6.

002

CIRCUITS AND
ELECTRONICS

Sinusoidal Steady State

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

1

Review
„

We now understand the why of: 5V R L C v

„Today, look at response of networks to sinusoidal drive.
Sinusoids important because signals can be represented as a sum of sinusoids. Response to sinusoids of various frequencies -- aka frequency response -- tells us a lot about the system

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

2

Motivation

For motivation, consider our old friend, the amplifier: V
S

Demo
vO

R vi VBIAS + – + – CGS

vC

Observe vo amplitude as the frequency of the input vi changes. Notice it decreases with frequency. Also observe vo shift as frequency changes (phase). Need to study behavior of networks for sinusoidal drive.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
16
3

Sinusoidal Response of RC Network

Example: iC

vI + –

R

+ vC –

vI (t ) = Vi cos ω t =0 vC (0) = 0

for t ≥ 0 (Vi real) for t < 0 for t = 0

vI
0

t

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

4

Our Approach
Example:
R iC
+
vC

vI
+ –

Determine vC(t)

Effort
Usual approach

dulge me!
In

agony

easy

sneaky approach very sneaky

6.002 Fall 2000

lec tu re 11 :0

0 11 :2
0
12 N ex
:0 t
0 le ct ur e

t

Th is

Lecture

16

5

Let’s use the usual approach…

1 2 3 4 Set up DE. Find vp. Find vH.

vC = vP + vH,

solve for unknowns using initial conditions

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

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Usual approach…

1

Set up DE

RC

dvC + vC = vI dt = Vi cos ω t

That was easy!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

7

2

Find vp
dvP + vP = Vi cos ωt RC dt

First try: Second try: Third try:

vP = A vP = A cos ωt

Æ nope Æ nope

vP = A cos(ωt + φ ) frequency amplitude phase

− RCAω sin(ωt + φ ) + A cos(ωt + φ ) = Vi cos ωt − RCAω sin ωt cos φ − RCAω cos ωt sin φ + A cos ωt cos φ − A sin ωt sin φ = Vi cos ωt

. . .

gasp !

works, but trig nightmare!

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
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Let’s get sneaky!
Find particular solution to another input…

dvPS + vPS = vIS RC dt = Vi e st vPS = V p e st Try solution RC dV p e st

(S: sneaky :-))
Nice property of exponentials

dt sRCV p e st + V p e st = Vi e st ( sRC + 1 )V p = Vi Vi Vp = 1 + sRC

+ V p e st = Vi e st

Vi ⋅ e st 1 + sRC is particular solution to Vi e st
Thus, vPS = ly
Vi ⋅ e jω t 1 + jωRC

easy!

Vi e jω t solution for where we replace s = jω
complex amplitude

Vp
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture

16

9

2

Fourth try to find vP… using the sneaky approach

Fact 1: Finding the response to Vi e jω t was easy. Fact 2: vI = Vi cos ωt = real[Vi e jω t ] = real[vIS ]

from Euler relation, e jω t = cos ωt + j sin ωt

real part

vI response vP

vIS response vPS

real part

an inverse superposition argument, assuming system is real, linear.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
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2 Fourth try to find vP… so,

complex
vP = Re[vPS ] = Re[V p e jωt ]

 Vi  = Re  ⋅ e jω t   1+ jωRC
Vi (1 − jωRC ) ⋅ e jω t  = Re  1 + ω 2 R 2C 2   
Vi  j φ jω t  = Re  ⋅ e e  , tan φ = −ωRC 2 2 2   1+ω R C Vi   = Re  ⋅ e j( ωt +φ )   1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 

vP =

Vi 1+ω R C
2 2 2

⋅ cos( ωt + φ )

Recall, vP is particular response to Vi cos ωt .
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
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3

Find vH
Recall,
vH = Ae
−t RC

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

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4

Find total solution

vC = vP + vH
vC = Vi 1+ω R C
2 2 2

cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae

t RC

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC )

Given vC(0) = 0 for t = 0 so, Vi A=− cos(φ ) 2 2 2 1+ ω R C Done!

Phew !

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

13

Sinusoidal Steady State

We are usually interested only in the particular solution for sinusoids, i.e. after transients have died. Notice when t → ∞, vC → vP as e
vC = Vi 1+ω R C
2 2 2 − t RC

→0
t RC

0

cos( ωt + φ ) + Ae

where φ = tan −1 ( −ωRC ) Vi A=− cos(φ ) 2 2 2 1+ ω R C

Vp

Described as SSS: Sinusoidal Steady State

∠Vp

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

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Sinusoidal Steady State

All information about SSS is contained in Vp , the complex amplitude! Recall
Vi Vp = 1 + jωRC

Steps 3 , 4 were a waste of time!

Vp

1 = Vi 1+ jωRC Vp Vi = 1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2 e jφ where

φ = tan −1 − ωRC

magnitude

Vp Vi Vp Vi

=

phase φ : ∠

= − tan −1 ωRC

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

16

15

Sinusoidal Steady State

Visualizing the process of finding the particular solution vP

Vi cos ωt drive

D.E. + nightmare trig.

V p cos[ωt + ∠V p ]
particular solution

sneak in Vi e jωt drive

algebraic take equation real + part complex algebra V p e jω t

the sneaky path!
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
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Magnitude Plot

transfer function Vp H ( jω ) = Vi

Vp Vi

=

1 1 + ω 2 R 2C 2

Vp Vi

1

log scale log scale

1 ω= RC

ω

From demo: explains vo fall off for high frequencies!

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

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Phase Plot

φ = tan −1 − ωRC
φ =∠
Vp Vi

ω=
0

1 RC

− −

π π
4 2

log scale

ω

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

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