## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

002

CIRCUITS AND

ELECTRONICS

Sinusoidal Steady State

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

1

Review

We now understand the why of: 5V R L C v

**Today, look at response of networks to sinusoidal drive.
**

Sinusoids important because signals can be represented as a sum of sinusoids. Response to sinusoids of various frequencies -- aka frequency response -- tells us a lot about the system

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

2

Motivation

**For motivation, consider our old friend, the amplifier: V
**

S

Demo

vO

R vi VBIAS + – + – CGS

vC

Observe vo amplitude as the frequency of the input vi changes. Notice it decreases with frequency. Also observe vo shift as frequency changes (phase). Need to study behavior of networks for sinusoidal drive.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

3

Sinusoidal Response of RC Network

Example: iC

vI + –

R

+ vC –

vI (t ) = Vi cos ω t =0 vC (0) = 0

for t ≥ 0 (Vi real) for t < 0 for t = 0

vI

0

t

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

4

Our Approach

Example:

R iC

+

vC

–

vI

+ –

Determine vC(t)

Effort

Usual approach

dulge me!

In

agony

easy

sneaky approach very sneaky

6.002 Fall 2000

lec tu re 11 :0

0 11 :2

0

12 N ex

:0 t

0 le ct ur e

t

Th is

Lecture

16

5

Let’s use the usual approach…

1 2 3 4 Set up DE. Find vp. Find vH.

vC = vP + vH,

solve for unknowns using initial conditions

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

6

Usual approach…

1

Set up DE

RC

dvC + vC = vI dt = Vi cos ω t

That was easy!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

7

2

Find vp

dvP + vP = Vi cos ωt RC dt

First try: Second try: Third try:

vP = A vP = A cos ωt

Æ nope Æ nope

vP = A cos(ωt + φ ) frequency amplitude phase

− RCAω sin(ωt + φ ) + A cos(ωt + φ ) = Vi cos ωt − RCAω sin ωt cos φ − RCAω cos ωt sin φ + A cos ωt cos φ − A sin ωt sin φ = Vi cos ωt

. . .

gasp !

works, but trig nightmare!

**6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
**

16

8

**Let’s get sneaky!
**

Find particular solution to another input…

dvPS + vPS = vIS RC dt = Vi e st vPS = V p e st Try solution RC dV p e st

(S: sneaky :-))

Nice property of exponentials

dt sRCV p e st + V p e st = Vi e st ( sRC + 1 )V p = Vi Vi Vp = 1 + sRC

+ V p e st = Vi e st

**Vi ⋅ e st 1 + sRC is particular solution to Vi e st
**

Thus, vPS = ly

Vi ⋅ e jω t 1 + jωRC

easy!

**Vi e jω t solution for where we replace s = jω
**

complex amplitude

Vp

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

9

2

Fourth try to find vP… using the sneaky approach

Fact 1: Finding the response to Vi e jω t was easy. Fact 2: vI = Vi cos ωt = real[Vi e jω t ] = real[vIS ]

from Euler relation, e jω t = cos ωt + j sin ωt

real part

vI response vP

vIS response vPS

real part

**an inverse superposition argument, assuming system is real, linear.
**

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

10

2 Fourth try to find vP… so,

complex

vP = Re[vPS ] = Re[V p e jωt ]

Vi = Re ⋅ e jω t 1+ jωRC

Vi (1 − jωRC ) ⋅ e jω t = Re 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

Vi j φ jω t = Re ⋅ e e , tan φ = −ωRC 2 2 2 1+ω R C Vi = Re ⋅ e j( ωt +φ ) 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

vP =

Vi 1+ω R C

2 2 2

⋅ cos( ωt + φ )

**Recall, vP is particular response to Vi cos ωt .
**

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

11

3

Find vH

Recall,

vH = Ae

−t RC

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

12

4

Find total solution

vC = vP + vH

vC = Vi 1+ω R C

2 2 2

cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae

−

t RC

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC )

Given vC(0) = 0 for t = 0 so, Vi A=− cos(φ ) 2 2 2 1+ ω R C Done!

Phew !

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

13

Sinusoidal Steady State

We are usually interested only in the particular solution for sinusoids, i.e. after transients have died. Notice when t → ∞, vC → vP as e

vC = Vi 1+ω R C

2 2 2 − t RC

→0

t RC

0

cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae

−

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC ) Vi A=− cos(φ ) 2 2 2 1+ ω R C

Vp

Described as SSS: Sinusoidal Steady State

∠Vp

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

14

Sinusoidal Steady State

**All information about SSS is contained in Vp , the complex amplitude! Recall
**

Vi Vp = 1 + jωRC

Steps 3 , 4 were a waste of time!

Vp

1 = Vi 1+ jωRC Vp Vi = 1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 e jφ where

φ = tan −1 − ωRC

magnitude

Vp Vi Vp Vi

=

phase φ : ∠

= − tan −1 ωRC

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

15

Sinusoidal Steady State

Visualizing the process of finding the particular solution vP

Vi cos ωt drive

D.E. + nightmare trig.

V p cos[ωt + ∠V p ]

particular solution

sneak in Vi e jωt drive

algebraic take equation real + part complex algebra V p e jω t

**the sneaky path!
**

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

16

Magnitude Plot

transfer function Vp H ( jω ) = Vi

Vp Vi

=

1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

Vp Vi

1

log scale log scale

1 ω= RC

ω

From demo: explains vo fall off for high frequencies!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

17

Phase Plot

φ = tan −1 − ωRC

φ =∠

Vp Vi

ω=

0

1 RC

− −

π π

4 2

log scale

ω

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

18

- Mathematics - IIIuploaded bySachin Thakur
- 20B_student_supplementuploaded bylosershoes
- Dave's Short Course in Complex Numbersuploaded byPaul Benedict
- Complex Numbers 1 2 Handout 2x2uploaded bykadung3394
- Study Sheetuploaded byawesomeamy071
- Basics-Of-Control-Systems.pdfuploaded byvasudevananish
- D. G. Crighton, A. P. Dowling, J. E. Ffowcs Williams, M. Heckl, F. G. Leppington (auth.)-Modern Methods in Analytical Acoustics_ Lecture Notes-Springer-Verlag London (1992).pdfuploaded byKalambilYunus
- Appendix Auploaded byRogmary Dominguez
- Cardano's Method Cubic Examplesuploaded byjesusgameboy
- syllabus_OM013uploaded byJin Siclon
- Dynamics 70 M3 Harmonicuploaded byMaria Lavinia Iordache
- C03-P001-P010uploaded by何凱翔
- Nov 2001uploaded byapi-26543952
- orban unitplan reflectionuploaded byapi-262578801
- 01626576uploaded byAnonymous Gmk3t4Q
- Tsanguploaded byschelanko
- Grade 11 Math Final Exam Review 2012uploaded byBurns_1212
- 12 Mathematics Calculus Application of Derivatives 05 Answer b77auploaded byDeepak prasad
- 4MA0_3HR_que_20160526uploaded byabhay
- Lecture 4uploaded bydilawar sumra
- MATH2014 - Tutorial 04 Solnuploaded byho
- HNCD Engineering Unitsuploaded byKrista Jackson
- Budynas SM Ch01uploaded byHarold Aguirre
- Trigo Plateuploaded byJohn Astronomo Bacus
- PRSET2KM473uploaded byJason
- Updoc.tips Control Lab 1docxuploaded byyeen
- CAPE 2007 PureMathematicsuploaded byNefta Baptiste
- Sarawak C Add Math P2 2008uploaded bygigi_pan
- Odesuploaded bySubhash Chandra Pal
- Units - Engineering Unitsuploaded byMuath Youssef Jaber-Jordan

- demo21uploaded byMitpdf
- 6002L25uploaded byMitpdf
- 6002L22uploaded byMitpdf
- demo21RPuploaded byMitpdf
- demo18RPuploaded byMitpdf
- demo23uploaded byMitpdf
- demo28uploaded byMitpdf
- demo26uploaded byMitpdf
- demo18uploaded byMitpdf
- demo24uploaded byMitpdf
- demo27uploaded byMitpdf
- demo19Buploaded byMitpdf
- 6002L24uploaded byMitpdf
- 6002L23uploaded byMitpdf
- demo25uploaded byMitpdf
- demo07uploaded byMitpdf
- demo20uploaded byMitpdf
- demo08uploaded byMitpdf
- demo17uploaded byMitpdf
- demo12uploaded byMitpdf
- demo19uploaded byMitpdf
- demo10uploaded byMitpdf
- demo17Auploaded byMitpdf
- demo19Auploaded byMitpdf
- demo11uploaded byMitpdf
- demo06uploaded byMitpdf
- demo22uploaded byMitpdf
- demo09uploaded byMitpdf
- demo15uploaded byMitpdf
- demo13uploaded byMitpdf

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading