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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

Sinusoidal Steady State

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 1

Review

„ We now understand the why of:

5V v
R
L

„Today, look at response of networks


to sinusoidal drive.
Sinusoids important because signals can be
represented as a sum of sinusoids. Response to
sinusoids of various frequencies -- aka frequency
response -- tells us a lot about the system

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 2

Motivation

For motivation, consider our old friend,


the amplifier: V S

Demo
vO
R vC

vi +

CGS
VBIAS +

Observe vo amplitude as the frequency of the


input vi changes. Notice it decreases with
frequency.
Also observe vo shift as frequency changes
(phase).

Need to study behavior of networks for


sinusoidal drive.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 3

Sinusoidal Response of RC Network

Example:
iC
R +
vI +
– vC

vI (t ) = Vi cos ω t for t ≥ 0 (Vi real)


=0 for t < 0
vC (0) = 0 for t = 0
vI

0 t

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 4

Our Approach
Example:

iC

R +

vI
+
– vC

Determine vC(t)

e m e!

Effort

Ind ulg
Usual
approach
agony

sneaky approach
very
sneaky
easy

re

e

0

:0

ur
:
2
:
0
tu

1
2
11

11

ct

lec

le
is

t
Th

ex
N

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 5

Let’s use the usual approach…

1 Set up DE.
2 Find vp.
3 Find vH.
4 vC = vP + vH, solve for unknowns
using initial conditions

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 6

Usual approach…

1 Set up DE

dvC
RC + vC = vI
dt
= Vi cos ω t

That was easy!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 7

2 Find vp
dvP
RC + vP = Vi cos ωt
dt

First try: vP = A Æ nope


Second try: vP = A cos ωt Æ nope

Third try: vP = A cos(ωt + φ ) frequency


amplitude phase

− RCAω sin(ωt + φ ) + A cos(ωt + φ ) = Vi cos ωt

− RCAω sin ωt cos φ − RCAω cos ωt sin φ +


A cos ωt cos φ − A sin ωt sin φ = Vi cos ωt

..
. gasp !

works, but trig nightmare!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 8


Let’s get sneaky!
Find particular solution to another input…
dvPS
RC + vPS = vIS (S: sneaky :-))
dt
= Vi e st
Try solution PS = st
v V p e Nice
dV p e st property
RC + V p e st = Vi e st of
dt exponentials
sRCV p e st + V p e st = Vi e st
( sRC + 1 )V p = Vi
Vi
Vp =
1 + sRC
Vi
Thus, vPS = ⋅ e st
1 + sRC easy!
is particular solution to Vi e st
Vi
ly ⋅ e jω t solution for i V e jω t
1 + jωRC
where we replace s = jω

Vp complex amplitude

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 9


2 Fourth try to find vP…
using the sneaky approach

Fact 1: Finding the response to


Vi e jω t
was easy.

Fact 2: vI = Vi cos ωt
= real[Vi e jω t ] = real[vIS ]

from Euler relation,


e jω t = cos ωt + j sin ωt

real vI response vP real


part vIS response vPS part

an inverse superposition argument,


assuming system is real, linear.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 10


2 Fourth try to find vP…
so, complex

vP = Re[vPS ] = Re[V p e jωt ]

 Vi 
= Re  ⋅ e jω t 
1+ jωRC 

Vi (1 − jωRC ) jω t 
= Re ⋅e
 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 

 Vi j φ jω t 
= Re  ⋅ e e  , tan φ = −ωRC
 1+ω R C
2 2 2

 Vi j( ωt +φ ) 
= Re  ⋅ e 
 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
Vi
vP = ⋅ cos( ωt + φ )
1+ω R C2 2 2

Recall, vP is particular response to Vi cos ωt .

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 11


3 Find vH

−t
Recall, vH = Ae RC

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 12

4 Find total solution


vC = vP + vH
t
Vi −
vC = cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae RC

1+ω R C
2 2 2

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC )

Given vC(0) = 0 for t = 0


so,
Vi
A=− cos(φ )
1+ ω R C
2 2 2

Done! Phew !

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 13

Sinusoidal Steady State

We are usually interested only in the


particular solution for sinusoids,
i.e. after transients have died.
t

Notice when t → ∞, vC → vP as e RC
→0
0
t
Vi −
vC = cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae RC

1+ω R C
2 2 2

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC )


Vi
A=− cos(φ )
1+ ω R C
2 2 2

Vp
∠Vp
Described as
SSS: Sinusoidal Steady State

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 14

Sinusoidal Steady State

All information about SSS is contained


in Vp , the complex amplitude!

Recall Vi Steps 3 , 4
Vp = were a waste of
1 + jωRC
time!
Vp 1
=
Vi 1+ jωRC
Vp 1
= e jφ where
Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
φ = tan −1 − ωRC

Vp 1
magnitude =
Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2
Vp
phase φ : ∠ = − tan −1 ωRC
Vi

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 15

Sinusoidal Steady State

Visualizing the process of finding the


particular solution vP

Vi cos ωt D.E.
drive V p cos[ωt + ∠V p ]
+
nightmare
particular
trig.
solution

algebraic
sneak
equation take
in
+ real
Vi e jωt
complex part
drive
algebra V p e jω t

the sneaky path!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 16

Magnitude Plot

transfer function
Vp Vp 1
H ( jω ) = =
Vi Vi 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

Vp
1
Vi

log
scale
ω
log 1
ω=
scale RC

From demo: explains vo fall off


for high frequencies!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 17

Phase Plot

φ = tan −1 − ωRC

Vp
φ =∠
Vi
1
ω=
RC ω
0
log scale
π

4
π

2

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 16 18