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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Review

5V v
R
L

## Today, look at response of networks

to sinusoidal drive.
Sinusoids important because signals can be
represented as a sum of sinusoids. Response to
sinusoids of various frequencies -- aka frequency
response -- tells us a lot about the system

Motivation

## For motivation, consider our old friend,

the amplifier: V S

Demo
vO
R vC

vi +

CGS
VBIAS +

## Observe vo amplitude as the frequency of the

input vi changes. Notice it decreases with
frequency.
Also observe vo shift as frequency changes
(phase).

## Need to study behavior of networks for

sinusoidal drive.

Example:
iC
R +
vI +
– vC

## vI (t ) = Vi cos ω t for t ≥ 0 (Vi real)

=0 for t < 0
vC (0) = 0 for t = 0
vI

0 t

Our Approach
Example:

iC

R +

vI
+
– vC

Determine vC(t)

e m e!

Effort

Ind ulg
Usual
approach
agony

sneaky approach
very
sneaky
easy

re

e

0

:0

ur
:
2
:
0
tu

1
2
11

11

ct

lec

le
is

t
Th

ex
N

## Let’s use the usual approach…

1 Set up DE.
2 Find vp.
3 Find vH.
4 vC = vP + vH, solve for unknowns
using initial conditions

Usual approach…

1 Set up DE

dvC
RC + vC = vI
dt
= Vi cos ω t

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 7

2 Find vp
dvP
RC + vP = Vi cos ωt
dt

## First try: vP = A Æ nope

Second try: vP = A cos ωt Æ nope

amplitude phase

## − RCAω sin ωt cos φ − RCAω cos ωt sin φ +

A cos ωt cos φ − A sin ωt sin φ = Vi cos ωt

..
. gasp !

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 8

Let’s get sneaky!
Find particular solution to another input…
dvPS
RC + vPS = vIS (S: sneaky :-))
dt
= Vi e st
Try solution PS = st
v V p e Nice
dV p e st property
RC + V p e st = Vi e st of
dt exponentials
sRCV p e st + V p e st = Vi e st
( sRC + 1 )V p = Vi
Vi
Vp =
1 + sRC
Vi
Thus, vPS = ⋅ e st
1 + sRC easy!
is particular solution to Vi e st
Vi
ly ⋅ e jω t solution for i V e jω t
1 + jωRC
where we replace s = jω

Vp complex amplitude

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 9

2 Fourth try to find vP…
using the sneaky approach

## Fact 1: Finding the response to

Vi e jω t
was easy.

Fact 2: vI = Vi cos ωt
= real[Vi e jω t ] = real[vIS ]

## from Euler relation,

e jω t = cos ωt + j sin ωt

## real vI response vP real

part vIS response vPS part

## an inverse superposition argument,

assuming system is real, linear.

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 10

2 Fourth try to find vP…
so, complex

## vP = Re[vPS ] = Re[V p e jωt ]

 Vi 
= Re  ⋅ e jω t 
1+ jωRC 

Vi (1 − jωRC ) jω t 
= Re ⋅e
 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 

 Vi j φ jω t 
= Re  ⋅ e e  , tan φ = −ωRC
 1+ω R C
2 2 2

 Vi j( ωt +φ ) 
= Re  ⋅ e 
 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
Vi
vP = ⋅ cos( ωt + φ )
1+ω R C2 2 2

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 11

3 Find vH

−t
Recall, vH = Ae RC

## 4 Find total solution

vC = vP + vH
t
Vi −
vC = cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae RC

1+ω R C
2 2 2

so,
Vi
A=− cos(φ )
1+ ω R C
2 2 2

Done! Phew !

## We are usually interested only in the

particular solution for sinusoids,
i.e. after transients have died.
t

Notice when t → ∞, vC → vP as e RC
→0
0
t
Vi −
vC = cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae RC

1+ω R C
2 2 2

Vi
A=− cos(φ )
1+ ω R C
2 2 2

Vp
∠Vp
Described as

## All information about SSS is contained

in Vp , the complex amplitude!

Recall Vi Steps 3 , 4
Vp = were a waste of
1 + jωRC
time!
Vp 1
=
Vi 1+ jωRC
Vp 1
= e jφ where
Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
φ = tan −1 − ωRC

Vp 1
magnitude =
Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
Vp
phase φ : ∠ = − tan −1 ωRC
Vi

## Visualizing the process of finding the

particular solution vP

Vi cos ωt D.E.
drive V p cos[ωt + ∠V p ]
+
nightmare
particular
trig.
solution

algebraic
sneak
equation take
in
+ real
Vi e jωt
complex part
drive
algebra V p e jω t

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 16

Magnitude Plot

transfer function
Vp Vp 1
H ( jω ) = =
Vi Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

Vp
1
Vi

log
scale
ω
log 1
ω=
scale RC

## From demo: explains vo fall off

for high frequencies!

Phase Plot

φ = tan −1 − ωRC

Vp
φ =∠
Vi
1
ω=
RC ω
0
log scale
π

4
π

2