) 3 ( 22
) 3 ( 13
=

= C T
c

Problem 4. T he temperature coeffi cient of resi stance of a wi re is0.00125 per C. At 300K i tsresistance i s1O. T he resi stance
of wi re will be 2O at
( a) 1154K ( b) 1100K ( c) 1400K ( d) 1127K
Solution : ( d) Resi stance of wire varieswi th temperature asR = ) 1 (
0 c
T R o + where o i stemperature coeffici ent of resi stance

2
1
) 1 (
) 27 1 (
0
0 27
=
+
+
=
c T
T R
R
R
R
c
o
o

c
T =
o
o 54 1+
=
00125 . 0
00125 . 0 54 1 +
= 854C

K
T = K 1127 ) 273 854 ( = + = 1127 K.
12.6 Thermal Expansion.
When matter i s heated wi thout any change in state, i t usually expands. According to atomi c theory of matter, a
symmetry i n potential energy curve i sresponsible for thermal expansion. As with rise in temperature the ampli tude of
vi brati on and hence energy of atomsi ncreases, hence the average distance between the atomsi ncreases. So the matter
asa whole expands.
( 1) T hermal expansi on i smi ni mum in case of soli dsbut maxi mum i n case of gasesbecause i ntermolecular force i s
maximum i n solidsbut mi ni mum in gases.
( 2) Solids can expand in one di mensi on ( li near expansi on) , two di mensi on ( superfi ci al expansi on) and three
di mensi on ( volume expansi on) whi le li quidsand gasesusually sufferschange in volume only.
( 3) T he coeffi ci ent of li near expansion of the materi al of a soli d is defi ned as the increase i n i ts length per unit
length per uni t rise i n i ts temperature.

T L
L
A

A
=
1
o

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 63
Simi larly the coeffi ci ent of superfi cial expansi on
T A
A
A

A
=
1
|
and coeffi cient of volume expansi on
T V
V
A

A
=
1

T he value of o, | and dependsupon the nature of materi al. All have di mensi on ] [
1
u and uni t per C.
( 4) As
T L
L
A

A
=
1
o ,
T A
A
A

A
=
1
| and
T V
V
A

A
=
1

T L L A = A o , T A A A = A | and T V V A = A
Final length ) 1 ( T L L L L A + = A + = ' o ..( i)
Final area ) 1 ( T A A A A A + = A + = ' | ..( ii )
Final volume ) 1 ( T V V V V A + = A + = ' ..( ii i )
( 5) I f L i sthe si de of square plate and it i s heated by temperature AT, then itssi de becomesL'.
T he i ni ti al surface area
2
L A = and fi nal surface
2
L A ' = '
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
2
2 2
T T
L
T L
L
L
A
A
A + = A + = |
.
|

\
| A +
= |
.
|

\
|
'
=
'
o o
o
[ Using Bi nomi al theorem]
or ) 2 1 ( T A A A + = ' o
Compari ng wi th equation ( i i ) we get | = 2o
Similarly for volumetric expansion ) 3 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 (
3
3 3
T T
L
T L
L
L
V
V
A + = A + = |
.
|

\
| A +
= |
.
|

\
|
'
=
'
o o
o
[Using Binomial theorem]
or ) 1 ( T V V A + = '
Compari ng wi th equation ( i i i) , we get o 3 =
So 3 : 2 : 1 : : = | o
( i ) H ence for the same ri se i n temperature
Percentage change i n area = 2 percentage change i n length.
Percentage change i n volume = 3 percentage change i n length.
( i i) T he three coeffici entsof expansi on are not constant for a gi ven soli d. T hei r valuesdependson the temperature
range in which they are measured.
( i ii ) T he valuesof o, |, are i ndependent of the uni tsof length, area and volume respecti vely.
( i v) For ani sotropic solids
z y x
o o o + + = where o
x
, o
y
, and o
z
represent the mean coefficients of linear
expansi on along three mutually perpendicular di recti ons.

Material [K
1
or (C)
1
] [K
1
or (C)
1
]
Steel 1.2 10
5
3.6 10
5

Copper 1.7 10
5
5.1 10
5

Brass 2.0 10
5
6.0 10
5

64 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Aluminium 2.4 10
5
7.2 10
5

12.7 Variation of Density With Temperature.
M ost substancesexpand when they are heated, i.e., volume of a gi ven massof a substance i ncreaseson heati ng,
so the densi ty should decrease |
.
|

\
|

V
1
as .

V
m
= or
V
1

T T V V
V
V V
V
V
V
A +
=
A +
=
A +
=
'
=
'

1
1
( For a gi ven mass)
or
T A +
= '

1
1
) 1 (

A + = T = ) 1 ( T A [ As i ssmall usi ng Binomi al theorem]
) 1 ( ' T A =
Sample problems based on Thermal expansion of solid
Problem 5. T he desi gn of a physi cal instrument requiresthat there be a constant di fference in length of 10 cm between an i ron
rod and a copper cyli nder laid side by side at all temperatures. I f
1 6
10 11

= C
Fe
o and
1 6
10 17

= C
cu
o ,
thei r lengthsare
( a) 28.3 cm, 18.3 cm ( b) 23.8 cm, 13.8 cm ( c) 23.9 cm, 13.9 cm ( d) 27.5 cm, 17.5 cm
Solution : ( a) Since a constant di fference i n length of 10 cm between an i ron rod and a copper cyli nder isrequired therefore
cm L L
Cu Fe
10 = ... ..( i )
or O L L
Cu Fe
= A A
Cu Fe
L L A = A
i.e., Li near expansion of i ron rod = Linear expansion of copper cyli nder
T L T L
Cu Cu Fe Fe
A = A o o
11
17
= =
Fe
Cu
Cu
Fe
L
L
o
o

11
17
=
Cu
Fe
L
L
... ..( i i )
From ( i) and (i i ) cm L cm L
Cu Fe
3 . 18 , 3 . 28 = = .
Problem 6. T wo rodsof length
2
L and coeffi ci ent of li near expansion
2
o are connected freely to a thi rd rod of length
1
L of
coeffici ent of li near expansion
1
o to form an i soscelestri angle. T he arrangement i ssupported on the kni fe edge at
the midpoint of
1
L whi ch i shorizontal. T he apex of the i soscelestri angle i sto remain at a constant di stance from
the kni fe edge i f
( a)
1
2
2
1
o
o
=
L
L
( b)
1
2
2
1
o
o
=
L
L
( c)
1
2
2
1
2
o
o
=
L
L
( d)
1
2
2
1
2
o
o
=
L
L

Solution : ( d) T he apex of the i soscelestri angle to remain at a constant di stance from the kni fe edge DC should remainsconstant
before and after heating.
Before expansion : In tri angle ADC
2
1 2
2
2
2
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
L
L DC . ... .( i)
After expansion :
2
1
1 2
2 2
2
) 1 (
2
) ] 1 ( [ ) (
(

+ + = t
L
t L DC o o . ... . (i i )
Equating (i) and (ii ) we get
2
1
1 2
2 2
2
1 2
2
) 1 (
2
) ] 1 ( [
2
(

+ + = |
.
|

\
|
t
L
t L
L
L o o
A B
C
L
2
L
2

L
1
/2 L
1
/2
D

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 65
t
L L
t L L
L
L + =
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2
2
2
4 4
2
4
o o [ Neglecti ng higher terms]
) 2 ( ) 2 (
4
2
2
2 1
2
1
t L t
L
o o =
1
2
2
1
2
o
o
=
L
L

Problem 7. A i ron rod of length 50 cmis joined at an end to an alumi nium rod of length 100 cm. All measurementsrefer to
20C. T he coeffici ents of li near expansion of iron and aluminium are C

/ 10 12
6
and C

/ 10 24
6

respectively. T he average coeffi cient of composite system i s
( a) C

/ 10 36
6
( b) C

/ 10 12
6
( c) C

/ 10 20
6
( d) C

/ 10 48
6

Solution : ( c) I ni ti ally ( at 20
o
C) length of composi te system L = 50 + 100 = 150 cm
Length of i ron rod at 100C cm 048 . 50 ) ] 20 100 ( 10 12 1 [ 50
6
= + =

Length of aluminum rod at 100C cm 192 . 100 ) ] 20 100 ( 10 24 1 [ 100
6
= + =

Fi nally ( at 100
o
C) length of composi te system L' = cm 24 . 150 192 . 100 048 . 50 = +
Change in length of the composi te system AL = L' L = 150.24 150 = 0.24 cm
Average coeffi ci ent of expansion at 100
o
C
T L
L
A
A
= o =
) 20 100 ( 150
24 . 0

= C

/ 10 20
6

Problem 8. A brassrod and lead rod each 80 cm long at 0C are clamped together at one end with their free endscoinciding.
T he separati on of free ends of the rods if the system i s placed in a steam bath is
) / 10 28 and / 10 18 (
6 6
C C
= =

o o
( a) 0.2 mm ( b) 0.8 mm ( c) 1.4 mm ( d) 1.6 mm
Solution : ( b) T he Brassrod and the lead rod wi ll suffer expansion when placed i n steam bath.
Length of brassrod at 100C ) 1 (
'
T L L
brass brass brass
A + = o = ] 100 10 18 1 [ 80
6
+

and the length of lead rod at 100C ) 1 (
'
T L L
A + = o = ] 100 10 28 1 [ 80
6
+

Separation of free endsof the rodsafter heating =
' '
L L =
4
10 ] 18 28 [ 80

mm cm 8 . 0 10 8
2
= =

Problem 9. T he coeffi cient of apparent expansion of a li quid in a copper vessel i s C and in a si lver vessel S. T he coeffi ci ent of
volume expansion of copper i s
C
. What i sthe coeffi ci ent of li near expansion of si lver
( a) 3 / ) ( S C
C
+ + ( b) 3 / ) ( S C
C
+ ( c) 3 / ) ( S C
C
+ ( d) 3 / ) ( S C
C

Solution : ( c) Apparent coeffi ci ent of volume expansion for li quid
s L app
=
s app L
+ =
where
s
i scoeffi ci ent of volume expansi on for soli d vessel.
When liquid i splaced i n copper vessel then
L
= C +
copper
.. .. ( i ) [ As
app.
for li quid in copper vessel = C]
When liquid i splaced i n si lver vessel then
L
= S +
silver
. ... ( i i ) [ As
app.
for li quid in si lver vessel = S]

From equati on (i ) and ( i i) we get C +
copper
= S +
silver

S C
copper silver
+ =
Coeffi cient of volume expansi on = 3 Coeffi cient of li near expansi on

3 3
copper
si lver
si lver
S C +
= =

o

66 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Problem 10. A uni form soli d brass sphere i s rotating wi th angular speed
0
e about a diameter. I f i ts temperature i s now
i ncreased by 100C. What wi ll be i ts new angular speed. ( G i ven C
B
=

per 10 0 . 2
5
o )
( a)
0
1 . 1 e ( b)
0
01 . 1 e ( c)
0
996 . 0 e ( d)
0
824 . 0 e
Solution : ( c) Due to increase i n temperature, radi usof the sphere changes.
Let R
0
and R
100
o
C and 100
o
C ] 100 1 [
0 100
+ = o R R
Squari ng both the sidesand neglecti ng higher terms ] 100 2 1 [
2
0
2
100
+ = o R R
By the law of conservati on of angular momentum
2 2 1 1
e e I I =

2
2
100 1
2
0
5
2
5
2
e e MR MR =
2
5 2
0 1
2
0
] 100 10 2 2 1 [ e e + =

R R

0
0
3
1
2
996 . 0
004 . 1
] 10 4 1 [
e
e e
e = =
+
=

12.8 Expansion of Liquid.
Liqui dsalso expand on heati ng just li ke solids. Since li qui dshave no shape of thei r own, they suffer only volume
expansi on. I f the liqui d of volume V i sheated and i ts temperature i sraised by Au then
) 1 (
'
u A + =
L L
V V [
L
= coeffi cient of real expansi on or coeffi ci ent of volume expansi on of li quid]
Asliquid isalwaystaken in a vessel for heating so if a liquid isheated, the vessel also getsheated and it also expands.
) 1 (
'
u A + =
S S
V V [
S
= coeffi cient of volume expansi on for soli d vessel]
So the change in volume of li quid relati ve to vessel.
u A = ] [
' '
S L S L
V V V
u A = A
app app
V V [ = =
S L app
Apparent coefficient of volume expansi on for li quid]

S L
> 0 >
app
= A
app
V posi tive
Level of li quid i n vessel wi ll ri se on heating.
S L
< 0 <
app
= A
app
V negati ve
Level of li quid i n vessel wi ll fall on heati ng.
S L
= 0 =
app
0 = A
app
V
level of li quid in vessel will remain same.

12.9 Effect of Temperature on Upthrust.
T he thrust on V volume of a body in a liquid of density o i sgiven by
g V Th o =
Now with ri se in temperature by Au C, due to expansi on, volume of the body wi ll increase whi le densi ty of liqui d
wi ll decrease according to the relati ons ) 1 ( u A + = '
S
V V and ) 1 /( u o o A + = '
L

So the thrust will become g V h T o ' ' = '

) 1 (
) 1 (
u
u
o
o
A +
A +
=
' '
=
'
L
S
g V
g V
Th
h T

and apparent weight of the body W
app
= Actual wei ght T hrust

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 67
As
L S
< Th h T < ' with ri se i n temperature thrust also decreasesand apparent wei ght of body increases.
12.10 Anomalous Expansion of Water.
( 1) G enerally matter expands on heati ng and contracts on cooling. I n case of water, i t expands on heati ng i f i ts
temperature i sgreater than 4C. In the range 0C to 4C, water contractson heati ng and expandson cooli ng, i.e. i s
negati ve. T hi sbehavi our of water i n the range from 0C to 4C i scalled anomalousexpansi on.
( 2) The anomalous behavi our of water ari ses due to the fact that water has three types of molecules, viz.,
2 2 2
) ( , O H O H and
3 2
) ( O H having di fferent volume per unit massand at di fferent temperaturestheir properti esi n water
are di fferent.
( 3) At 4C, densi ty of water i smaximum while i tsspeci fi c volume i smi ni mum.
Duri ng winter when the water at the surface of a lake coolsbelow 4C by cool air, i t expandsand becomesli ghter
than water below. Therefore the water cooled below 4C stays on the surface and freezes when the temperature of
surroundingsfallsbelow 0C. T husthe lake
freezes fi rst at the surface and water i n
contact wi th i ce has temperature 0C whi le
at the bottom of the lake 4C [ asdensity of
water at 4C i s maxi mum] and fi sh and
other aquatic ani mals remai n ali ve in this
water.
Sample problems based on Thermal expansion of liquid
Problem 11. A glassflask of volume one litre at 0C i sfi lled, level full of mercury at thistemperature. T he flask and mercury are
now heated to 100C. How much mercury will spi ll out, i f coeffi ci ent of volume expansion of mercury is
C

/ 10 82 . 1
4
and li near expansion of glassi s C

/ 10 1 . 0
4
respecti vely [MNR 1994; CEEE 1994]
( a) 21.2 cc ( b) 15.2 cc ( c) 1.52 cc ( d) 2.12 cc
Solution : ( c) Due to volume expansion of both liqui d and vessel, the change in volume of li qui d relative to container i sgiven by
AV = u A ] [
S L
V
G i ven V = 1000 cc, o
g
= 0.1 10
4
/C C C
g g
= = =

/ 10 3 . 0 / 10 1 . 0 3 3
4 4
o
AV = 1000 [ 1.82 10
4
0.3 10
4
] 100 = 15.2 cc
Problem 12. Li quid isfi lled i n a flask up to a certain point. When the flask i sheated, the level of the li qui d
( a) I mmediately startsi ncreasing ( b) I ni ti ally fallsand then ri ses
( c) Ri sesabruptly ( d) Fallsabruptly
Solution : ( b) Since both the li quid and the flask undergoesvolume expansion and the flask expandsfirst therefore the level of
the li quid i ni tially fallsand then rises.
Problem 13. T he absolute coeffi ci ent of expansion of a li quid is7 ti mes that the volume coeffici ent of expansi on of the vessel.
T hen the rati o of absolute and apparent expansion of the li qui d i s
( a)
7
1
( b)
6
7
( c)
7
6
( d) None of these
Solution : ( b) Apparent coeffici ent of Volume expansion
app.
=
L

s
= 7
s

s
= 6
s
( gi ven
L
= 7
s
)
Rati o of absolute and apparent expansion of li quid
6
7
6
7
.
= =
s
s
app
L

.
mi n
0C 4C Temperatur
e
A
n
o
m
a
l
o
u
s

b
e
h
a
v
i
o
u
r

v
o
l
/
m
a
s
s

max
0C 4C Temperature
A
n
o
m
a
l
o
u
s

b
e
h
a
v
i
o
u
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

68 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Problem 14. I n cold countri es, water pipessometi mesburst, because
( a) Pipe contracts ( b) Water expandson freezing
( c) When water freezes, pressure i ncreases ( d) When water freezes, i t takesheat from pipes
Solution : ( b) I n anomalousexpansion, water contractson heating and expandson cooling in the range 0C to 4C. T herefore
water pi pessometi mesburst, i n cold countries.
Problem 15. A solid whose volume doesnot change wi th temperature floatsin a li quid. For two different temperatures
1
t and
2
t of the li quid, fracti ons
1
f and
2
f of the volume of the soli d remain submerged in the li quid. T he coeffi ci ent of
volume expansion of the liquid i sequal to
( a)
2 1 1 2
2 1
t f t f
f f

( b)
2 2 1 1
2 1
t f t f
f f

( c)
2 1 1 2
2 1
t f t f
f f
+
+
( d)
2 2 1 1
2 1
t f t f
f f
+
+

Solution : ( a) Aswith the ri se in temperature, the li quid undergoesvolume expansion therefore the fracti on of solid submerged
i n li quid i ncreases.
Fraction of solid submerged at
1 1
f C t = = Volume of di splaced li quid ) 1 (
1 0
t V + = ... ..( i )
and fraction of soli d submerged at
2 2
f C t = = Volume of displaced li quid ) 1 (
2 0
t V + = ... ..( i i )
From ( i) and (i i )
2
1
2
1
1
1
t
t
f
f

+
+
=
2 1 1 2
2 1
t f t f
f f

=
12.11 Expansion of Gases.
G aseshave no defi ni te shape, therefore gases have only volume expansi on. Si nce the expansion of contai ner i s
negligi ble in compari son to the gases, therefore gaseshave only real expansi on.
Coefficient of volume expansion : At constant pressure, the unit volume of a gi ven massof a gas, increases
wi th 1C rise of temperature, is called coeffici ent of volume expansi on.

T V
V
A

A
=
1
o Fi nal volume ) 1 ( T V V A + = ' o
Coefficient of pressure expansion :
T P
P
A

A
=
1
| Final pressure ) 1 ( T P P A + = ' |
For an ideal gas, coeffi ci ent of volume expansion isequal to the coefficient of pressure expansion.
i.e.
1
273
1

= = C | o
12.12 Application of Thermal Expansion.
( 1) Bi-metallic strip : T wo stri ps of equal lengths but of di fferent materi als ( different coeffi ci ent of linear
expansi on) when join together, i t i scalled bi-metallic stri p , and can be used i n thermostat to break or make electri cal
contact. T hi s strip has the characteri sti c property of bending on heati ng due to unequal li near expansion of the two
metal. T he stri p will bend with metal of greater o on outer si de i.e. convex si de.

H i gh temperature
Bi metalli c
stri p
Room temperature
Steel Brass
Room temperature
H igher temperature

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 69

( 2) Effect of temperature on the time period of a simple pendulum : A pendulum clock keepsproper ti me
at temperature u. I f temperature i si ncreased to ) ( u u > ' then due to li near expansion, length of pendulum and hence i ts
time period will increase.
T ime period
g
L
T t 2 = ) 1 (
) 1 (
u o
u o
A + =
A +
=
'
=
'
L
L
L
L
T
T

|
.
|

\
|
A + = ' u o
2
1
1 T T T T u o A + =
2
1
or u o A =
'
2
1
T
T T

u o A =
A
2
1
T
T

( i ) Due to i ncrement in i tsti me peri od, a pendulum clock becomesslow i n summer and wi ll lose ti me.
Lossof ti me in a ti me peri od T T u o A = A
2
1

Lossof time i n any gi ven ti me i nterval t can be given by t t u o A = A
2
1
.
( i i) T he clock wi ll lose time i.e. wi ll become slow i f u u > ' ( i n summer)
and will gai n time i.e. will become fast i f u u < ' ( i n winter) .
( i ii ) T he gain or lossin ti me i sindependent of ti me peri od T and dependson the ti me i nterval t.
( i v) T ime lost by the clock in a day ( t = 86400 sec)
sec t t u o u o u o A = A = A = A 43200 ) 86400 (
2
1
2
1

( v) Since coeffici ent of linear expansi on ( o) i svery small for i nvar, hence pendulumsare made of i nvar to show
the correct ti me in all seasons.
( 3) Thermal stress in a rigidly fixed rod : When a rod whose ends are rigidly fi xed such as to prevent
expansi on or contraction, undergoesa change in temperature, due to thermal expansi on or contraction, a compressive
or tensi le stress i s developed i n it. Due to thi s thermal stress the rod will exert a large force on the supports. I f the
change i n temperature of a rod of length L is Au then
T hermal strai n u oA =
A
=
L
L

(

A
=
u
o
1
As
L
L

So T hermal stress u oA = Y
(

=
strai n
stress
AsY
or Force on the supports u o A = YA F
( 4) Error in scale reading due to expansion or contraction : If a scale gi vescorrect reading at temperature
u, at temperature ) ( u u > ' due to li near expansi on of scale, the scale will expand and scale reading will be lesser than
true value so that,
T rue value = Scale reading ) ] ( 1 [ u u o ' +
0 a
at u
T V = SR
0 SR
at u' > u
T V > SR
a
at u' < u
T V < SR
0 SR a

70 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
i.e. ] 1 [ T V u o A + = SR wi th ) ( u u u ' = A
H owever, i f u u < ' , due to contractionsof scale, scale readi ng wi ll be more than true value, so true value will be
lesser than scale readi ng and wi ll sti ll be gi ven by equati on with ) ( u u u ' = A negati ve.
( 5) Expansion of cavity : T hermal expansion of an i sotropic object may be i magi ned as a photographic
enlargement. So if there i s a hole A in a plate C ( or
cavi ty A insi de a body C) , the area of hole ( or volume
of cavi ty) will i ncrease when body expands on
heating, j ust as i f the hole ( or cavi ty) were soli d B of
the same materi al. Also the expansi on of area ( or
volume) of the body C wi ll be independent of shape
and si ze of hole ( or cavi ty) , i.e., wi ll be equal to that of D.
Note: A soli d and hollow sphere of same radi usand materi al, heated to the same temperature then expansion
of both wi ll be equal because thermal expansion of i sotropi c soli ds i s simi lar to true photographi c
enlargement. It means the expansion of cavi ty i s same as i f it has been a soli d body of the same
materi al. But if same heat i sgi ven to the two spheres, due to lesser mass, rise i n temperature of hollow
sphere wi ll be more
)
`

|
.
|

\
|
= A
mc
a
u As . H ence i ts expansi on wi ll be more.
( 6) Practical application
( i ) When rai lsare lai d down on the ground, space i sleft between the endsof two rai ls.
( i i) T he transmissi on cable are not ti ghtly fixed to the poles.
( i ii ) Pendulum of wall clock and balance wheel of wri st watch are made of i nvar ( an alloy which have very low
value of coeffi ci ent of expansi on) .
( i v) T est tubes, beakers and cruci bles are made of pyrex-glass or si li ca because they have very low value of
coeffi cient of linear expansi on.
( v) T he i ron ri m to be put on a cart wheel isalwaysof slightly smaller diameter than that of wheel.
( vi ) A glass stopper j ammed in the neck of a glassbottle can be taken out by warmi ng the neck of the bottle.
Sample problems based on Application of thermal expansion
Problem 16. A bi metalli c stri p is formed out of two identi cal stri ps, one of copper and other of brass. T he coeffi cientsof li near
expansion of the two metalsare
C
o and
B
o . O n heati ng, the temperature of the strip goesup by AT and the stri p
bendsto form an arc of radiusof curvature R. T hen R i s [I I T-JEE (Screening) 1999]
( a) Proporti onal to AT ( b) I nversely proporti onal to AT
( c) Proporti onal to | |
C B
o o ( d) I nversely proporti onal to | |
C B
o o
Solution : ( b, d) O n heating, the strip undergoeslinear expansion
So after expansion length of brassstrip ) 1 (
0
T L L
B B
A + = o and length of copper stri p ) 1 (
0
T L L
C C
A + = o
From the fi gure u ) ( d R L
B
+ = ... ... ( i )
D
a
b
Expansi on of C = Expansi on of D
r
A
C
a
b
Expansi on of A = Expansi on of B
B
r
d
R

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 71
and u R L
c
= ... ... ( ii ) [Asangle = Arc/Radius]
Di vidi ng (i ) by ( ii )
T
T
L
L
R
d R
C
B
C
B
A +
A +
= =
+
o
o
1
1

1
) 1 ) ( 1 ( 1

A + A + = + T T
R
d
C B
o o = ) 1 ) ( 1 ( T T
C B
A A + o o = T
C B
A + ) ( 1 o o
T
R
d
C B
A = ) ( o o or
T
d
R
C B
A
=
) ( o o
[Usi ng Binomial theorem and neglecti ng higher terms]
So we can say R
) (
1
C B
o o
and R
T A

1

Problem 17. T wo metal stripsthat consti tute a thermostat must necessari ly di ffer i n their [I IT-JEE 1992]
( a) M ass ( b) Length
( c) Resi sti vi ty ( d) Coeffi cient of li near expansi on
Solution : ( d) T hermostat i sused in electri c apparatuslike refri gerator, Iron etc for automatic cut off. T herefore for metallic stri ps
to bend on heating thei r coeffi ci ent of linear expansion should be di fferent.
Problem 18. A cylindrical metal rod of length
0
L i sshaped into a ring wi th a small gap asshown. O n heati ng the system

( a) x decreases, r and d increase
( b) x and r i ncrease, d decreases
( c) x, r and d all increase
( d) Data insuffi ci ent to arri ve at a conclusi on
Solution : ( c) O n heati ng the system; x, r, d all i ncreases, si nce the expansi on of isotropi c solidsi ssi milar to true photographi c
enlargement
Problem 19. T wo holesof unequal diameters
1
d and
2
d ) (
2 1
d d > are cut i n a metal sheet. I f the sheet i sheated

( a) Both
1
d and
2
d wi ll decrease
( b) Both
1
d and
2
d wi ll i ncrease
( c)
1
d wi ll i ncrease,
2
d wi ll decrease
( d)
1
d wi ll decrease,
2
d wi ll i ncrease
Solution : ( b) I f the sheet i sheated then both d
1
and d
2
wi ll increase since the thermal expansion of i sotropi c soli d i ssi mi lar to
true photographi c enlargement.
Problem 20. An i ron tyre i sto be fi tted onto a wooden wheel 1.0 m i n di ameter. T he di ameter of the tyre i s6 mm smaller than
that of wheel. T he tyre should be heated so that i tstemperature i ncreasesby a mini mum of
( Coeffi ci ent of volume expansion of i ron is C

/ 10 6 . 3
5
)
( a) 167C ( b) 334C ( c) 500C ( d) 1000C
Solution : ( c) I ni ti al di ameter of tyre = ( 1000 6) mm = 994 mm, so i niti al radiusof tyre mm R 497
2
994
= =
and change i n di ameter AD = 6 mm so mm R 3
2
6
= = A
X
r
d
d
1
d
2

72 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
After i ncreasi ng temperature by AT tyre wi ll fi t onto wheel
I ncrement i n the length (ci rcumference) of the i ron tyre
AL = L o AT T L A =
3

[ As ]
3

o =
T R R A |
.
|

\
|
= A
3
2 2

t t
497 10 6 . 3
3 3 3
5

=
A
= A

R
R
T

[ AsAR = 3 mm and R = 497 mm]
C T
o
500 = A
Problem 21. A clock wi th a metal pendulum beating secondskeepscorrect ti me at 0C. I f i t loses12.5 secondsa day at 25C,
the coeffi ci ent of linear expansion of metal of pendulum i s
( a) C per
o
86400
1
( b) C per
43200
1
( c) C per
14400
1
( d) C per
28800
1

Solution : ( a) Lossof ti me due to heating a pendulum i sgi ven as
AT = T u oA
2
1
12.5 = 86400 ) 0 25 (
2
1
C o o C per =
86400
1

Problem 22. A wi re of length
0
L i ssupplied heat to rai se i tstemperature by T. If i sthe coeffi ci ent of volume expansion of the
wi re and Y i sthe Y oung smodulusof the wi re then the energy densi ty stored in the wire i s
( a) Y T
2 2
2
1
( b)
3 2 2
3
1
Y T ( c)
Y
T
2 2
18
1
( d) Y T
2 2
18
1

Solution : ( d) Due to heati ng the length of the wi re increases. Longi tudinal strain i sproduced T
L
L
A =
A
o
Elastic potential energy per unit volume E = Strai n Stress
2
1
=
2
) Strai n (
2
1
Y
E =
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
T Y
L
L
Y A = |
.
|

\
| A
o
or E =
2
2
3 2
1
T Y |
.
|

\
|

=
2 2
18
1
YT [ As o 3 = and AT = T ( gi ven) ]
Problem 23. Span of a bridge is2.4 km. At 30C a cable along the span sagsby 0.5 km. T aking C per
o 6
10 12

= o , change
i n length of cable for a change in temperature from 10C to 42C i s

( a) 9.9 m
( b) 0.099 m
( c) 0.99 m
( d) 0.4 km
Solution : ( c) Span of bri dge = 2400 m and Bridge sagsby 500 m at 30 ( gi ven)
From the fi gure L
PRQ
= m 2600 500 1200 2
2 2
= +
But ) 1 (
0
t L L A + = o [ Due to linear expansi on]
) 30 10 12 1 ( 2600
6
0
+ =

L Length of the cable m L 2599
0
=
P O Q
500 m
1200 m
P Q
O
R

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 73
Now change in length of cable due to change i n temperature from 10
o
C to 42
o
C
) 10 42 ( 10 12 2599
6
= A

L = 0.99m
12.13 Thermal Capacity and Water Equivalent.
( 1) Thermal capacity : It is defi ned asthe amount of heat requi red to rai se the temperature of the whole body
( massm) through 0C or 1K.
T hermal capacity
T
Q
C mc
A
= = =
T he value of thermal capaci ty of a body dependsupon the nature of the body and i tsmass.
Di mensi on : ] [
1 2 2
u T ML , Unit : cal/C ( practical) J oule/k ( S.I .)
( 2) Water Equivalent : Water equivalent of a body i s defi ned as the mass of water which would absorb or
evolve the same amount of heat asi sdone by the body in risi ng or falli ng through the same range of temperature. I t i s
represented by W.
I f m = M ass of the body, c = Speci fic heat of body, AT = Ri se in temperature.
T hen heat gi ven to body T mc Q A = A .. ( i )
I f same amount of heat i sgi ven to W gm of water and i tstemperature also ri ses by AT
T hen heat gi ven to water T W Q A = A 1 [ As 1
water
= c ] .. ( i i )
From equati on ( i ) and ( i i ) T W T mc Q A = A = A 1
Water equi valent ( W) = mc gm
Unit : Kg ( S. I .) Di mensi on : ] [
0 0
T ML
Note: Uni t of thermal capacity i sJ /kg whi le uni t of water equivalent i skg.
T hermal capaci ty of the body and i tswater equi valent are numerically equal.
If thermal capacity of a body isexpressed in termsof massof water it iscalled water-equivalent of the body.
12.14 Specific Heat.
( 1) Gram specific heat : When heat i sgi ven to a body and itstemperature increases, the heat requi red to rai se
the temperature of unit massof a body through 1C ( or K) i s called specifi c heat of the materi al of the body.
I f Q heat changesthe temperature of massm by AT
Specifi c heat
T m
Q
c
A
= .
Units: Calorie/gm C ( practi cal) , J /kg K ( S.I .) Di mensi on : ] [
1 2 2
u T L
( 2) Molar specific heat : M olar specifi c heat of a substance i sdefi ned asthe amount of heat requi red to rai se
the temperature of one gram mole of the substance through a uni t degree it i srepresented by ( capi tal) C.
By defi ni ti on, one mole of any substance isa quantity of the substance, whose massM gramsi snumeri cally equal
to the molecular massM.

74 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
M olar speci fic heat heat speci fi c G ram = M
or c M C =

T
Q
T m
Q
M C
A
=
A
=

1

(

=
A
=
M
m
T m
Q
c and As

T
Q
C
A
=

Units: calorie/mole C ( practi cal) ; J /mole kelvin ( S.I .) Dimension : ] [
1 1 2 2
u T ML
I mportant points
( 1) Speci fi c heat for hydrogen ismaxi mum ( ) C gm cal
o
/ 5 . 3 and for water, i t i s C gm cal / 1 .
For all other substances, the speci fi c heat i s less than C gm cal / 1 and i t i s mi ni mum for radon and acti nium
( ) C gm cal / 022 . 0
~
.
( 2) Speci fi c heat of a substance also dependson the state of the substance i.e. soli d, liqui d or gas.
For example, C gm cal c = / 5 . 0
i ce
(Solid), C gm cal c = / 1
water
( Liquid) and C gm cal c = / 47 . 0
steam
( G as)
( 3) T he speci fi c heat of a substance when it melts or boi lsat constant temperature i si nfinite.
As =

=
A
=
0 m
Q
T m
Q
C [ AsAT = 0]
( 4) T he speci fi c heat of a substance when it undergoesadiabati c changesi s zero.
As 0
0
=
A
=
A
=
T m T m
Q
C [ AsQ = 0]
( 5) Specifi c heat of a substance can also be negati ve. Negative speci fic heat means that i n order to raise the
temperature, a certain quanti ty of heat is to be wi thdrawn from the body.
Example. Speci fi c heat of saturated vapours.
12.15 Specific Heat of Solids.
When a soli d i sheated through a small range of temperature, i tsvolume remai nsmore or less constant. T herefore
specifi c heat of a solid may be called itsspeci fi c heat at constant volume C
v
.
From the graph i t i sclear that at T = 0, C
v
tendsto zero
Wi th ri se i n temperature, C
v
i ncreases and becomes constant = 3R
= 6 cal/mole kelvin = 25 J /mole kelvin
at some particular temperature ( Debye T emperature)
For most of the solids, Debye temperature i sclose to room temperature.
( 1) Specific heat of some solids at room temperature and atmospheric pressure
Substance Specific heat (J -kg
1
K
1
) Molar specific heat (J -g mole
1
K
1
)
Aluminium 900.0 24.4
3R
Debye temp.
T
C
v
Y

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 75
Copper 386.4 24.5
Silver 236.1 25.5
T ungsten 134.4 24.9

( 2) Dulong and Petit law : Average molar specifi c heat of all metalsat room temperature i sconstant, bei ng
nearly equal to 3R = 6 cal. mole
1
K
1
= 25 J mole
1
K
1
, where R i sgas constant for one mole of the gas. T his
statement i sknown asDulong and Peti t law.
12.16 Specific Heat of Water.
T he vari ati on of speci fi c heat wi th temperature for water i sshown i n the
figure. Usually thi stemperature dependence of speci fic heat isneglected.
From the graph :
Temperature (C) 0 15 35 50 100
Specific heat (cal/ gm C) 1.008 1.000 0.997 0.998 1.006

Asspeci fic heat of water i svery large; by absorbi ng or releasing large amount of heat i tstemperature changesby
small amount. T hi sis why, i t i sused i n hot water bottlesor ascoolant in radiators.
Note: When speci fi c heats are measured, the values obtained are also found to depend on the
condi tions of the experiment. In general measurements made at constant pressure are different from
those at constant volume. For soli dsand liqui dsthi sdifference i svery small and usually neglected. The
specifi c heat of gases are quite di fferent under constant pressure condi tion (c
P
) and constant volume
( c
V
) . I n the chapter K inetic theory of gases we have discussed thi stopi c i n detai l.
Sample problems based on Specific heat, thermal capacity and water equivalent
Problem 24. T wo spheresmade of same substance have diametersin the rati o 1 : 2. T hei r thermal capaci ti esare in the ratio of
[JI PMER 1999]
( a) 1 : 2 ( b) 1 : 8 ( c) 1 : 4 ( d) 2 : 1
Solution : ( b) T hermal capaci ty = M ass Speci fic heat
Due to same material both sphereswi ll have same speci fi c heat
Rati o of thermal capaci ty

2
1
2
1
V
V
m
m
= = 8 : 1
2
1
3
4
3
4
3
3
2
1
3
2
3
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
r
r
r
r
t
t

Problem 25. When 300 J of heat i s added to 25 gm of sample of a materi al i ts temperature rises from 25C to 45C. the
thermal capaci ty of the sample and speci fi c heat of the materi al are respecti vely gi ven by
( a) 15 J /C, 600 J /kg C ( b) 600 J /C, 15 J /kg
o
C ( c) 150 J /C, 60 J /kg C ( d) None of these
Solution : ( a) T hermal capaci ty = mc = C J
T
Q
= =

=
A
/ 15
20
300
25 45
300

20 40 60 80 100
0.996
1.000
1.004
1.008
9
S
p
.

h
e
a
t

c
a
l
/
g

C

T emp. i n C

76 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Specifi c heat =
M ass
capaci ty T hermal
= C kg J =

/ 600
10 25
15
3

Problem 26. T he specifi c heat of a substance vari eswi th temperature t( C) as
) / ( 023 . 0 14 . 0 20 . 0
2
C gm cal t t c + + =
T he heat requi red to rai se the temperature of 2 gm of substance from 5C to 15C wi ll be
( a) 24 calorie ( b) 56 calorie ( c) 82 calorie ( d) 100 calorie
Solution : ( c) H eat requi red to rai se the temperature of m gm of substance by dT isgi ven as
dQ = mc dT
}
= dT mc Q
T o rai se the temperature of 2 gm of substance from 5C to 15C i s
}
+ + =
15
5
2
) 023 . 0 14 . 0 2 . 0 ( 2 dT t t Q
15
5
3 2
3
023 . 0
2
14 . 0
2 . 0 2
(
(

+ + =
t t
t = 82 calorie
12.17 Latent Heat.
( 1) When a substance changes from one state to another state ( say from solid to liqui d or liquid to gas or from
liquid to soli d or gasto liqui d) then energy isei ther absorbed or liberated. T hi sheat energy iscalled latent heat.
( 2) No change in temperature i si nvolved when the substance changesi tsstate. T hat i s, phase transformati on i san
i sothermal change. Ice at 0C melts i nto water at 0C. Water at 100C boi lsto form steam at 100C.
( 3) The amount of heat required to change the state of the mass m of the substance i s wri tten as : AQ = mL,
where L i sthe latent heat. Latent heat i salso called asH eat of T ransformati on.
( 4) Unit : cal/gm or J /kg and Di mensi on : ] [
2 2
T L
( 5) Any materi al hastwo typesof latent heats
( i) Latent heat of fusion : T he latent heat of fusion isthe heat energy required to change 1 kg of the material i n
i tssoli d state at i tsmelting poi nt to 1 kg of the materi al in i tsliqui d state. I t i salso the amount of heat energy released
when at melti ng point 1 kg of liquid changesto 1 kg of solid. For water at i tsnormal freezi ng temperature or melting
point ( 0C) , the latent heat of fusi on ( or latent heat of i ce) i s
kg joule kilo mol kJ g cal L L
F
/ 336 / 60 / 80
i ce
~ ~ ~ = .
( ii ) Latent heat of vaporisation : T he latent heat of vapori sati on i s the heat energy required to change 1 kg of
the materi al i n i tsli qui d state at i ts boi li ng point to 1 kg of the materi al i n i tsgaseous state. I t i salso the amount of
heat energy released when 1 kg of vapour changes i nto 1 kg of liqui d. For water at i ts normal boi ling poi nt or
condensation temperature ( 100C) , the latent heat of vapori sation ( latent heat of steam) i s
kg joule kilo mol kJ g cal L L
V
/ 2260 / 8 . 40 / 540
steam
~ ~ ~ =
( 6) I n the process of melti ng or boi ling, heat supplied i s used to increase the internal potenti al energy of the
substance and also i n doing work against external pressure while i nternal kineti c energy remai ns constant. T hi si s the
reason that i nternal energy of steam at 100C i smore than that of water at 100C.

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 77
( 7) I t i smore painful to get burnt by steam rather than by boi ling water at same temperature. Thi si sso because
when steam at 100C getsconverted to water at 100C, then it gi vesout 536 caloriesof heat. So, i t i sclear that steam
at 100C hasmore heat than water at 100C ( i.e., boili ng of water) .
( 8) I n case of change of state i f the molecules come closer, energy i s released and i f the molecules move apart,
energy i sabsorbed.
( 9) Latent heat of vapori sati on i s more than the latent heat of fusi on. Thi s i s because when a substance gets
converted from li quid to vapour, there isa large increase i n volume. Hence more amount of heat i srequired. But when
a soli d getsconverted to a liqui d, then the increase in volume i snegli gi ble. Hence very lessamount of heat i srequi red.
So, latent heat of vaporisati on i smore than the latent heat of fusion.
( 10) After snow falls, the temperature of the atmosphere becomesvery low. T hi si sbecause the snow absorbsthe
heat from the atmosphere to melt down. So, i n the mountains, when snow falls, one doesnot feel too cold, but when
i ce melts, he feelstoo cold.
( 11) There i smore shi vering effect of i ce-cream on teeth ascompared to that of water ( obtained from i ce) . T hi si s
because, when i ce-cream meltsdown, i t absorbs large amount of heat from teeth.
( 12) Freezing mixture : If salt isadded to ice, then the temperature of mi xture dropsdown to lessthan 0C. T hi s
i s so because, some ice melts down to cool the salt to 0C. As a result, salt gets dissolved i n the water formed and
saturated soluti on of salt i sobtai ned; but the i ce point ( freei ng point) of the solution formed i salwayslessthan that of
pure water. So, i ce cannot be i n the soli d state with the salt soluti on at 0C. The ice which i s i n contact with the
soluti on, starts melting and i t absorbs the requi red latent heat from the mi xture, so the temperature of mi xture falls
down.
Sample problems based on Latent heat
Problem 27. Work done i n converting one gram of i ce at 10C into steam at 100C i s
[MP PET /PMT 1988; EAMCET (Med.) 1995; MP PMT 2003]
( a) 3045 J ( b) 6056 J ( c) 721 J ( d) 616 J
Solution : ( a) Work done i n converting 1gm of i ce at 10C to steam at 100C
= H eat supplied to raise temperature of 1gm of i ce from 10C to 0C [ m c
i ce
AT]
+ H eat supplied to convert 1 gm i ce i nto water at 0C [ m L
i ce
]
+ H eat supplied to raise temperature of 1gm of water from 0C to 100C [ m c
water
AT]
+ H eat supplied to convert 1 gm water i nto steam at 100C [m L
vapour
]
= [m c
i ce
AT] + [ m L
i ce
] + [m c
water
AT] + [m L
vapour
]
= ] 540 1 [ ] 100 1 1 [ ] 80 1 [ ] 10 5 . 0 1 [ + + + = J calorie 3045 2 . 4 725 725 = =
Problem 28. 2 kg of i ce at 20C ismixed with 5 kg of water at 20C in an insulating vessel having a negli gible heat capaci ty.
Calculate the fi nal massof water remaining in the container. I t i sgi ven that the speci fi c heatsof water and i ce are
1 kcal/kg per C and 0.5 kcal/kg/C while the latent heat of fusi on of i ce i s80 kcal/kg
[I I T-JEE (Screening) 2003]
( a) 7 kg ( b) 6 kg ( c) 4 kg ( d) 2 kg

78 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Solution : ( b) I ni ti ally i ce wi ll absorb heat to raise i t'stemperature to 0
o
C then i t'smelti ng takesplace
I f m = Initi al massof ice, m' = M assof i ce that meltsand m
w
= I ni ti al massof water
By Law of mi xture H eat gain by i ce = H eat lossby water
L m c m + ' ) 20 ( = ] 20 [
w w
c m
80 ' ) 20 ( 5 . 0 2 + m = 20 1 5 ' m= 1kg
So fi nal massof water = I ni tial massof water + M assof i ce that melts= 5 + 1= 6 kg.
Problem 29. I f massenergy equi valence i staken i nto account, when water i scooled to form ice, the massof water should
[AI EEE 2002]
( a) I ncrease ( b) Remai n unchanged
( c) Decrease ( d) Fi rst increase then decrease
Solution : ( b) When water is cooled at 0
o
C to form i ce then 80 calorie/gm ( latent heat) energy i s released. Because potenti al
energy of the moleculesdecreases. M asswi ll remain constant i n the processof freezing of water.
Problem 30. Compared to a burn due to water at 100C, a burn due to steam at 100C i s [KCET 1999; UPSEAT 1999]
( a) M ore dangerous ( b) Lessdangerous ( c) Equally dangerous ( d) None of these
Solution : ( a) Steam at 100
o
C contains extra 540 calorie/gm energy ascompare to water at 100
o
C. So it's more dangerous to
burn with steam then water.
Problem 31. Latent heat of i ce i s80 calorie/gm. A man melts60 g of ice by chewing i n 1 minute. H ispower i s
( a) 4800 W ( b) 336 W ( c) 1.33 W ( d) 0.75 W
Solution : ( b) Work done by man = H eat absorbed by ice = mL = 60 80 = 4800 calorie = 20160 J
Power = =
t
W

60
20160
= 336W
12.18 Principle of Caloriemetry.
When two bodi es(one being soli d and other li quid or both being liqui d) at di fferent temperaturesare mi xed, heat
wi ll be transferred from body at hi gher temperature to a body at lower temperature ti ll both acqui re same temperature.
T he body at higher temperature releasesheat while body at lower temperature absorbsi t, so that
H eat lost = H eat gained
i.e. pri nciple of caloriemetry representsthe law of conservati on of heat energy.
( 1) T emperature of mi xture ( T) is always lower temperature (T
L
) and higher temperature (T
H
) , i.e.,

H L
T T T s s
i.e., the temperature of mixture can never be lesser than lower temperatures( asa body cannot be cooled below
the temperature of cooli ng body) and greater than higher temperature ( as a body cannot be heated above the
temperature of heati ng body) . Furthermore usually ri se i n temperature of one body is not equal to the fall i n
temperature of the other body though heat gai ned by one body isequal to the heat lost by the other.
( 2) When temperature of a body changes, the body releasesheat i f i tstemperature fallsand absorbsheat when i ts
temperature ri ses. T he heat released or absorbed by a body of massm i sgiven by, Q = mc AT
where c isspeci fic heat of the body and AT change in i tstemperature i n
o
C or K.
( 3) When state of a body changes, change of state takesplace at constant temperature [ m.pt. or b.pt.] and heat
released or absorbed isgi ven by, Q = mL

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 79
where L i slatent heat. Heat i sabsorbed if soli d convertsi nto li quid ( at m.pt.) or li quid convertsi nto vapours( at
b.pt.) and i sreleased i f liqui d convertsi nto soli d or vapoursconvertsi nto li qui d.
( 4) I f two bodi esA and B of masses
1
m and
2
m , at temperatures
1
T and
2
T ) (
2 1
T T > and havi ng gram specifi c
heat
1
c and
2
c when they are placed i n contact.
H eat lost by A = H eat gai ned by B
or ) ( ) (
2 2 2 1 1 1
T T c m T T c m = [ where T = T emperature of equi libri um]

2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
c m c m
T c m T c m
T
+
+
=
( i) I f bodiesare of same material
2 1
c c = then
2 1
2 2 1 1
m m
T m T m
T
+
+
=
( ii ) I f bodi esare of same mass ) (
2 1
m m = then
2 1
2 2 1 1
c c
c T c T
T
+
+
=
( ii i ) I f bodi esare of same materi al and of equal masses ) , (
2 1 2 1
c c m m = = then
2
2 1
T T
T
+
=
12.19 Heating curve.
I f to a gi ven mass( m) of a soli d, heat i ssupplied at constant rate P and a graph i splotted between temperature
and ti me, the graph i sasshown i n figure and i scalled heating curve.
From thiscurve it i s clear that
( 1) I n the regi on OA temperature of soli d is changi ng with time so,
T mc Q
S
A =
or T mc t P
S
A = A [ asQ = PAt]
But as( AT/At) i sthe slope of temperature-ti me curve
c
S
( 1/slope of li ne OA)
i.e. speci fi c heat ( or thermal capaci ty) i si nversely proportional to the slope of temperature-ti me curve.
( 2) I n the regi on AB temperature i sconstant, so i t representschange of state, i.e., melti ng of soli d wi th melti ng
point T
1
. At A melti ng starts and at B all solid i sconverted i nto li quid. So between A and B substance ispartly solid and
partly li quid. I f L
F
i s the latent heat of fusi on.

F
mL Q = or
m
t t P
L
F
) (
1 2

= [ as ) (
1 2
t t P Q = ]
or L
F
length of li ne AB
i.e. Latent heat of fusion isproportional to the length of line of zero slope. [ In thisregion specific heat =
0 tan
1
]
( 3) I n the regi on BC temperature of li quid i ncreasesso speci fic heat ( or thermal capaci ty) of li quid wi ll be inversely
proporti onal to the slope of li ne BC
i.e., c
L
( 1/slope of li ne BC)
T
2
T
1
O

A

M elti ng
Boi li ng
b. pt.

B

C

D

t
2
t
1 t
4
t
3
Time

T
e
m
p
.

m. pt.

E

80 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
( 4) I n the regi on CD temperature isconstant, so i t representsthe change of state, i.e., boili ng wi th boi ling poi nt T
2
.
At C all substance i si n liqui d state whi le at D i n vapour state and between C and D partly li quid and partly gas. T he
length of line CD isproporti onal to latent heat of vapori sation
i.e., L
V
Length of line CD [ In thi sregi on speci fic heat =
0 tan
1
]
( 5) T he line DE representsgaseousstate of substance wi th itstemperature increasi ng li nearly wi th ti me. T he
reci procal of slope of line will be proporti onal to specifi c heat or thermal capaci ty of substance i n vapour state.
Sample problems based on Caloriemetry
Problem 32. 50 g of copper isheated to increase itstemperature by 10C. I f the same quantity of heat isgi ven to 10 g of water,
the rise in i tstemperature is(Speci fi c heat of copper
1 1
- 420

= C kg J oule ) [EAMCET (Med.) 2000]
( a) 5C ( b) 6C ( c) 7C ( d) 8C
Solution : ( a) Same amount of heat i ssuppli ed to copper and water so
e e e
T c m T c m
c c c
A = A
AT
e
= C
c m
T c m
c c c
=

=
A

5
4200 10 10
10 420 10 50
3
3
e e

Problem 33. T wo li quidsA and B are at 32C and 24C. When mi xed i n equal massesthe temperature of the mixture i sfound
to be 28C. T hei r speci fi c heatsare in the ratio of [DPMT 1996]
( a) 3 : 2 ( b) 2 : 3 ( c) 1 : 1 ( d) 4 : 3
Solution : ( c) H eat lost by A = H eat gained by B
) ( ) (
B B B A A A
T T c m T T c m = Since
B A
m m = and T emperature of the mi xture ( T) = 28C
) 24 28 ( ) 28 32 ( =
B A
c c 1 : 1 =
B
A
c
c

Problem 34. 22 g of
2
CO at 27C ismi xed with 16g of
2
O at 37C. T he temperature of the mixture is [CBSE PMT 1995]
( a) 27C ( b) 30.5C ( c) 32C ( d) 37C
Solution : ( c) H eat lost by
2
CO = H eat gained by
2
O
I f
2 1
and are the number of molesof carbon di-oxide and oxygen respecti vely and
2 1
and
v v
C C are the speci fi c
heatsat constant volume then
2 2 1 1
2 1
T C T C
v v
A = A
) 37 (
2
5
32
16
) 27 ( 3
44
22
T
R
T R = T = 31.5C 32C (where T i stemperature of mi xture)
Problem 35. A beaker contains200 gm of water. T he heat capaci ty of the beaker i sequal to that of 20 gm of water. T he initi al
temperature of water in the beaker i s20C. If 440 gm of hot water at 92C i s poured in i t, the fi nal temperature
( neglecti ng radi ati on loss) wi ll be nearest to [NSEP 1994]
( a) 58C ( b) 68C ( c) 73C ( d) 78C
Solution : ( b) H eat lost by hot water = Heat gained by cold water i n beaker + H eat absorbed by beaker
440 ( 92 T) = 200 ( T 20) + 20 ( T 20) T = 68C

T hermometry, T hermal Expansion and Caloriemetry 81
Problem 36. A liquid of massm and specifi c heat c isheated to a temperature 2T. Another liquid of massm/2 and specifi c heat
2c isheated to a temperature T. If these two liqui dsare mi xed, the resulti ng temperature of the mi xture i s
[EAMCET 1992]
( a) ( 2/3) T ( b) ( 8/5) T ( c) ( 3/5) T ( d) ( 3/2) T
Solution : ( d) T emperature of mi xture i sgi ven by T =
2 2 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
c m c m
T c m T c m
+
+
c
m
c m
T c
m
T c m
2 .
2
. .
. . 2 .
2
2 . .
+
+
= T
2
3
=
Problem 37. T hree li quids wi th masses
3 2 1
, , m m m are thoroughly mixed. I f thei r speci fi c heats are
3 2 1
, , c c c and their
temperatures
3 2 1
, , T T T respecti vely, then the temperature of the mi xture i s
( a)
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
c m c m c m
T c T c T c
+ +
+ +
( b)
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
c m c m c m
T c m T c m T c m
+ +
+ +

( c)
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
T m T m T m
T c m T c m T c m
+ +
+ +
( d)
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
T c T c T c
T m T m T m
+ +
+ +

Solution : ( b) Let the final temperature be T C.
T otal heat supplied by the three li quidsin coming down to 0C =
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
T c m T c m T c m + + ... .. ( i )
T otal heat used by three li quidsi n raisi ng temperature from 0
o
C to T
o
C = T c m T c m T c m
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + . .. ..( i i )
By equating ( i) and ( i i ) we get T c m c m c m ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
+ + =
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
T c m T c m T c m + +

3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
c m c m c m
T c m T c m T c m
T
+ +
+ +
= .
Problem 38. I n an industrial process 10 kg of water per hour i s to be heated from 20C to 80C. T o do thi s steam at 150C is
passed from a boiler into a copper coi l immersed in water. T he steam condensesin the coi l and isreturned to the
boiler aswater at 90C. how many kg of steam isrequi red per hour.
( Speci fic heat of steam = 1 calorie per gmC, Latent heat of vaporisation = 540 cal/gm)
( a) 1 gm ( b) 1 kg ( c) 10 gm ( d) 10 kg
Solution : ( b) H eat requi red by 10 kg water to change i tstemperature from 20C to 80C i n one hour is
Q
1
=
water
T mc ) ( A = calorie
3 3
10 600 ) 20 80 ( 1 ) 10 10 ( =
I n condensation ( i ) Steam release heat when it loosesi t'stemperature from 150
o
C to 100
o
C. ] [ T mc
steam
A
( ii ) At 100
o
C i t convertsinto water and gi vesthe latent heat. ] [mL
( ii i ) Water release heat when i t loosesi t'stemperature from 100
o
C to 90
o
C. ] [ T ms
water
A
I f m gm steam condensed per hour, then heat released by steam i n converting water of 90C
Q
2
=
water steam steam
T ms mL T mc ) ( ) ( A + + A = ) ] 90 100 ( 1 540 ) 100 150 ( 1 [ + + m = 600 m calorie
According to problem Q
1
= Q
2
600 10
3
cal = 600 m cal m = 10
3
gm = 1 kg.
Problem 39. A caloriemeter contains0.2kg of water at 30C. 0.1 kg of water at 60C i sadded to i t, the mi xture i swell sti rred
and the resulting temperature isfound to be 35C. T he thermal capaci ty of the calori emeter is
( a) 6300 J /K ( b) 1260 J /K ( c) 4200 J /K ( d) None of these

82 T hermometry, T hermal Expansi on and Calori emetry
Solution : ( b) Let X be the thermal capaci ty of calori meter and specifi c heat of water = 4200 J /kg-K
H eat lost by 0.1 kg of water = H eat gained by water i n calori meter + Heat gained by calori meter
) 30 35 ( ) 30 35 ( 4200 2 . 0 ) 35 60 ( 4200 1 . 0 + = X
10500 = 4200 + 5X X = 1260 J /K
Problem 40. T he graph showsthe variati on of temperature ( T ) of one kilogram of a materi al wi th the heat (H) suppli ed to i t. At
O, the substance isin the soli d state
From the graph, we can conclude that
( a)
2
T i sthe melti ng point of the solid
( b) BC representsthe change of state from soli d to li quid
( c) ) (
1 2
H H representsthe latent heat of fusion of the substance
( d) ) (
1 3
H H representsthe latent heat of vaporizati on of the li quid
Solution : ( c) Since in the region AB temperature isconstant therefore at thistemperature phase of the material changesfrom solid to
liquid and (H
2
H
1
) heat will be absorb by the material. T hisheat isknown asthe heat of melting of the solid.
Si mi larly in the region CD temperature i s constant therefore at thi s temperature phase of the materi al changes
from li quid to gas and ( H
4
H
3
) heat wi ll be absorb by the material. T hi s heat as known as the heat of
vapori sation of the liquid.

A( H
1
,T
1
)
|

o
O
H
T
C ( H
3
,T
3
)

B( H
2
,T
2
)

D ( H
4
,T
4
)