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6.002 ELECTRONICS

Second-Order Systems

Second-Order Systems

5V 5V

Demo

50Ω

2KΩ 2KΩ

S

A C

B

+ large

– loop CGS

The parasitic inductance of the wire and

the gate-to-source capacitance of the

MOSFET are shown

Second-Order Systems

5V 5V

Demo

50Ω

2KΩ 2KΩ

S

C

A

B

+ large

– loop CGS

Relevant circuit:

2KΩ L

B

5V +

– CGS

Observed Output 2kΩ

5

vA

0 t

vB

2kΩ

0 t

vC

0 t

closing the switch S to lower the effective

resistance

Observed Output ~50Ω

5

vA

0 t

vB

50Ω

0 t

vC

0 t

Huh!

First, let’s analyze the LC network

L i (t )

+

+ C v(t )

vI (t ) – –

Node method:

dv

i (t ) = C Recall

dt

di

1 t

dv vI − v = L

∫ (vI − v) dt = C dt

L −∞ dt 1 t

∫ (vI − v) dt = i

L −∞

1 d 2v

(v I − v ) =C 2

L dt

d 2v

LC 2 + v = vI

dt

time2 v, i state variables

Solving

Recall, the method of homogeneous and

particular solutions:

1 Find the particular solution.

2 Find the homogeneous solution.

L

4 steps

3 The total solution is the sum of the

particular and homogeneous.

Use initial conditions to solve for the

remaining constants.

v = vP (t ) + vH (t )

Let’s solve

d 2v

LC 2 + v = vI

dt

For input

vI

V0

t

0

v(0) = 0 i(0) = 0 [ZSR]

1 Particular solution

d 2 vP

LC 2 + vP = V0

dt

vP = V0 is a solution.

2 Homogeneous solution

Solution to

d 2 vH

LC 2 + vH = 0

dt

Recall, vH : solution to homogeneous

equation (drive set to zero)

Four-step method:

vH = Ae st , A, s = ?

so, LCAs 2 e st + Ae st = 0

1 characteristic

B s =−

2

equation

LC

1

s=±j j = −1

LC

1

C Roots s = ± jω o ωo =

LC

General solution,

Differential equations are commonly

*

3 Total solution

v(t ) = vP (t ) + vH (t )

v( t ) = V0 + A1e jωot + A2 e − jωot

v(0) = 0

0 = V0 + A1 + A2

i ( 0) = 0

dv

i (t ) = C

dt

i( t ) = CA1 jωo e jωot − CA2 jωo e − jωot

or, A1 = A2

− V0 = 2 A

V0

A1 = −

2

v( t ) = V0 − (e + e − jωot )

V0 jωot

so,

2

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 11

3 Total solution

e jx = cos x + j sin x

(verify using Taylor’s

expansion)

e jx + e − jx

= cos x

2

1

ωo =

i( t ) = CV0ωo sin ωot LC

Plotting the Total Solution

v(t )

2V0

V0

0 π π ωo t

3π 2π

2 2

i (t )

CV0ωo

0 π π ωo t

3π 2π

2 2

− CV0ωo

Summary of Method

node method.

2 Find particular solution vP by guessing

and trial & error.

3 Find homogeneous solution vH

B Obtain characteristic equation.

C Solve characteristic equation

for roots si .

D Form vH by summing Ai esit

terms.

4 Total solution is vP + vH ,

solve for remaining constants using

initial conditions.

Example

What if we have:

iC + vC (0) = V

L C vC

– iC (0) = 0

the homogeneous solution (V0 = 0).

Example

iC + vC (0) = V

L C vC

– iC (0) = 0

the homogeneous solution (V0 = 0).

vC ( t ) = A1e jωot + A2 e − jωot

vC (0) = V

V = A1 + A2

iC (0) = 0

0 = CA1 jωo − CA2 jωo

V

or A1 = A2 =

2

or vC =

2

(e + e − jω o t )

V jω o t

vC = V cos ωot

iC = −CV ωo sin ωot

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 16

Example

vC

V

ωo t

2π

CVωo iC

ωo t

2π

− CVωo

Energy

EC

1

1 CV 2

C: CvC

2 2

2

ωo t

2π

EL

1 1

L : LiC

2 CV 2

2 2

ωo t

2π

1 1 1

Notice

2 2

CvC + LiC = CV 2

2 2 2

but it sloshes back and forth between the

Capacitor and the inductor

RLC Circuits

R L i (t )

+

vI (t ) +

– C v(t )

–

v(t )

no R

add R

t

Damped sinusoids with R – remember demo!

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