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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Second-Order Systems

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 1


Second-Order Systems

5V 5V
Demo
50Ω
2KΩ 2KΩ
S

A C
B

+ large
– loop CGS

Our old friend, the inverter, driving another.


The parasitic inductance of the wire and
the gate-to-source capacitance of the
MOSFET are shown

[Review complex algebra appendix for next class]

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 2


Second-Order Systems

5V 5V
Demo
50Ω
2KΩ 2KΩ
S
C
A
B

+ large
– loop CGS

Relevant circuit:
2KΩ L
B

5V +
– CGS

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 3


Observed Output 2kΩ

5
vA
0 t

vB
2kΩ
0 t

vC

0 t

Now, let’s try to speed up our inverter by


closing the switch S to lower the effective
resistance

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 4


Observed Output ~50Ω

5
vA
0 t

vB
50Ω
0 t

vC

0 t

Huh!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 5


First, let’s analyze the LC network

L i (t )
+
+ C v(t )
vI (t ) – –

Node method:
dv
i (t ) = C Recall
dt
di
1 t
dv vI − v = L
∫ (vI − v) dt = C dt
L −∞ dt 1 t
∫ (vI − v) dt = i
L −∞
1 d 2v
(v I − v ) =C 2
L dt

d 2v
LC 2 + v = vI
dt
time2 v, i state variables

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 6


Solving
Recall, the method of homogeneous and
particular solutions:
1 Find the particular solution.
2 Find the homogeneous solution.
L
4 steps
3 The total solution is the sum of the
particular and homogeneous.
Use initial conditions to solve for the
remaining constants.

v = vP (t ) + vH (t )

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 7


Let’s solve
d 2v
LC 2 + v = vI
dt

For input
vI
V0

t
0

And for initial conditions


v(0) = 0 i(0) = 0 [ZSR]

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 8


1 Particular solution

d 2 vP
LC 2 + vP = V0
dt
vP = V0 is a solution.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 9


2 Homogeneous solution
Solution to
d 2 vH
LC 2 + vH = 0
dt
Recall, vH : solution to homogeneous
equation (drive set to zero)
Four-step method:

A Assume solution of the form*


vH = Ae st , A, s = ?
so, LCAs 2 e st + Ae st = 0

1 characteristic
B s =−
2
equation
LC
1
s=±j j = −1
LC
1
C Roots s = ± jω o ωo =
LC
General solution,

D vH = A1e jωot + A2 e − jωot


Differential equations are commonly
*

solved by guessing solutions

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 10


3 Total solution
v(t ) = vP (t ) + vH (t )
v( t ) = V0 + A1e jωot + A2 e − jωot

Find unknowns from initial conditions.


v(0) = 0
0 = V0 + A1 + A2
i ( 0) = 0
dv
i (t ) = C
dt
i( t ) = CA1 jωo e jωot − CA2 jωo e − jωot

so, 0 = CA1 jωo − CA2 jωo


or, A1 = A2
− V0 = 2 A
V0
A1 = −
2

v( t ) = V0 − (e + e − jωot )
V0 jωot
so,
2
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3 Total solution

Remember Euler relation

e jx = cos x + j sin x
(verify using Taylor’s
expansion)

e jx + e − jx
= cos x
2

so, v( t ) = V0 − V0 cos ωot where


1
ωo =
i( t ) = CV0ωo sin ωot LC

The output looks sinusoidal

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 12


Plotting the Total Solution
v(t )
2V0

V0

0 π π ωo t
3π 2π
2 2
i (t )
CV0ωo

0 π π ωo t
3π 2π
2 2

− CV0ωo

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 13


Summary of Method

1 Write DE for circuit by applying


node method.
2 Find particular solution vP by guessing
and trial & error.
3 Find homogeneous solution vH

A Assume solution of the form Aest .


B Obtain characteristic equation.
C Solve characteristic equation
for roots si .
D Form vH by summing Ai esit
terms.

4 Total solution is vP + vH ,
solve for remaining constants using
initial conditions.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 14


Example

What if we have:
iC + vC (0) = V
L C vC
– iC (0) = 0

We can obtain the answer directly from


the homogeneous solution (V0 = 0).

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Example

iC + vC (0) = V
L C vC
– iC (0) = 0

We can obtain the answer directly from


the homogeneous solution (V0 = 0).
vC ( t ) = A1e jωot + A2 e − jωot
vC (0) = V
V = A1 + A2
iC (0) = 0
0 = CA1 jωo − CA2 jωo
V
or A1 = A2 =
2

or vC =
2
(e + e − jω o t )
V jω o t

vC = V cos ωot
iC = −CV ωo sin ωot
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Example
vC
V

ωo t

CVωo iC

ωo t

− CVωo

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Energy

EC
1
1 CV 2
C: CvC
2 2
2
ωo t

EL
1 1
L : LiC
2 CV 2
2 2
ωo t

1 1 1
Notice
2 2
CvC + LiC = CV 2
2 2 2

Total energy in the system is a constant,


but it sloshes back and forth between the
Capacitor and the inductor

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RLC Circuits

R L i (t )
+
vI (t ) +
– C v(t )

v(t )
no R
add R
t
Damped sinusoids with R – remember demo!

See A&L Section 12.2

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 15 19