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Table of Contents
West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs
Resolved: The abuse of illegal drugs ought to be treated as a matter of public health, not of criminal justice.
THESIS: For too long, the “War On Drugs” has ineffectively targeted supply-side approaches and canabalized billions in funding. Efforts at prevention were focused under the same war mentality that produced a stigma against all drug users. Most often, this stigma (together with poverty) discouraged drug users from seeking treatment. This Affirmative case argues that only by reversing the prohibition of drugs can we free up the necessary resources for a broad-based public health approach that emphasizes treatment. The use and abuse of drugs has touched most everyone’s lives in some way or another. In our frustration and fear, we tend to lashout at drug abusers as “undesirable” elements of society. To be sure, drug abuse is a devastating factoring in society today—one that destroys families, whole communities, and even destabilizes governments and national economies. However, if we just keep throwing everyone in jail, the problem continues to grow ever more out of control. Therefore, I stand Resolved: The abuse of illegal drugs ought to be treat as a matter of public health, not of criminal justice. I begin with a discussion of the two operative terms in this resolution: “public health” and “criminal justice”. “Public health” refers to many facets of society Australia's Health, 1996, “public health,” Appendix 4 – Glossary, Accessed 10-12-2010, http://www.aihw.gov.au/ ublications/aus/ah96/ah96-x04.html One of the efforts organised by society to protect, promote, and restore the people's health. It is the combination of sciences, skills, and beliefs that are directed to the maintenance and improvement of the health of all the people through collective or social actions. The programs, services, and institutions involved emphasise the prevention of disease and the health needs of the population as a whole. Public health activities change with changing technology and social values, but the goals remain the same: to reduce the amount of disease, premature death, and diseaseproduced discomfort and disability in the population. Public health is thus a social institution, a discipline, and a practice. “Criminal justice” refers to all aspects of crime and subsequent punishment US Legal, 2010, “Criminal Justice,” http://definitions.uslegal.com/c/criminal-justice/, Accessed 10-12-2010, Criminal justice is a broad term covering topics such as the procedure by which criminal conduct is investigated, evidence gathered, arrests made, charges brought, defenses raised, trials conducted, sentences rendered and punishment carried out. Research studies issues such as examinations of adult and juvenile offender characteristics, sentencing trends, correctional facility overcrowding, justice system expenditures, treatment programs, minorities in the juvenile justice system, juvenile court cases, criminal history records, and much more. The important distinction in the resolution lies the choice between addressing drug addiction as a health issue that affects the entire community and nation, or as a criminal issue where we lock ‘em up and throw away the key! As such, I will defend the social welfare as a value. WordIQ.com, 2010, “Social welfare – Definition,” http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Social_welfare, Accessed 1012-2010 Social welfare can be taken to mean “the welfare or well-being of a society.” In economics, the utility of people considered in aggregate. For social welfare in the economic sense, see welfare economics and social welfare function. -the provision of a wide range of social services, for the benefit of individual citizens. This usage is closely related to the idea of the welfare state. Social welfare should be distinguished from welfare. In the United States, welfare is sometimes a synonym for the provision of financial aid in the form of social security. Social welfare may be associated with social work services. To determine what constitutes “social welfare”, I will employ simple utilitarianism, or the “greatest good for the greatest number of people.”
West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs Legalization Affirmative
OBSERVATION ONE: THE PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH A. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACHES EMPHASIZE TREATMENT FOR THE GREATER GOOD Gez Bevan, University of Sunderland, Faculty of Applied Sciences, 16 December 2009, “Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says,” Substance Abuse Policy, Accessed 10-9-2010, http://www.substanceabusepolicy.com/content/4/1/21 A public health approach to drug treatment emphasises the need for drug users in or accessing treatment, to reduce their harmful drug use, reduce drug use related risks such as sepsis and overdose and stay alive for longer. However a public health perspective in relation to problem drug use isn't always either apparent or readily understood and to that end there is still a significant need to continue the arguments and debate that treatment and interventions for problem and dependent drug users need to extend beyond an individualistic approach. For the purposes of discussion in this article public and population health will be used interchangeably. B. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACHES REDUCE ADDICTION, CRIME AND RECIDIVISM Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy, April 2008, “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority,” http://www1.spa.american.edu/justice/documents/2434.pdf, Accessed 10-8-2010 Treatment decreases drug problems, crime, and recidivism while improving health conditions. Treatment also saves money, and in today’s climate of growing fiscal constraints, it is imperative to re-evaluate spending priorities. Alcohol and other drug problems place a huge burden on our economy—resulting in high health care costs, productivity losses, and other expenses associated with crime and accidents (Belenko et al., 2005). A large portion of this economic burden falls on state justice systems (Join Together, 2006). OBSERVATION TWO: THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACH A. A LAW ENFORCEMENT APPROACH WILL NEVER STOP THE DRUG PROBLEM Martha Mendoza, Staff Writer, May 14, 2010, “In war on drugs, Obama refocuses as public health fight,” USA Today, Accessed 10-9-2010, http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2010-05-14-drugs-war_N.htm Harvard University economist Jeffrey Miron says the only sure thing taxpayers get for more spending on police and soldiers is more homicides. "Current policy is not having an effect of reducing drug use," Miron said, "but it's costing the public a fortune." From the beginning, lawmakers debated fiercely whether law enforcement — no matter how well funded and well trained — could ever defeat the drug problem. B. CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES UNDERMINE PUBLIC HEALTH POLICIES Alex Kreit, Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at Thomas Jefferson School of Law, March 2009, “Toward a Public Health Approach to Drug Policy,” Accessed 10-9-2010, http://www.acslaw.org/files/Kreit%20Issue%20Brief.pdf By contrast, public health policies, such as drug treatment and prevention measures, have played a secondary role in our drug strategy. This has led, for example, to a dramatic gap in drug treatment with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration estimating that in 2007 only 17.8% of persons who needed drug treatment received it, a number that has remained largely unchanged throughout the decade. Indeed, drug war advocates have actually opposed some state-level treatment initiatives – particularly those that offer treatment as an alternative to incarceration or remove certain classes of drug offenders from the criminal justice system – on the grounds that they would send a “soft on drugs” message.
The only question is whether their needs are met to by mafias and militias. the sooner we can begin the process of healing the scars of prohibition. to get a drink.” The Independent/UK. “The War on Drugs. B. and should be repealed. 41:4. THE SOONER WE LEGALIZE DRUGS. The only change was that they didn't have to turn to armed criminal gangs for it." People didn't drink much more. Senior Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute and Tibor R.cato. But there is no light at the end of this tunnel. again.. But when it is gone.pdf Repeal of prohibition would take the astronomical profits out of the drug business and destroy the drug kingpins who terrorize parts of our cities.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs Legalization Affirmative 4 OBSERVATION THREE: LEGALIZATION IS A PUBLIC HEALTH ALTERNATIVE A. “The Re-legalization of Drugs.org/view/2010/06/13-6 Many people understandably worry that legalization would cause a huge rise in drug use . longer than the Vietnam War. Machan. LEGALIZING DRUGS WILL NOT LEAD TO A MASSIVE INCREASE IN USE Johann Hari. 7th Ed.it had almost no effect at all.” Chapter 33. and . 2010. and violent crime. Accessed 1010-2010 Legalization has been labeled immoral by prohibitionists. a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and professor emeritus of philosophy at Auburn University. when drug addicts are treated not as immoral criminals but as ill people needing healthcare. There will always be millions of people who want to get drunk or stoned or high. Not only would there be less crime. just as ending alcohol prohibition did. INSTEAD OF PAINTING PEOPLE AS IMMORAL CRIMINALS Johann Hari. as well as a collection of geographic prosecriptions that kept bars or package stories distant from schools. It is not only the key to success in the battle against drug abuse. Similarly. Accessed 10-10-2010. it is also a reaffirmation of traditional American values. when the drug gangs are a bankrupted memory. Prohibition has failed. June 13. Okrent's dazzling history leaves us with one whisky-sharp insight above all others. 2009. Accessed 10-11-2010.as a study by Glenn Greenwald for the American Enterprise Institute found .. http://www. C. http://www.commondreams. and they didn't end up swigging poison.thefreemanonline.. but nothing could be further from the truth. April 1991. reform would also free federal agents to concentrate on terrorism and espionage and free local police agents to concentrate on robbery. . Now there were closing hours and age limits and Sunday blue laws.” The Independent/UK. LEGALIZATION TREATS ADDICTION AS A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN.org/view/2010/06/13-6 Ending drug prohibition seems like a huge heave.org/columns/the-re-legalization-of-drugs/#. drug use fell a little among the young. solving the problems of drug abuse. “How Can America's 'War on Drugs' Succeed When Prohibition Laws Failed?. burglary. Okrent says the end of alcohol prohibition "made it harder. STUDIES PROVE.org/pubs/handbook/hb111/hb111-33. and curing this nation’s addiction to drug laws. The War on Alcohol and the War on Drugs failed because they were.but the facts suggest this isn't the case. Staff Writer. who will grieve? American history is pocked by utopian movements that prefer glib wishthinking over a hard scrutiny of reality. CATO Handbook for Policymakers. Staff Writer. churches and hospitals. or by legal and regulated businesses. The war on drugs has lasted longer than Prohibition. beneath all the blather. It would reduce crime even more dramatically than did the repeal of alcohol prohibition. Reliance on individual initiative and responsibility is no sin. June 13. again. 2010. http://www. THE SOONER WE CAN OVERCOME ADDICTION Mark Thornton. but they always crest and crash in the end. REPEALING DRUG PROHIBITION REDUCES CRIME AND ALLOW LAW ENFORCEMENT TO FOCUS ON TERRORISM AND VIOLENT CRIME The CATO Institute. http://www.commondreams. Portugal decriminalized the personal possession of all drugs in 2001.” The Freeman. How can someone make a moral choice when one is in fact forced into a particular course of action? How is the fabric of society strengthened when we rely on guns and prisons to enforce behavior rather than letting behavior be determined by individual responsibility and family upbringing? The sooner we move toward re-legalization. not easier. Indeed. “How Can America's 'War on Drugs' Succeed When Prohibition Laws Failed?. a war on human nature. Accessed 10-11-2010. D.
and in society. NOT TREATING ADDICTION LIKE A DISEASE GUARANTEES A RELAPSE National Institute on Drug Abuse. Most patients require long-term or repeated episodes of care to achieve the ultimate goal of sustained abstinence and recovery of their lives.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. Addiction treatment must help the individual stop using drugs. National Institutes of Health.nida.S." . 2. and achieve productive functioning in the family. U.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 4085:obama-drug-czar-says-drug-addiction-is-a-health-problem&catid=50:local&Itemid=113. EVEN THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION SEES ADDICTION AS A PUBLIC HEALTH DISEASE James Wright. http://www. “Comparison of Relapse Rates Between Drug Addiction and Other Chronic Illnesses”)—that also have both physiological and behavioral components. Staff Writer. "Drugs are a public health problem as much as a public safety issue. This may explain why drug abusers are at risk for relapse even after long periods of abstinence and despite the potentially devastating consequences. otherwise known as the drug czar. 4. 2009. Department of Health and Human Services.nida. January 13. http://www. July 15. "Addiction is a disease and this disease can be treated.nih. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. National Institutes of Health." said Volkow.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 5 Legalization Affirmative DRUG ADDICTION IS A DISEASE 1.S.” Accessed 10-7-2010.nih. Effective treatment programs typically incorporate many components.html The report emphasizes that addiction is a chronic brain disease: that repeated drug exposure in those who are vulnerable triggers brain changes that result in the compulsive drug use and loss of control over drug-related behaviors that characterize addiction. the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. resulting in changes that persist long after drug use has ceased.” Accessed 10-9-2010.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. "Viewing addiction as a disease does not remove the responsibility of the individual. http://drugabuse. Treatment enables people to counteract addiction’s powerful disruptive effects on the brain and behavior and to regain control of their lives. at work.nih.nida. hypertension. National Institutes of Health. 2009. 5. Accessed 10-9-2010 President Obama 's chief adviser on national drug policy said that the administration has made a shift change on dealing with the problem of drug addiction. Because addiction is a disease.” Washington Informer. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide.washingtoninformer.” Accessed 10-7-2010. "It highlights the responsibility of the addicted person to get drug treatment and society's responsibility to make treatment available. The chronic nature of the disease means that relapsing to drug abuse is not only possible but also likely. “Obama Drug Czar Says Drug Addiction is a Health Problem. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide." 3. http://www. arguing that it is a health issue not one for the criminal justice system. with relapse rates similar to those for other well-characterized chronic medical illnesses—such as diabetes.” Accessed 10-7-2010. 2009. Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. U.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. “Drug Abusing Offenders Not Getting Treatment They Need in Criminal Justice System. and asthma (see figure. Drugs of abuse alter the brain’s structure and function. RESEARCH PROVES DRUG ADDICTION IS A CHRONIC BRAIN DISEASE National Institute on Drug Abuse. Department of Health and Human Services." said Richard Gil Kerlikowske. ADDICTION IS A DISEASE THAT REQUIRES LONG-TERM TREATMENT National Institute on Drug Abuse. ADDICTION REQUIRES A TREATMENT APPROACH National Institute on Drug Abuse. U. people cannot simply stop using drugs for a few days and be cured.com/index. addiction can be managed successfully. each directed to a particular aspect of the illness and its consequences.pdf Like other chronic diseases.pdf Addiction is a complex but treatable disease that affects brain function and behavior. treatment is not simple. BECAUSE IT IS A DISEASE. maintain a drug-free lifestyle. 2010.gov/newsroom/09/NR1-13.pdf Because drug abuse and addiction have so many dimensions and disrupt so many aspects of an individual’s life.S. http://www.
Private and employer-subsidized health plans also may provide coverage for treatment of addiction and its medical consequences. Mayo statistics estimate that 19. Additionally." Nixon said as he signed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. DRUG ADDICTION UNDERMINES PUBLIC HEALTH National Institute on Drug Abuse. in the United States.” Washington Informer.edu/justice/documents/2434. National Institutes of Health. The following year. and dependence have a huge direct and indirect economic impact on society through health care expenditures. a large portion of drug treatment is funded by local.pdf. heroin and others.american.nida. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. abuse. 3. 2. he said: "Public enemy No. It has been widely reported by various medical and social service organizations that employed drug abusers cost their employers about twice as much in medical and worker compensation claims as their drug-free co-workers. Unfortunately. it is necessary to wage a new. Staff Writer. State. and expenses associated with crime and injury.5 million people over the age of 12 use illegal drugs that include marijuana. and the broader community. Minn. managed care has resulted in shorter average stays.nih. In order to fight and defeat this enemy. May 14.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 4085:obama-drug-czar-says-drug-addiction-is-a-health-problem&catid=50:local&Itemid=113." 4. while a historical lack of or insufficient coverage for substance abuse treatment has curtailed the number of operational programs. the workplace. “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 6 Legalization Affirmative DRUG ADDICTION IS A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM 1.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. . Department of Health and Human Services. 2009. 1 in the United States is drug abuse. ALMOST 20 MILLION PEOPLE IN AMERICA ARE ADDICTED TO DRUGS James Wright. 2001. Department of Health and Human Services.com/news/health/2010-05-14-drugs-war_N. Staff Writer. show that 19.pdf Because drug abuse and addiction are major public health problems.usatoday. http://www.htm "This nation faces a major crisis in terms of the increasing use of drugs. DRUG ABUSE IS PUBLIC ENEMY #1 Martha Mendoza. http://www.” USA Today.nida. “Obama Drug Czar Says Drug Addiction is a Health Problem.S. drug abuse and addiction increase a person’s risk for a variety of other mental and physical illnesses related to a drug-abusing lifestyle or the toxic effects of the drugs themselves. 2010. a wide range of dysfunctional behaviors can result from drug abuse and interfere with normal functioning in the family.pdf Addiction is often more than just compulsive drug taking—it can also produce far-reaching consequences. http://www. cocaine. July 15. 2010. For example. Accessed 10-9-2010 Statistics compiled by the Mayo Clinic based in Rochester.. National Institutes of Health.S. U. DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTION ARE PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEMS National Institute on Drug Abuse.washingtoninformer. 5. 2009. April 2008. lost earnings.nih. 2006). Accessed 10-9-2010. Accessed 10-8-2010 Alcohol and other drug use. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. Obama refocuses as public health fight. funding public programs like Medicaid and child welfare systems (CASA.” Accessed 10-7-2010. The recent passage of parity for insurance coverage of mental health and substance abuse problems will hopefully improve this state of affairs. and Federal governments. http://www.” Accessed 10-7-2010. DRUG ABUSE OVERBURDENS HEALTH CARE SERVICES AND STATE BUDGETS Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy.” http://www1. Join Together.spa.000 deaths occur from people who are addicted to illegal drugs. “In war on drugs.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT.com/index. U. all-out offensive. particularly among our young people. The heaviest economic burden of alcohol and other drug problems falls on states and localities.
thus the health of populations becomes a pivotal part of the treatment rationale. National Institutes of Health. as Kerlikowske is saying. then other.nih. a change that won't really be noticed until a long time in the future. such as incarcerating addicted persons.000 per person. Accessed 10-9-2010. and fewer drug-related accidents. Drug addiction treatment has been shown to reduce associated health and social costs by far more than the cost of the treatment itself.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT.” Accessed 10-7-2010. it is potentially something far more significant: a sharp left turn in terms of the perspective from which the drug problem is approached. Department of Health and Human Services. the government now believes that drugs cannot be defeated in a warlike manner. But given the path we've been on for so long.nida.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. When savings related to health care are included.700 per patient. EVERY $1 INVESTED IN TREATMENT IS $4-$7 IN REDUCED CRIMINAL ACTIVITY National Institute on Drug Abuse. Kerlikowske says he wants to focus more on using proven public-health methods to treat drug addicts. “The Last Drug Czar.S. http://www.nih. and theft. total savings can exceed costs by a ratio of 12 to 1.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 7 Legalization Affirmative PUBLIC HEALTH TREATMENT IS MORE EFFECTIVE 1. greater workplace productivity. .” Substance Abuse Policy. 4.S. every $1 invested in addiction treatment programs yields a return of between $4 and $7 in reduced drug-related crime. U.pdf Substance abuse costs our Nation over one half-trillion dollars annually. criminal justice costs. In keeping with what Obama has said about basing federal policy on evidence and sound science. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. 16 December 2009. National Institutes of Health. http://www. TREATMENT APPROACHES ARE MORE COST EFFECTIVE THAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE National Institute on Drug Abuse. Faculty of Applied Sciences. 2009. U.” The American Prospect. long-neglected tools must be pulled off the shelf. including overdoses and deaths. 2. 2009. and treatment can help reduce these costs. http://www. curb the harm they do to themselves and their communities. To make it all politically palatable. TREATMENT UNDER A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE CREATES AN IMPERATIVE FOR MULTIFACETED UNDERSTANDING AND BETTER SOLUTIONS Gez Bevan.com/content/4/1/21 The Public Health imperative behind substance misuse treatments is best demonstrated when the rationale for drug treatment accepts that for many who receive treatment it is a chronic and frequently relapsing condition. 3.nida. The purpose behind treatment needs to move away from an individualistic approach to one which recognises drug users exist in many and varied relationships and as part of several communities. and combat drug use in general. both for the individual and the communities they reside within. Accessed 10-132010 via Lexis Nexis If. July-August. whereas 1 full year of imprisonment costs approximately $24. “Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says. University of Sunderland. A public health imperative for the delivery of drug treatments can be seen to be effective in minimising the harm associated with drug use. Treatment is also much less expensive than its alternatives.” Accessed 10-7-2010. For example. 2009. this type of change is being presented as a shift in emphasis and being compared--like everything these days--to a slow change in the course of an ocean liner. TAKING A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH IS A SHARP TURN AWAY FROM ENFORCEMENT Eli Sanders. Major savings to the individual and to society also stem from fewer interpersonal conﬂicts. senior staff writer.substanceabusepolicy. Department of Health and Human Services.pdf According to several conservative estimates. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. the average cost for 1 full year of methadone maintenance treatment is approximately $4.
gov/newsroom/09/NR1-13. “Drug Abusing Offenders Not Getting Treatment They Need in Criminal Justice System. University of Sunderland. Department of Health and Human Services. . “Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says.e. PUBLIC HEALTH SHOULD BE THE FOUNDATION OF ANY DRUG STRATEGY Gez Bevan. programmes and interventions aimed at reducing the harm caused by problem drug use. requiring ongoing management over a number of years or decades. U. TREATMENT IS ESSENTIAL TO PROTECTING PUBLIC HEALTH National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institutes of Health. "to reduce the health.pdf Indeed. and treatment for addiction can help prevent their spread.” Accessed 10-7-2010. A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH RELIES ON SOUND SCIENCE AND BEHAVIOR ADAPTATION National Institute on Drug Abuse.substanceabusepolicy. http://www. These findings will be integrated with current evidence supporting the most effective drug abuse and addiction treatments and their implementation.” Accessed 10-9-2010. January 13. University of Sunderland. Faculty of Applied Sciences. where the consequences go beyond the individual and is a condition that can and does result in premature and avoidable deaths. A more precise definition from The International Harm Reduction Association is.S. 2009. http://www. which are reflected in this guide. Developing out of the rise of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in 1980s. 2009. “Problem drug use the public health imperative: what some of the literature says.html "Treating drug-abusing offenders improves public health and safety. There is a pressing need that public health principles should in fact be the foundation of all drug treatment interventions. Accessed 10-9-2010. which are heralding the development of personalized treatment interventions. Faculty of Applied Sciences. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. we will harness new research results on the influence of genetics and environment on gene function and expression (i. Accessed 10-9-2010. including increased risk for infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. scientific research and clinical practice demonstrate the value of continuing care in treating addiction. As we look toward the future.” Substance Abuse Policy. http://drugabuse. and that investment in drug treatment is sound public health policy. with a variety of approaches having been tested and integrated in residential and community settings. 16 December 2009." 3.substanceabusepolicy.. Providing drug abusers with treatment also makes it less likely that these abusers will return to the criminal justice system.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT.nih.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 8 Legalization Affirmative ONLY TREATMENT WORKS TO PROTECT THE PUBLIC HEALTH 1." said NIDA Director and report coauthor Dr. Harm reduction can broadly be argued to be a range of policies.com/content/4/1/21 So what exactly is a public health perspective in relation to problem drug use? The primary focus is one of reducing harm amongst identified populations.nida. drug abuse exacts serious health effects. epigenetics). social and economic harms associated with the use of psychoactive substances". and arguably the best way of achieving this is by minimising risk. Nora D. "In addition to the devastating social consequences for individuals and their families. harm reduction became a significant public health force putting the population health impact and consequences of problem drug use on the political agenda.” Substance Abuse Policy. “PUBLIC HEALTH” APPROACHES EMPHASIZE TREATMENT AND HARM REDUCTION Gez Bevan. Volkow.com/content/4/1/21 In the light of the evidence it is clear that problem drug use is frequently a chronic and relapsing condition. 2. http://www. 4. 16 December 2009.
As long as there are millions of Americans wanting.spa. “Toward a Public Health Approach to Drug Policy. “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority. Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Nearly half of high school seniors have used an illegal drug by the time they graduate. http://www. The government can go on forever increasing the number of Coast Guard boats. Accessed 10-8-2010 While most attempts to decrease the number of drug-related offenses have often solely emphasized drug interdiction and incarceration. the drugs. April 16.edu/justice/documents/2434.american.acslaw. April 2008. 2002).acslaw. Religion & Society. “Legalized Marijuana: A Pending Disaster. Accessed 10-12-2010. Howard. This philosophy has manifested itself in an almost singular focus on supply-side initiatives. research has shown that they have had minimal—if any—impact on decreasing substance abuse or the violence associated with criminal activity by individuals with alcohol and other drug problems (Marlowe. and law enforcement teams. 4.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 9 Legalization Affirmative CRIMINAL JUSTICE EFFORTS FAIL TO REDUCE ADDICTION 1. . Effectively addressing problems requires an integrated public health and public safety approach.pdf. 2. http://www. and many craving.pdf The problem is that the market works.heartland. March 2009.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/27488.” Accessed 10-9-2010.pdf The guiding tenet of the “war on drugs” strategy has been that vigorous enforcement of uncompromising criminal justice measures is the most effective method to reduce drug abuse and associated problems. THE WAR ON DRUGS PROMOTES A MILITARISTIC APPROACH TO ADDICTION THAT FAILS Alex Kreit. “Toward a Public Health Approach to Drug Policy. sniffing dogs. Despite an annual federal budget of over $13 billion – a number that does not include the costs of housing inmates who have been convicted of a drug offense – our drug control strategy appears to have had little impact on drug use rates or drug availability.” it is difficult to describe our drug policy as anything other than a failure. THE DRUG WAR HAS ONLY ESCALATED DRUG ABUSE Alex Kreit. senior fellow of the Howard Center for Family. but the drug trade will continue to flourish. 3. 2010. the huge sums of money to be made in providing the drugs will attract a limitless number of individuals willing to risk their freedom and even their lives to deliver the goods.org/files/Kreit%20Issue%20Brief.org/files/Kreit%20Issue%20Brief. CRIMINAL JUSTICE WILL NEVER WORK WITHOUT REDUCING DEMAND Dr. http://www.” http://www1. John A. more kids say it is easier for them to buy marijuana than alcohol. reconnaissance planes. and interdicting drugs at the border. and a 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) study of 17 countries found that the United States had the highest rates of illegal drug use. Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at Thomas Jefferson School of Law.pdf Nearly 40 years after President Richard Nixon signed the Controlled Substances Act into law and subsequently declared a “war on drugs.” Heartland Institute White Paper. including the mass incarceration of drug offenders at all levels of offense severity in an effort to deter domestic drug manufacture and distribution. along with a militaristic approach to eradicating drug production abroad. CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES HAVE NO REAL EFFECT ON PUBLIC HEALTH Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy. specially trained customs agents.” Accessed 10-9-2010. March 2009.
com/inquirer/currents/20101003_Only_ under_legalization_can_we_control_drug_use.” New York Times.html Education. as legislation sponsored by Senator Jim Webb has called for. THE HISTORY OF ALCOHOL PROVES PROHIBITION WILL NEVER WORK Neill Franklin. Staff Writer.html Astonishingly. our health care outcomes such as life expectancy and infant mortality are unusually poor. Never has.virtually our only such victory .philly. “It is not drugs that cause the problems.org/blog/view/the_war_on_drugs_is_a_war_on_people.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 10 Legalization Affirmative CRIMINAL JUSTICE EFFORTS FAIL TO REDUCE ADDICTION 1.” The Philadelphia Inquirer.not because we think they are safe. We have increased the number of people behind bars from roughly 500. We didn't have to send a single person to jail. and smart regulation work. we stand out in the high proportion of people who have no medical care — and partly as a result. the most he'll get is about a $100 a week. this is mainly the result of prohibition laws devised by ignorant middle-class puritans. Our greatest drug-related public health victory . no matter how draconian America's drug laws have become (and they really are outrageously severe). executive director of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition. 2009. as Macqueen's documentaries persuasively argued. “Priority Test: Health Care or Prisons?. Op-Ed Columnist. has less than 5 percent of the world's population. August 20. The incentives to deal . likewise. 2010. “The War on Drugs is a War on People. WE SHOULD LEGALIZE DRUGS AND SHIFT TO A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH Ethan Nadelmann. 3.3 million today – and altogether we now have over 7 million people under criminal justice supervision.has been the dramatic reduction in cigarette smoking. http://www. . WE NEED TO FUNDAMENTALLY RETHINK THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACH TO DRUGS Nicholas D. Accessed 10-14-2010. but almost 25 percent of the world's prisoners. founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance. never will. A young black or Latino dealer (and yes.but again.change. DRACONIAN DRUG LAWS FAIL TO REDUCE DRUG PRICES OR PRODUCTION James Delingpole. no surprise: whites statistically get a much easier deal) in a New York housing project can earn $15. http://www. August 21. they have not made the slightest difference to America's drugs economy. The United States is anomalous among industrialized countries in the high proportion of people we incarcerate. he served with the Maryland State Police and the Baltimore Police Department.even were it a capital offence .are simply too great. January 13. Prohibition doesn't. control. Remember the "noble experiment" of banning alcohol? More and more cops are saying we need to legalize drugs . not in health care or education. so that we’re no longer squandering money that would be far better spent on education or health. It’s time for a fundamental re-evaluation of the criminal justice system. the poor do suffer dreadfully as a result of drugs .com/2009/08/20/opinion/20kristof.” The Spectator. p. You Know It Makes Sense.nytimes. ranking first in the per capita incarceration of our fellow citizens. many politicians seem to think that we should lead the world in prisons. if he takes on a legal job befitting his education and training. Kristof.” http://criminaljustice. Accessed 10-14-2010 Nothing matters to me more than ending the war on drugs and reducing our extraordinary overreliance on the criminal justice system.000 people in 1980 to 2. October 3. The U. Yes. 2. 27.S. And that was achieved through education and regulation. Now you see why. “Only under legalization can we control drug use. and shift our drug policies to a health-based approach. 4. but because only through legalization can we regulate. it's the wholly unwinnable war on drugs. 2010. and keep them out of the hands of our children. Accessed 10-9-2010. I want to make marijuana legal. 2010.000 in a week dealing drugs. social pressure. decriminalize all drugs for personal use. I agree.
” Accessed 10-9-2010. Since 1989. and about 50 percent of the federal prison population consists of drug offenders. http://www. the crime rate has soared. March 2009. http://www. There are now about 480. rather than the criminal. Total drug arrests are now more than 1. Despite spending more money and imprisoning more people in our drug control effort than most other nations. “Toward a Public Health Approach to Drug Policy. it would be preferable to deal with these issues within the health.. In short.pdf Meanwhile. Despite the good news about crime in recent years. of the 2. WE IMPRISON MORE THAN RUSSIAN AND CHINA COMBINED FOR DRUG OFFENSES Ron Paul. The U.” Accessed 10-9-2010. 2010. after four decades. the more our Customs agents interdict. http://www. the more smugglers import. CATO Handbook for Policymakers.” April 20. 1. DRUG-BASED OVERCROWDING FOSTERS INTERGENERATIONAL POVERTY Robert Leeson was a W.” Chapter 33. Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at Thomas Jefferson School of Law. 4.acslaw. crime rates remain at high levels.5 million a year. http://www.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 11 Legalization Affirmative CRIMINAL JUSTICE EFFORTS JUST INCREASE PRISON POPULATIONS 1. as the price of drugs falls. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that almost 10 percent of imprisoned mothers have left behind at least one child in out-of-home care. Accessed 10-13-2010. Congressman (R-Texas) and Two-time Presidential Candidate. 7th Ed.” Hoover Digest No. the number of Americans incarcerated for drug offenses today is larger than the entire United States prison and jail population was in 1980. 5.org/files/Kreit%20Issue%20Brief. giving the United States the world’s highest reported incarceration rate.pdf Those billions have had some effect. Physician. HIGHER INCARCERATION RATES DO NOT CORRELATE TO LESS DRUG ABUSE OR VIOLENCE The CATO Institute. and yet criminals like Philip Garrido (Jaycee Lee Dugard's kidnapper) are out there able to rape and kidnap again and again. March 2009. our punitive approach to drug policy has been a leading cause of the explosion in our prison population. 2007. Since family breakdown is associated with intergenerational poverty and subsequent drug abuse. and a majority reported that they had used drugs in the month before their current offense. And most tragic.pdf To put that in perspective. Glenn Campbell and Rita Ricardo-Campbell National Fellow for 2006-2007 at the Hoover Institution. Accessed 10-10-2010. Cocaine and heroin supplies are up. . “The War on Drugs. (It is interesting that in his case. or the drug trade.org/pubs/handbook/hb111/hb111-33. “Addicted to the Drug War. 3. U. In the last 20 years alone. CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES RESULT IN HIGHER PRISON POPULATIONS Alex Kreit. Assistant Professor and Director of the Center for Law and Social Justice at Thomas Jefferson School of Law.org/files/Kreit%20Issue%20Brief. The War on Drugs skews the priorities of law enforcement to the detriment of the public. the national prison population has nearly tripled. or the crime associated with black-market transactions. And. a little marijuana caught the attention of law enforcement more than repeated reports from neighbors of children in his backyard). 2009. Accessed 10-14-2010. as was the case during Prohibition. http://www.3 million Americans in prison. more people have been incarcerated for drug offenses than for all violent crimes combined. 2.acslaw. Moreover. THE CURRENT DRUG-RELATED PRISON POPULATION IS LARGER THAN ALL SINCE 1980 Alex Kreit.S.S. all the arrests and incarcerations haven’t stopped the use and abuse of drugs. drug-related property crime would also fall. “Toward a Public Health Approach to Drug Policy. Obstetrics & Gynecology. approximately one quarter are there because of a drug offense.cnbc.hoover.000 drug offenders in jails and prisons. Yet. Hoover Institution. The prison industrial complex incarcerates more than a million parents of minor children: Between 2 percent and 3 percent of American children have a parent in jail. system.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6126 Eighty-five percent of parents in state prisons have a history of drug use. it is becoming increasingly clear that our current drug control strategy has not worked. we have among the highest drug use rates in the world. “End Insanity Of The War on Drugs —Start With Decriminalizing Marijuana at The Federal Level.com/id/36267220/End_Insanity_Of_The_War_on_ Drugs_Start_With_Decriminalizing_Marijuana_at_The_Federal_Level We imprison more of our population per capita than Russia or China ever have.cato.
Accessed 10-14-2010.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6763 The fact that minorities are arrested and incarcerated at vastly disproportionate rates for drug offenses contributes to false stereotypes and permits the continuation of one of the most irrational public policies in the history of the United States. “The American Junkie. The Hoover Institution. executive director of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition." The problem will not be solved at the margins. . thus throwing them back into the only place they are welcome. “Only under legalization can we control drug use. and cultures led to anti-drug legislation. who held many of the same racial. and deprives them of opportunities for advancement. the drug culture. These cherished misconceptions are the enduring and erroneous foundations of the ill-conceived “war on drugs. research fellow at the Hoover Institution and former chief of police for the city of San Jose.com/inquirer/currents/20101003_Only_ under_legalization_can_we_control_drug_use. and Jewish populations and their “strange” religions.hoover.html The War on Drugs targets the poorly educated. STEREOTYPES RESULT IN HIGHER BLACK INCARCERATION RATES Joseph D.hoover. McNamara.” Actually. 2. 2004. It's a self-perpetuating. who was not an alcohol prohibitionist. 2. as well as by a desire to develop America into one of the great world powers. THE WAR ON DRUGS IS RACIST. research fellow at the Hoover Institution and former chief of police for the city of San Jose. “The American Junkie. Accessed 10-14-2010. October 3. “The American Junkie. 2004. low-income. http://www.hoover. 2010. and class biases. Similar distortions in drug arrests and incarcerations apply to Hispanics. dysfunctional dance that yields street crime. Accessed 10-9-2010. 4. President Theodore Roosevelt. The problem is prohibition itself. 2.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 12 Legalization Affirmative THE WAR ON DRUGS IS A RACIST ENTERPRISE 1. ANTI-DRUG STEREOTYPES ARE NO DIFFERENT THAN OTHER RACIST STEREOTYPES Joseph D. Accessed 10-14-2010. http://www.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6763 Stereotypes created more than a century ago by nativist American elites targeting blacks. 2. legalized regulation.philly.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6763 The average white American’s image of drug users is that of dangerous young people of color—males who will rob them to obtain money to buy drugs or youthful black female prostitutes spreading disease and delivering crack babies as a result of enslavement to drugs. a policy that should be replaced with strict. 2004. research fellow at the Hoover Institution and former chief of police for the city of San Jose. http://www. Italian.” Hoover Digest No. Holland. France. and encourages kids to drop out of school to chase the remote possibility of the big score in "the dope game. Blacks make up approximately 15 percent of America’s drug users.” Hoover Digest No. but more than one-third of adults arrested for drug violations are black. for eighteen years. for eighteen years. McNamara. THE WAR ON DRUGS PROMOTES RACIALIZED STEREOTYPES ABOUR DRUG USERS Joseph D. for eighteen years. he served with the Maryland State Police and the Baltimore Police Department. 3. and Spain from compelling the unwilling China to accept highly profitable (for the exporting nations) opium shipments would win Chinese goodwill and allow Americans to compete with the colonial trading nations in opening the vast China market to other goods. Roosevelt. The Hoover Institution. German. languages. was motivated by an anti-opium attitude. needle-spread diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis. McNamara. ethnic. SPREADS CRIME AND DISEASE Neill Franklin. He hoped that stopping England. http://www. immigrant Irish. and people of color.” Hoover Digest No. the overwhelming majority of American drug users have historically been Caucasians.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. greatly encouraged the anti-drug groups. The Hoover Institution.
change. Third.drugpolicy. 2. First.org/pdf/tir/tir_11_03_05_thornton. steps taken by the public to insulate themselves from these crimes and civil liberty disruptions constitute additional social costs” (Paul and Wilhite 1994. 3.” Yet heroin.S.more than all of western Europe (with a bigger population) incarcerates for all offenses. Nearly half a million people are behind bars on drug charges .org/drugwar/. THE WAR ON DRUGS UNDERMINES SOCIAL WELFARE IN THREE WAYS Robert Leeson was a W. prohibition effectively supplies criminals with skills demanded by terrorists: specialized knowledge about how to cross borders undetected. former police chief of Kansas City. some of the revenue is used to corrupt police. Hoover Institution. 1.” http://www. The U. THE WAR ON DRUGS IS A WAR AGAINST FAMILIES AND GOOD PEOPLE Drug Policy Alliance. cocaine. 2010. Fourth. Second. Accessed 10-11-2010.” Hoover Digest No. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy?” The Independent Review. 114). enforce contracts and protect property risking harm or harming non-participants. Second. it's about fighting powerful vested interests in our society. In each case. make. it's about advancing freedom and justice. U. First. an environmentalist seeking to protect the Amazon rainforest or a fiscally conservative taxpayer you have a stake in ending the drug war. PROHIBITION UNDERMINES SOCIAL WELFARE FOR FIVE REASONS Mark Thornton.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 13 Legalization Affirmative THE WAR ON DRUGS UNDERMINES SOCIAL WELFARE 1. THE DRUG WAR IS THE HEART OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND VIOLATES FREEDOM Ethan Nadelmann. terrorists would harvest fewer bombs from planting poppies. state and local governments have spent hundreds of billions of dollars trying to make America “drug-free.” http://criminaljustice. Glenn Campbell and Rita Ricardo-Campbell National Fellow for 2006-2007 at the Hoover Institution.org/blog/view/the_war_on_drugs_is_a_war_on_people.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6126 The war on drugs weakens America and strengthens its enemies in at least five ways. federal. Finally. In each case. violence increases as sellers attempt to monopolize markets.independent.S. “Addicted to the Drug War. and San Jose. and use them – is driving this explosive increase in incarceration more than anything else. “What's Wrong With the Drug War?. arrests almost a million people for marijuana each year and over a half million people are behind bars tonight for a drug law violation.hoover. purer and easier to get than ever before. Accessed 10-14-2010 The drug war – the dominant role of the criminal justice system in dealing with certain drugs and the people who buy.pdf [With drug prohibition] competition for market control creates negative externalities which take several forms. a war on public health and a war on our constitutional rights. Third. The movement for drug policy reform stands in the footsteps of other movements for individual freedom and social justice – it currently stands where the gay rights movement stood in the 1970s. founder and executive director of the Drug Policy Alliance. “Prohibition versus Legalization. After decriminalization. or where the civil rights movement stood in the 1950s. prohibition helps finance terrorist operations. a social justice advocate worried about racially disproportionate incarceration rates. 2010. 11:3. . sell. senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. Missouri. http://www. Accessed 10-14-2010. as illustrated by the current ‘war on drugs. January 13. methamphetamine and other illicit drugs are cheaper.’ non-participants’ civil liberties are eroded as law enforcement agencies attempt to identify voluntary market participants. politicians and otherwise legitimate businesses. http://www. 4. prohibition contributes to the supply of drug-corrupted “gangster cops” (the title of a forthcoming book by Joe McNamara. “The War on Drugs is a War on People. Whether you’re a parent concerned about protecting children from drug-related harm. The war on drugs has become a war on families. California). as a consequence of the higher ‘monopoly’ price. Accessed 10-14-2010 Everyone has a stake in ending the war on drugs. 2007. the number and severity of crimes increase as buyers attempt to support their use. or where the women's rights movement stood in the early part of the 20th century. Winter 2007.
“Redefining Drug Use as Addiction. it is appropriate to reflect on how our current prohibition laws affect crime. . magnified. the price is too high.usatoday. Accessed 10-10-2010. http://www. 2010.who need treatment -. THE WAR ON DRUGS IS A FAILED ENTERPRISE Martha Mendoza. Accessed 10-13-2010. Congressman (R-Texas) and Two-time Presidential Candidate. drug czar Gil Kerlikowske concedes the strategy hasn't worked. "Forty years later. Identification of a problem does not mean that the government should undertake to solve it..cato. 3. Obstetrics & Gynecology." 4.S. law enforcement and the economy. if anything. CATO Handbook for Policymakers. the Number One factor that keeps profits up for dealers and cartels. The federal government has only the powers granted to it in the Constitution. Perhaps no area more clearly demonstrates the bad consequences of not following such rules than does drug prohibition. http://www. The prohibition on drugs leads to black market prices. and the fact that a problem occurs in more than one state does not mean that it is a proper subject for federal policy. Physician. And the United States has a tradition of individual liberty. Many will have the knee-jerk reaction of wanting to see more of a crackdown on illegal drugs. 2009.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 14 Legalization Affirmative PROHIBITION ONLY CREATES CRIME AND CRIMINALS 1. May 14. and for what? Drug use is rampant and violence even more brutal and widespread.org/discussion-guides/redefining-drug-use-addiction-not-criminal-behavior The drug problem has persisted.publicagenda.cnbc.htm 40 years. It generates crime and violence as dealers fight over turf and sales.” Chapter 33. “In war on drugs." Kerlikowske told The Associated Press. the concern about drugs and drug problems is.pdf Ours is a federal republic. it has not been successful. and ensures that organized crime dominates the market. U. the United States' war on drugs has cost $1 trillion and hundreds of thousands of lives. But I have to ask: Haven't we been cracking down on drugs for several decades only to see the black market flourish and the violence escalate? Could there be a more effective approach? The illegality of drugs is. http://www.” Accessed 10-7-2010.into criminals. heroin.org/pubs/handbook/hb111/hb111-33. intensified.” USA Today. Accessed 10-9-2010.com/id/36267220/End_Insanity_Of_The_War_on_ Drugs_Start_With_Decriminalizing_Marijuana_at_The_Federal_Level In light of the recent drug-related violence in Mexico. The war on drugs isn't working and even if it was. DRUG PROHIBITION TURNS PEOPLE WHO NEED TREATMENT INTO CRIMINALS Public Agenda. We'd be far better off if drug use were regarded as a health problem. DRUG PROHIBITION IS A FAILURE THAT INCREASES CRIME AND VIOLATES CIVIL LIBERTIES The CATO Institute. vigorous civil society. in fact.com/news/health/2010-05-14-drugs-war_N. Staff Writer. because we've gone at it the wrong way. 7th Ed. and in some respects worsened. “The War on Drugs. Obama refocuses as public health fight. and drug users steal to buy illicit substances at inflated prices.” April 20. DRUG PROHIBITION IS THE #1 FACTOR THAT ENSURES ORGANIZED CRIME FLOURISHES Ron Paul. “End Insanity Of The War on Drugs —Start With Decriminalizing Marijuana at The Federal Level. http://www. 2. We should legalize at least some drugs and reduce the harm they cause by regulating their sale and treating their victims. and other drugs has given us crime and corruption combined with a manifest failure to stop the use of drugs or reduce their availability to children. The long federal experiment in prohibition of marijuana. and limited government. cocaine. Not Criminal Behavior. "In the grand scheme. The drug laws turn users -. 2010.S. Even U. 2010.
Decriminalizing marijuana at the federal level would be a start. Staff Writer. 2010. American taxpayers would be relieved of these often counterproductive burdens. 1. Instead. has been supply-side oriented. gangsters rejoiced that they had just been handed one of the biggest markets in the country. Accessed 10-14-2010. create legitimate job opportunities in place of the black market. As the journalist Malcolm Bingay wrote: "It was absolutely impossible to get a drink. Across America. June 13. As law enforcement efforts become more concentrated. http://www.pdf American drug policy should be realigned according to the potential harms of drug abuse and the economic development needs of American cities. The war on drugs is responsible for almost one-quarter of the $40 billion swallowed up each year by the U. . 4.” The Independent/UK. but after 18 years. 2. it doesn't disappear. the U. Accessed 10-11-2010.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6126 Fifth.” April 20.S. through most of U. Accessed 10-11-2010.com/id/36267220/End_Insanity_Of_The_War_on_ Drugs_Start_With_Decriminalizing_Marijuana_at_The_Federal_Level Repeal of alcohol prohibition certainly did organized crime no favors. Obstetrics & Gynecology. prison system. profitable. WE NEED TO END THE INSANITY CALLED THE WAR ON DRUGS Ron Paul. A CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACH GUARANTEES ESCALATING VIOLENCE AND CRIME Mark Thornton. Winter 2007.org/pdf/tir/tir_11_03_05_thornton. unless you walked at least ten feet and told the busy bartender in a voice loud enough for him to hear you above the uproar. THE DRUG WAR FUELS CRIMINAL CORRUPTION Robert Leeson was a W. and even submarines to bring booze back. the drug industry becomes more violent. Glenn Campbell and Rita Ricardo-Campbell National Fellow for 2006-2007 at the Hoover Institution. PROHIBITION HAS UNLEASED MASSIVE CRIME AND VIOLENCE Johann Hari. little headway will ever be made in the battle to reduce drug addiction and abuse. “How Can America's 'War on Drugs' Succeed When Prohibition Laws Failed?.S. “Addicted to the Drug War. implicitly assuming that eradication of the source would miraculously reduce the demand for illicit drugs." So if it didn't stop alcoholism. Hoover Institution.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 15 Legalization Affirmative PROHIBITION ONLY CREATES CRIME AND CRIMINALS 1. Drug policy. with $245 million allocated for 2007. Physician. As long as drug policy ignores the demand side of the drug-use equation. Nobody who wanted a drink went without. U.org/view/2010/06/13-6 When you ban a popular drug that millions of people want.cnbc. successive “drug czars” have expanded their empires. 2010. 2007. and unleashed an Armada of freighters. Accessed 10-13-2010.” Hoover Digest No. and debilitating.S. steamers. Office of National Drug Control Policy has failed to curtail drug consumption while continuing to consume taxpayer funds.independent. Congressman (R-Texas) and Two-time Presidential Candidate.hoover.S.a massive unleashing of criminality and violence. 3. So too today. if we wanted to pull the rug out from under violent drug cartels. With decriminalization. “Prohibition versus Legalization. Many of those caught become permanently trapped in tangled webs woven by drug crusaders. 11:3. realign the priorities of law enforcement. http://www. it is transferred from the legal economy into the hand of armed criminal gangs. and make room in prison for the people that ought to be there. http://www. senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. http://www. The reality has been the persistence of a drug industry feeding on the demand for illicit psychoactive substances. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy?” The Independent Review. history. “End Insanity Of The War on Drugs —Start With Decriminalizing Marijuana at The Federal Level. we need to end the insanity of the War on Drugs. what did it achieve? The same as prohibition does today .commondreams.
A free market might lead to a substantial increase in the total amount of drugs consumed. PROHIBITION SPREADS CRIME AND DISEASE Drug Policy Alliance. http://www. our conclusion is that a free market in drugs is likely to be a far superior policy to current policies of drug prohibition. “What's Wrong With the Drug War?. executive director of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition. . So-called “drugrelated” crime is a direct result of drug prohibition's distortion of immutable laws of supply and demand.org/pdf/tir/tir_11_03_05_thornton.off at the knees.org/drugwar/. 3. however. “Prohibition versus Legalization.philly. On net. reduced property crime and a number of other channels." They realized that legalized regulation would sharply reduce the street violence and corruption that had reached historic highs.think Al Capone .html Our grandparents had the wisdom to end alcohol prohibition. The only smart way to cut them off at the knees is to abandon the futile paramilitary approach that keeps them and their street thugs armed and dangerous. Accessed 10-15-2010. Accessed 10-9-2010. 2010.” http://www. What the estimates provided here do provide are two additional reasons to end drug prohibition: reduced expenditure on law enforcement and an increase in tax revenue from legalized sales. “Only under legalization can we control drug use. But that policy would also produce substantial reductions in the harmful effects of drug use on third parties through reduced violence. They realized that police and judicial corruption. Accessed 10-11-2010. he served with the Maryland State Police and the Baltimore Police Department. but the drug war is worse. Accessed 10-14-2010 Many of the problems the drug war purports to resolve are in fact caused by the drug war itself.drugpolicy. ENDING DRUG PROHIBITION REDUCES CRIME AND CORRUPTION Ariel Goldring. Lexis Nexis. September 29. Winter 2007. Given the evidence. 2010. and unnecessary deaths from an unregulated drug were the inevitable result of a prohibition on consensual "crime. the existing evidence suggests the social costs of drug prohibition are vastly greater than its benefits” (Miron and Zwiebel 1995. The drug war is not the promoter of family values that some would have us believe. THE DRUG WAR IS NET WORSE THAN ADDICTION. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy?” The Independent Review. They were right. HISTORY SHOWS HOW REGULATED LEGALIZATION REDUCES CRIME Neill Franklin. None of these considerations weakens the critique of drug prohibition since that critique has always rested mainly on other considerations.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. 2. senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. tightly regulated market. The only thing today's cartels really fear is a legalized. 192). Children of inmates are at risk of educational failure. addiction and delinquency. October 3. 4.pdf The existing evidence relevant to drug policy is far from complete. street violence. corruption. not because they decided booze was a harmless drug far from it. http://www.com/inquirer/currents/20101003_Only_ under_legalization_can_we_control_drug_use. joblessness. THE BENEFITS OF LEGALIZATION OUTWEIGH THE COSTS Mark Thornton. Staff Writer. Public health problems like HIV and Hepatitis C are all exacerbated by zero tolerance laws that restrict access to clean needles. Drug abuse is bad. 11:3. such as the crime. while cutting the cartels of their day . 2010. “The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 16 Legalization Affirmative LEGALIZATION REDUCES CRIME 1. and curtailment of civil liberties that have been the side-effects of attempting to fight drug use with police officers and prisons.independent.” Free Market Mojo.
org/pubs/handbook/hb111/hb111-33. who report on federal surveys that it is easier for them to get illegal drugs than alcohol. Drug enforcement costs about $19 billion a year now in federal spending alone. October 3. By the end of 1933. Accessed 10-10-2010. Nationally today.S.philly. especially our children. Futile efforts to enforce prohibition have been pursued even more vigorously since the 1980s than they were in the 1920s. prison guards. “End Insanity Of The War on Drugs —Start With Decriminalizing Marijuana at The Federal Level. http://www.pdf In the 1920s. the rapists.cato. affordable. Today. prosecutors. LEGLIZATION CREATES MASSIVE SAVINGS FOR STATE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT BUDGETS Kate Waldock. September 29.html Yet today drugs are more potent. but harder to achieve than increased revenue because they require layoffs of police. Congress experimented with the prohibition of alcohol. Congressman (R-Texas) and Two-time Presidential Candidate. 2. we solved nearly 90 percent of all homicides nationally.” Huffington Post. U. Accessed 10-10-2010. 3.com/id/36267220/End_Insanity_Of_The_War_on_ Drugs_Start_With_Decriminalizing_Marijuana_at_The_Federal_Level During alcohol prohibition. though many states continued to outlaw or severely restrict the sale of liquor. profits rise for the remaining suppliers. and far more widely used by Americans. legalization would still free resources for more important criminal justice activities. Total federal expenditures for the first 10 years of Prohibition amounted to $88 million—about $1 billion in 2008 dollars. As a result. 2010. and so on. “Drug Legalization -. 1933. . Al Capone and others involved in organized crime made fortunes taking advantage of the dangerous and lucrative underground market the laws had created. But federal drug policies have shifted our focus from such crimes to mostly consensual nonviolent activities. 2010.. but it's not because of poor policing.com/katherine-waldock/drug-legalization-a-windf_b_744360. it's because of poor priorities . 2010.huffingtonpost. THE DRUG WAR KEEPS OUR PRISONS FULL WHILE MURDERS AND RAPISTS GO FREE Ron Paul. he served with the Maryland State Police and the Baltimore Police Department. FEDERAL DRUG ENFORCEMENT WASTES $19 BILLION EVERY YEAR The CATO Institute. Philadelphia defendants avoid prosecution in nearly two-thirds of violent-crime cases. of course. a new Congress acknowledged the failure of alcohol prohibition and sent the Twenty-First Amendment to the states. some people are literally getting away with murder.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 17 Legalization Affirmative LEGALIZATION FREES UP LAW ENFORCEMENT RESOURCES 1. In the 1960s.html One of our points is that legalization will both save money on law enforcement and generate tax revenue. however. Congress recognized that Prohibition had failed to stop drinking and had increased prison populations and violent crime. http://www. Congress confronts a similarly failed prohibition policy.cnbc. the child molesters.com/inquirer/currents/20101003_Only_ under_legalization_can_we_control_drug_use.” Chapter 33. On February 20. THE LAW ENFORCEMENT APPROACH SIPHONS POLICE RESOURCES TO SOLVE HOMICIDES Neill Franklin. are let out to make room for non-violent drug offenders. where cops don't belong in a free society. 4.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. Stern School of Business at New York University. Physician. judicial trials. national Prohibition was history. the murderers. Accessed 10-9-2010. The war on drugs keeps our prisons full to bursting at great expense to taxpayers. it is a disaster.a Windfall for State Budgets. doctoral candidate in economics at.which deflect our attention and resources away from those crimes. Obstetrics & Gynecology. http://www. but also at great danger to the public at large when the real criminals. 2009. These enforcement savings are significant.” April 20. Even without any reduction in expenditure. but make for very good business for dealers and cartels. and correction facilities. These types of economic forces are insurmountable for law enforcement. Every time law enforcement makes another bust. Accessed 10-13-2010. “Only under legalization can we control drug use. Law enforcement costs encompass police. “The War on Drugs. 7th Ed. we solve only six out of 10 homicides.the drug laws . For the rest of us. CATO Handbook for Policymakers. executive director of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition. http://www.
4. Roughly $25. Understandably.” http://www. States are also facing severe budget shortfalls.6 billion from legalization of other drugs. Understandably. “The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition.0 billion from legalization of other drugs.” The Philadelphia Inquirer.com/inquirer/opinion/20101003_Making_an_economic_case_for_legalizing_drugs.3 billion annually in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition.philly. Approximately $8.philly. LEGALIZATION SAVES OVER $40 BILLION IN GOVERNMENT FUNDING Jeffrey A.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana. October 3. Miron. Accessed 10-10-2010 State and federal governments face a daunting fiscal outlook. Stern School of Business at New York University.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs. some politicians. Stern School of Business at New York University.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana and $32. Of these savings. while $15. doctoral candidate in economics at. but the standard proposals for expenditure cuts or tax increases garner little support. director of undergraduate studies at Harvard University and senior fellow at the Cato Institute and Kate Waldock.pdf. Accessed 10-15-2010. 2010. LEGALIZATION WOULD SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCE FEDERAL AND STATE BUDGET DEFICITS Jeffrey A. Under current projections this ratio will rise to more than 75 percent of GDP by 2020 and continue increasing thereafter. Accessed 10-10-2010 In our recent study. Accessed 10-102010 Both politicians and the public express concern about the debt. http://www.html.3 billion annually. therefore.6 billion would accrue to the federal government. 2010.cato.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments.arrests. interest groups. and citizens have embraced unconventional approaches to closing fiscal gaps. therefore. just released by the Cato Institute. Miron. and $12. such as legalizing drugs. 3. 2. Staff Writer. . “Making an economic case for legalizing drugs. assuming legal drugs were taxed at rates comparable to those on alcohol and tobacco. and incarceration and by allowing governments to collect tax revenue on legalized sales. state.org/pubs/wtpapers/DrugProhibitionWP.7 billion would accrue to state and local governments. Approximately $8. such as legalizing drugs.html. Lexis Nexis. doctoral candidate in economics. September 29. director of undergraduate studies at Harvard University and a senior fellow at the Cato Institute and Kate Waldock. Politicians and the public express concern about the debt. A new report by Jeffrey A. Legalization would reduce state and federal deficits by eliminating expenditure on prohibition enforcement— arrests. The national debt stands at 60 percent of GDP.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 18 Legalization Affirmative LEGALIZATION SOLVES STATE AND FEDERAL BUDGET DEFICITS 1. 2010. $25. commentators. doctoral candidate in economics at. some politicians.7 billion annually. and roughly $15. and citizens have embraced unconventional approaches to closing fiscal gaps. its highest level since World War II.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. Legalization would reduce state and federal deficits by eliminating expenditure on prohibition enforcement . prosecutions. October 3. and local budgets. prosecutions. but standard proposals for expenditure cuts or tax increases garner little support. Stern School of Business at New York University. The report concludes that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41. commentators.” Free Market Mojo. LEGALIZING DRUGS WOULD VIRTUALLY ELIMINATE STATE AND FEDERAL BUDGET DEFICITS Jeffrey A. “The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition. The report also estimates that drug legalization would yield tax revenue of $46. http://www. we estimate the impact of legalization on federal. $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin. and incarceration—and by allowing governments to collect tax revenue on legalized sales. Miron. About $8.com/inquirer/opinion/20101003_Making_an_economic_case_for_legalizing_drugs.7 billion of this revenue would result from legalization of marijuana and $38.6 billion to the federal government. Miron and Katherine Waldock estimates that ending drug prohibition would save the US some $41. director of undergraduate studies at Harvard University and a senior fellow at the Cato Institute and Kate Waldock. “Making an economic case for legalizing drugs. interest groups. THE GOVERNMENT WOULD SAVE BILLIONS WITH LEGALIZATION Ariel Goldring.
com/time/health/article/0.1893946. 2010. DECRIMINALIZATION SOLVES Public Agenda. WHILE PROMOTING EDUCATION AND TREATMENT Mark Thornton. an attorney.html But the recently released results of a report commissioned by the Cato Institute. A more sensible policy would control their distribution and discourage their use. DECRIMINALIZING DRUGS FREES UP LAW ENFORCEMENT RESOURCES Public Agenda. http://www. suggest otherwise. 4. DRUGS CAUSE PROBLEMS BECAUSE THEY ARE ILLEGAL.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 19 Legalization Affirmative DECRIMINALIZATION BENEFITS PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY 1.such as the use of marijuana -will permit law enforcement officials to focus on more pressing priorities. published by Cato in April. “Drugs in Portugal: Did Decriminalization Work?. http://www. who conducted the research.” Accessed 10-7-2010. 2009. Decriminalizing drug use would destroy the illicit drug trade. a libertarian think tank. Not Criminal Behavior. decriminalization in Portugal has been a resounding success. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy?” The Independent Review. “Prohibition versus Legalization. “Redefining Drug Use as Addiction. by shifting to a demand-side strategy. PORTUGAL PROVES DECRIMINALIZING DRUGS WORKS Maia Szalavitz. Decriminalizing certain drugs -. Decriminalizing drug use and trafficking will greatly increase our ability to cope with the human dimensions of drug abuse. Not Criminal Behavior. author and fluent Portuguese speaker. 3. Prohibition of alcohol didn't work in the 1920s and drug prohibition doesn't work now. Winter 2007. “Redefining Drug Use as Addiction. and health care. Accessed 10-15-2010. Staff Writer.00. "It has enabled the Portuguese government to manage and control the drug problem far better than virtually every other Western country does.” Time.time. 249).org/discussion-guides/redefining-drug-use-addiction-not-criminal-behavior Drug treatment should be widely available.pdf Decriminalization is a strategic shift to a demand-side strategy that concentrates on education and treatment. 2. senior fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute. found that in the five years after personal possession was decriminalized. 2010.” Accessed 10-7-2010. DECRIMINALIZATION REDUCES USE. that uses comprehensive decriminalization as a cornerstone. while the number of people seeking treatment for drug addiction more than doubled.org/discussion-guides/redefining-drug-use-addiction-not-criminal-behavior The harm done by drugs is predominantly caused by the fact that they're illegal.independent. Even expensive treatment programs pay for themselves by reducing the costs of lost productivity. urban policy can concentrate more fruitfully on the problem of urban economic growth and development” (Staley 1992. http://www.publicagenda." . Moreover." says Glenn Greenwald. "Judging by every metric.8599. The paper. 11:3. April 26. and stigma-free. crime.org/pdf/tir/tir_11_03_05_thornton. Accessed 10-11-2010. Studies show that treatment programs are the most costeffective way of dealing with the drug problem. illegal drug use among teens in Portugal declined and rates of new HIV infections caused by sharing of dirty needles dropped. The war on drugs has done tremendous harm by sending thousands of drug users to prison instead of salvaging their lives and communities with treatment. http://www.publicagenda.
stipulating treatment as a condition of incarceration. I won’t go into an unnecessary definition war over the word “not”. probation. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. all of this assumes a false choice embedded in the resolution I negate. These courts mandate and arrange for treatment as an alternative to incarceration. a criminal justice approach is not incompatible with measures of public health National Institute on Drug Abuse.S. I must Negate the resolution and the Affirmative. the forced choice presented by the resolution replicates the fallacious logic of the Bush Administration in justifying war against Iraq because of 9/11.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. . the complexity of the issues at hand deny an either/or strategy. that handle drug offense cases. This debate is about which position best affirms the general social welfare. Advocating a combination approach where we see drug addiction BOTH as a matter of public health and criminal justice directly rejects and says not to the resolution. Your choice is between solely focusing on drug addiction as a public health concern. The resolution posits a choice in addressing the abuse of illegal drugs: take a public health approach or a criminal justice approach. but it clearly indicates one as opposed to another. and convening specialized courts.nih.” Those consequences are now obvious. both public health and criminal justice approaches are necessary in the fight against illegal drugs. 2009. http://www. or as BOTH a matter of public health and criminal justice. this case argues that there needs not be a choice. Moreover. The job of the Negative is to persuade the judge that public health approaches should not be valued above criminal justice. OBSERVATION ONE: WHAT IT MEANS TO NEGATE THIS RESOLUTION Some might naturally assume that to negate the resolution is to necessarily take the opposite view.” Accessed 10-7-2010. Therefore. “You’re either with us or against us.nida. However. In fact. Although the Affirmative will likely make arguments about how the social welfare is accessed through a public health approach and how bad a strict criminal justice approach might be. However. Claims of “sitting on the fence” are both untrue and destructive. To affirm the resolution means supporting a public health approach at the exclusion of criminal justice issues. In terms of values and criterion. such as diverting nonviolent offenders to treatment. I will advocate social welfare in terms of the greatest good for the greatest number of people. U. actively monitor progress in treatment. or pretrial release. NOT criminal justice. National Institutes of Health. and arrange for other services for drug-involved offenders.pdf The criminal justice system refers drug offenders into treatment through a variety of mechanisms. Department of Health and Human Services.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs Sample Negative Case 20 THESIS: While the resolution posits that public held should be the choice. these approaches are not incompatible. The resolution oversimplifies the drug abuse phenomena into something that can only be treated as a matter of public health. or drug courts. Of course.
are the real drug policy threat because they substantially worsen the drug problems of the world by increasing illegal drug use. and the first Director. M. The criminal justice system plays a vital role in reducing the costs and consequences of drug crimes. not just by incarcerating serious offenders who threaten the safety of the community. in FY 2011. Often. and reducing by 10% the prevalence of drugged driving among all Americans. delinquency. Robert L. and imprisonment.S. That is why. Individuals under legal coercion tend to stay in treatment longer and do as well as or better than those not under legal pressure. break the cycle of recidivism.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. Local. June 15. 2009.pdf. President. Accessed 10-10-2010 The great danger in today’s drug policy debate is not that the world will legalize all of the currently illegal drugs as The Economist encourages. Lexis Nexis. 2010.nih.D. . 43:11. a psychiatrist who was the first director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Teaming law enforcement with treatment makes both work better. Deputy Director for State. Released last month by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 1973 to 1978. PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACHES ALONE SUBSTANTIALLY WORSEN THE DRUG PROBLEM Robert L. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications. D. DuPont. Office of National Drug Control Policy. which to its credit The Economist dismisses. and law enforcement. treatment needs to be of high-quality and readily accessible within the community. and Tribal Affairs. National Institutes of Health. It is critical for drug-involved probationers and parolees to succeed and. during. drug abusers come into contact with the criminal justice system earlier than other health or social systems.” http://www. or in lieu of incarceration—which may ultimately interrupt and shorten a career of drug use.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs Sample Negative Case 21 OBSERVATION TWO: A COMBINATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES IS NECESSARY A. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM CAN PROVIDE THE TOOLS NECESSARY TO INTEGRATE AN PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH Benjamin Tucker.org/pdfs/WhatsWrongwithLegalizingIllegalDrugs32409.. RESEARCH PROVES THE COMBINATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND TREATMENT WORKS BEST National Institute on Drug Abuse. It is more focused on the primary goal of reducing the demand for drugs than were previous administrations' strategies. U. Inc. Institute for Behavior and Health. Such “harm reduction” policies. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. In order for probationers and parolees to be successful under community supervision. “ What’s Wrong with Legalizing Illegal Drugs?. the Budget proposal for the Department of Justice includes $10 million for prosecution-led drug treatment alternatives to incarceration. and life threatening addiction. pp. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide." C.pdf Research has shown that combining criminal justice sanctions with drug treatment can be effective in decreasing drug abuse and related crime. March 24.” Accessed 10-7-2010. Accessed 10-14-2010. in turn. which would address the trafficking and production of illicit drugs and the related cycle of crime. Department of Health and Human Services. but also by providing a powerful incentive to address drug use before it escalates into a costly. said the strategy "improves the links between treatment and the criminal justice system. It is that the determined and well-financed efforts to remove restrictive drug policies will sideline the important policy role of the criminal justice system. and that government’s will provide drugs as well as drug-using paraphernalia to drug users. B. DuPont. July 22. “Updated Drug Control Strategy Includes Variety of Approaches. 2009. OBAMA’S NEW DRUG CONTROL STRATEGY EMBODIES THE OPTIMAL COMBINATION Doug Brunk. presenting opportunities for intervention and treatment prior to. Staff Writer. 1-2. Dr.nida. The focus on prevention would include screening and early intervention.” Internal Medicine News. the strategy also sets goals for reducing by 15% drug-induced deaths and drug-related morbidity. 2010. after. treatment and recovery. http://www.ibhinc.
Veterans' courts meet the unique needs of veterans. the concern about drugs and drug problems is. and problem-solving courts in the Department of Justice's budget. magnified. the administration’s top drug-policy adviser said in an interview. May 11. The FY 2011 Budget request contains funding totaling $56. http://online. Accessed 10-12-2010. July 22. “In war on drugs. it has not been successful. while matching them with services to assist them on the road to recovery from substance abuse. 2010. . Tucker. Accessed 1014-2010. Deputy Director. veterans' courts have taken root in several jurisdictions across the country.html President Barack Obama’s plan to fight drug abuse and trafficking proposes spending $15.com/article/SB124225891527617397. Local. 2010. it’s diagnosable and it’s certainly something that can be treated -. where crack is more prevalent. “It’s a disease.usatoday. OBAMA IS REFOCUSING FUNDS TOWARD PUBLIC HEALTH ALTERNATIVE AND TREATMENT Ben B.stance on the nation's drug problems. “White House Czar Calls for End to 'War on Drugs'." This week President Obama promised to "reduce drug use and the great damage it causes" with a new national policy that he said treats drug use more as a public health issue and focuses on prevention and treatment.” Businessweek. Accessed 10-15-2010.” said Gil Kerlikowske. http://www.wsj. “Alternatives to Incarceration. if anything. THE WHITE HOUSE DRUG POLICY HAS SHIFTED MORE TOWARD PUBLIC HEALTH Peter S. THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION IS ALREADY REFOCUSING TO PUBLIC HEALTH Gary Fields.htm "In the grand scheme. 4.5 million over the FY 2010 enacted level) and $57 million for drug. http://www. Prior administrations talked about pushing treatment and reducing demand while continuing to focus primarily on a tough criminal-justice approach. State. 2010. THE OBAMA ADMINISTRATION HAS ADMITTED REFOCUSING ON PUBLIC HEALTH IS KEY Martha Mendoza. “New Obama Strategy Treats ‘War’ on Drugs as Public Health Issue. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. The Administration supports locally driven drug and community courts and will continue to support approaches that ensure offenders are matched with the appropriate court. intensified.5 billion next year and shifting the emphasis from fighting a war on drugs to treating the problem as a national health issue.4 million. May 14. and Tribal Affairs Office of National Drug Control Policy.but it’s not a war. Kerlikowske's comments are a signal that the Obama administration is set to follow a more moderate -.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 22 Sample Negative CURRENT DRUG POLICY HAS SHIFTED TO PUBLIC HEALTH 1. For example.businessweek.and likely more controversial -. director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Bloomberg News Staff Writer. 3. Kerlikowske said.” Wall Street Journal. mental health.com/news/health/2010-05-14-drugs-war_N.” USA Today. the administration has called for an end to the disparity in how crimes involving crack cocaine and powder cocaine are dealt with.html Mr.4 million for substance abuse treatment activities in drug courts in the Department of Health and Human Services budget (an increase of $12. May 14.com/news/2010-05-11/newobama-strategy-treats-war-on-drugs-as-public-health-issue. with treatment's role growing relative to incarceration. Already. Obama refocuses as public health fight. 2. The Associated Press. Lexis Nexis.” CQ Congressional Testimony. Mr. "Forty years l ater. Accessed 10-14-2010. The Obama administration is likely to deal with drugs as a matter of public health rather than criminal justice alone. 2009. Green. Critics of the law say it unfairly targeted African-American communities." Kerlikowske told The Associated Press. This represents a total Federal investment of $113.
Nora D. 4. engage and retain HIV-positive offenders in treatment. test and treat funding opportunity follows NIH-sponsored research conducted over the last few years which has indicated that identifying and offering treatment to all medically eligible HIV-positive individuals cannot only stop progression to AIDS and AIDS-related death. Volkow. CRIMINAL JUSTICE PRESSURE CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE MOTIVATOR FOR TREATMENT National Institute on Drug Abuse. For those with known drug problems. These new grants will apply this strategy to the criminal justice system. test. and treat inmates with HIV. 2. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE INCENTIVE TO SEEK TREATMENT National Institute on Drug Abuse. test. The grants. with additional support from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). and treat strategy to identify. National Institutes of Health.” Accessed 10-7-2010. but can also help to prevent HIV transmission. Department of Health and Human Services. prisons. drug addiction treatment may be recommended or mandated as a condition of probation. where there is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and often poor access to treatment.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS EMPLOYING A TREATMENT APPROACH NOW National Institutes of Health. September 23.S. will be awarded primarily by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. begun at initial patient intake. universities. http://www. all components of NIH. 2009. Sanctions or enticements from family. and/or the criminal justice system can significantly increase treatment entry. A NEW NIH STUDY PROVES THAT CRIMINAL JUSTICE IS INTEGRATING PUBLIC HEALTH NOW National Institutes of Health. Accessed 10-14-2010. http://www.” Accessed 10-7-2010. The research will take place over a five-year period. Department of Health and Human Services.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. Some of the projects will create and compare systems to better integrate and coordinate HIV management efforts within jails. and treat inmates with HIV. 2010. and the ultimate success of drug treatment interventions. employment settings.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 23 Sample Negative CRIMINAL JUSTICE LEADS TO TREATMENT 1. Research has demonstrated that individuals who enter treatment under legal pressure have outcomes as favorable as those who enter treatment voluntarily. “Unprecedented effort to seek. announced today.” National Institutes of Health Documents and Publications. test.pdf The majority of offenders involved with the criminal justice system are not in prison but are under community supervision. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. . “Unprecedented effort to seek.nih.nida. Treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective. 3. Lexis Nexis Twelve scientific teams in more than a dozen states will receive National Institutes of Health grants to study effective ways to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS among people in the criminal justice system. can improve treatment engagement.nih. test. U. "These important and wide reaching research grants will focus on identifying individuals with HIV within the criminal justice system and linking them to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during periods of incarceration and after community re-entry. National Institutes of Health.nida. 2009. retention rates. and community organizations. The newly funded research will compare different modalities of the seek. 2010. September 23.” National Institutes of Health Documents and Publications. Accessed 10-14-2010. Lexis Nexis The seek. health departments." said NIDA Director Dr. U.S.pdf Motivational enhancement and incentive strategies.
pdf. In 10 states. it just makes it much worse by impairing judgment. 1998). Legalized access to drugs would increase drugrelated suffering dramatically. April 25. 4. DRUG ABUSE INCREASES CRIME Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy. drugged driving is more prevalent than drunken driving.” El Paso Times (Texas). robbery. http://online. or had a history of alcohol abuse or dependence and/or illegal drug use (CASA.wsj. Drug abuse thus affects the health. And recent data show troubling signs among youth of increased use of some drugs. Accessed 10-9-2010 Our drug control policy must be fair. committed the offense to support their addiction.” Wall Street Journal. In my work prosecuting violent crime in this community. Drug abuse is not a victimless crime. Prescription drug abuse is at record levels. not just drug possession offenses (Marlowe. 2010.” The Grio. January 18. sexual assault. that done daily by those in our own communities under the influence of drugs.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 24 Sample Negative DRUG ADDICTION FOSTERS CRIME 1. intoxicated at the time of their offense. and must be flexible enough to address the evolving drug issues we face. 2. users and nonusers alike.” http://www1. and softening attitudes toward drug use. Lexis Nexis. ADDICTION AND DRUG-RELATED DEATHS ARE ON THE RISE R. I can tell you that increased availability of drugs through legalization will cause the crime rate to increase.com/health/defining-a-new-drug-policy-for-communities-ofcolor.edu/justice/documents/2434. former Director of National Drug Control Policy. 2009. 2009. with some drugs. which includes El Paso. executive vice president of Hudson Institute and was director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy from 2001 to 2009 under President George W. Violent crimes such as murder. “US drug czar: Why we need to end 'War on Drugs'. . 80% of state and federal inmates have been incarcerated for alcohol or drug-related offenses. “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority.com/article/SB124061336043754551. Accessed 10-8-2010 Drug users commit a disproportionate amount of all types of crime. which has harmed tens of thousands. Roughly 80% of child abuse and neglect cases are tied to the use and abuse of drugs. July 13. Bush. and safety of all people. and domestic violence are committed every day in our community by individuals under the influence of drugs.spa. weakening impulse control and at some levels of pathology. LEGALIZATION WOULD ESCALATE DRUG CRIMES AND DRUG ABUSE Jaime Esparza. Accessed 10-15-2010. causing paranoia and psychosis. Well more than 50% of those arrested today for violent and property crimes test positive for illegal drug use when arrested. Gil Kerlikowske. “Drugs: To Legalize or Not.php. Overdose deaths have more than doubled over the last 10 years. welfare. http://www. It is not that drug abuse causes all crime and violence. 2002).thegrio. district attorney for Texas' 34th Judicial District. Accessed 10-10-2010. is dwarfed by the millions harmed by another violence. April 2008.american. DRUG ABUSE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HALF OF ALL VIOLENT AND PROPERTY CRIMES John P. Walters. now exceeding automobile fatalities as the number one cause of injury death in 16 states. 3. “Drug legalization is not the answer.html The violence of traffickers.
lower socioeconomic status. “NIDA InfoFacts: Drug Abuse and the link to HIV/AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases. National Institutes of Health. and breastfeeding. DRUG ABUSE CAN SPREAD INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Drugs and alcohol can interfere with judgment and can lead to risky sexual behaviors that put people in danger of contracting or transmitting HIV.nih. Participation in treatment also presents opportunities for screening. U.pdf. and other infectious diseases. Department of Health and Human Services. delivery. such as sharing injection equipment and engaging in unprotected sexual activity. counseling.american. homelessness.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. Greater availability of inexpensive and unobtrusive rapid HIV tests should increase access to these important aspects of HIV prevention and treatment. 2.” http://www1. HIV counseling and testing are key aspects of superior drug abuse treatment programs and should be offered to all individuals entering treatment. U.gov/infofacts/DrugAbuse. These diseases are transmitted by sharing contaminated drug injection equipment and by engaging in risky sexual behavior sometimes associated with drug use. and motor vehicle crashes. 2009. http://drugabuse. and parental conflict (McMahon and Giannini. Counseling that targets a range of HIV/HCV risk behaviors provides an added level of disease prevention. http://www. “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority. TREATMENT IS ESSENTIAL FOR HIV SCREENING National Institute on Drug Abuse.” Accessed 10-15-2010. DRUG ADDICTION IS A SCOURGE ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy. Among drug users. 2003). “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. such as compromised family environments that contribute to poor developmental outcomes in children.nida. including early HIV treatment and access to HAART. DRUG ABUSERS SPREAD COMMUNICABLE DISEASES National Institute on Drug Abuse.pdf Drug-abusing individuals.” Accessed 10-7-2010. http://www. another way people are at risk for HIV is simply by using drugs. In fact.spa. HCV. and cookers. Accessed 10-8-2010 The cost of alcohol and other drug problems to society is even greater when the impact on public health is considered: as they contribute to the spread of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS either through sharing of drug paraphernalia or unprotected sex. 3.nih. rinse water. National Institutes of Health. are at increased risk of HIV. Other associated costs are more difficult to quantify.S. August 2008. 2009. April 2008. . poor marital relations. LIKE HIV The National Institute on Drug Abuse. including injecting and non-injecting drug users. In addition. 4. HIV transmission can occur through sharing needles and other injection paraphernalia such as cotton swabs. Department of Health and Human Services. regardless of whether a needle and syringe is involved.pdf Drug injectors who do not enter treatment are up to six times more likely to become infected with HIV than injectors who enter and remain in treatment because the latter reduce activities that can spread disease. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. However. infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their infants during pregnancy.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. Effective drug abuse treatment is HIV/HCV prevention because it reduces associated risk behaviors as well as drug abuse.nida.S.html HIV can be transmitted by contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person.edu/justice/documents/2434.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 25 Sample Negative DRUG ABUSE SPREADS DISEASE 1.” Accessed 10-7-2010. and referral to additional services.
Chandler.html "Addiction is a stigmatized disease that the criminal justice system often fails to view as a medical condition. monitoring. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. 2010. monitoring. There are several ways in which drug abuse treatment can be incorporated into the criminal justice system. AN EFFECTIVE DRUG POLICY USES PREVENTION. 2010. 2009. and post-release mortality. unfortunately. but rather than capitalizing on the opportunity to effectively treat this high-risk population. The current Strategy stresses the importance of prevention. Lexis Nexis. “Treating Addiction as a Disease: The Promise of Medication-Assisted Recovery. in spite of known consequences: greater recidivism. and Tribal Affairs.” Accessed 10-9-2010. (For more information. July 22. Redonna K.nida. treatment merged with judicial oversight in drug courts. placement. the report's principal author and chief of NIDA's Services Research Branch. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. U. These include therapeutic alternatives to incarceration. More than half of incarcerated individuals have a substance use history.gov/newsroom/09/NR1-13. TREATMENT. as is too often the case.pdf The most effective models integrate criminal justice and drug treatment systems and services. and supervision—as well as on the systematic use of sanctions and rewards. ttp://www. These necessary components comprise a common-sense approach to deterring young people and adults from using drugs and. early intervention and evidence-based approaches are critical.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. and enforcement. worse. To keep young people from cycling through the juvenile justice system or. young people are cycling in and out of state and local systems on a regular basis. and reentry programs to help offenders transition from incarceration back into the community. Accessed 10-9-2010. Volkow. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications. THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS AN EXCELLENT PLACE TO COMBINE BOTH APPROACHES Nora D.D.. INCORPORATING TREATMENT AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IS BEST FOR ALL National Institute on Drug Abuse. treatment. relapse.hhs. its treatment is not as available as it is for other medical conditions. THE MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACHES COMBINE PUBLIC HEALTH AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE National Institute on Drug Abuse. becoming involved with the juvenile and criminal justice systems. http://drugabuse. Treatment for incarcerated drug abusers should include continuing care.S. and supervision after incarceration and during parole. we continue to release prisoners without any provision or mechanism for follow-up treatment. Accessed 10-14-2010.gov/asl/testify/2010/06/t20100623a. June 23.” Accessed 10-7-2010. testing.nih. but. National Institutes of Health.) 2. Local. as a consequence. please see NIDA’s Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations: A Research-Based Guide [revised 2007]. Office of National Drug Control Policy. 4. treatments provided in prison and jail. http://www. Treatment and criminal justice personnel work together on treatment planning—including implementation of screening. Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. “Drug Abusing Offenders Not Getting Treatment They Need in Criminal Justice System. M.” Testimony before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. ." stated Dr. The juvenile justice system is built on the belief that youth have the potential to change and grow. Director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. January 13. Deputy Director for State. entering and cycling through the adult system. AND ENFORCEMENT Benjamin Tucker.html Criminal justice settings offer prime venues for implementing evidence-based treatments among a high-risk population. Department of Health and Human Services. 3.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 26 Sample Negative A COMBINATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC HEALTH IS BEST 1. 2009.
a call for some legalization. and community groups have led to these innovations. he said. and increases prosocial behavior (see Figure 2). Staff Writers. drug market interventions. And the best way to start is by working with young people. "There's been an epidemic in the last year with these opiates. 3. 2010. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications.html Involvement in the criminal justice system provides an opportunity to diagnose and treat these health problems. they also necessitate the involvement of other community and governmental actors. As our Strategy attests. While budget realities have driven some of these alternatives. 2010.html In addition to treatment in prison. Office of National Drug Control Policy.” Accessed 10-14-2010. and Tribal Affairs. COMBINING PRISONS AND COMMUNITY TREATMENT REDUCES ADDICTION National Institute on Drug Abuse." said Dick Gallagher. They would rather see the war against drugs fought on another front -. cooperative ventures among human service. Others say legalization would only open up the floodgates for more drug abuse. A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH IS NEEDED WITHIN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM National Institute on Drug Abuse. I will discuss several alternatives to incarceration today. http://drugabuse. Sixty-three percent of teenagers. Many eventually end up hooked on heroin. “In no-win war on narcotics. executive director of Alcohol and Drug Dependency Services. “Treating Offenders with Drug Problems: Integrating Public Health and Public Safety. July 22. Therefore. But no matter where you stand on the issue of drug abuse. criminal justice. Combining prison-based treatment with community-based treatment upon release reduces an offender's risk of recidivism. Case management and referral to other medical. 2. Increasing participation in drug abuse treatment can decrease the spread of these diseases by reducing risky behaviors. there is a consensus that putting drug dealers out of business through lengthy police investigations does not work as well as anyone would like. Local. get their first taste of narcotic prescription drugs from the family medicine cabinet.” Accessed 10-14-2010. A1.realistic treatment programs for drug addiction to reduce demand. psychological. decreases substance abuse. which is cheaper and easily accessible. individuals in the criminal justice system represent a significant proportion of all cases of hepatitis B and C infection and tuberculosis in the United States. these alternatives are not solely the province of the criminal justice system. there are more alternatives to incarceration available in our criminal justice system than ever before. and testing and sanctions programs. THE CURRENT DRUG CONTROL STRATEGY SHOWS AN EFFECTIVE COMBINATION Benjamin Tucker.gov/tib/drugs_crime. Instead. improves prospects for employment. It is a public health — and safety — issue that cannot go unheeded. for these programs to be effective. . The prevalence of AIDS is estimated to be approximately five times higher among incarcerated individuals than in the general population. April 6. Deputy Director for State. Accessed 10-14-2010. including: drug and community courts. which include infectious diseases. Lexis Nexis.gov/tib/drugs_crime. p. and social services are crucial components of treatment for many offenders. “Treating Offenders with Drug Problems: Integrating Public Health and Public Safety.” Buffalo News (New York). 4. In addition. in many cases. EITHER EXTREME ALONE WOULD UNDERMINE SOCIAL WELFARE Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 27 Sample Negative A COMBINATION OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND PUBLIC HEALTH IS BEST 1. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. March 2009. The 2010 Strategy places an unprecedented focus on highlighting the importance of alternatives to incarceration. such as sharing injection equipment and having unprotected sex. the future customers of drug dealers. and it is particularly hitting adolescents and young adults ages 14 through 25. research strongly indicates that continuing treatment in the community is needed to sustain these gains. March 2009. which runs nine addiction-treatment programs. http://drugabuse.
“Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. Youth who need mental health and substance abuse treatment do not consistently receive it.” Newsweek.html.nih.com/2010/06/29/the-case-for-treating-drug-addicts-in-prison.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT. nets huge savings in societal costs. “The Case for Treating Drug Addicts in Prison.” Accessed 10-11-2010. “Study Finds That Substance Abuse Treatment Reduces Criminal Behavior and Drug Use of Adolescents in the Criminal Justice System. As of March 2006. 4. and social functioning.” Accessed 10-7-2010. U. National Institutes of Health. 2009. June 29.and communitybased treatment for addicted offenders reduces the risk of both recidivism to drug-related criminal behavior and relapse to drug use. http://www. criminal behavior. Department of Health and Human Services. in turn. or in lieu of incarceration—which may ultimately interrupt and shorten a career of drug use. http://www. http://www. 2010. after. Often. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Accessed 10-11-2010 Treatment can reduce recidivism rates from 50 percent to something more like 20 percent. OFFENDERS AND EMPLOYEES WITHIN CRIMINAL JUSTICE NEED TREATMENT Health Policy.S.newsweek.nida. 2010.pdf Research has shown that combining criminal justice sanctions with drug treatment can be effective in decreasing drug abuse and related crime. WE SHOULD INTEGRATE TREATMENT WITH CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES National Institute on Drug Abuse. “What a great opportunity to make a difference. EMPLOYING PUBLIC HEALTH TREATMENT TO PRISONERS REDUCES USE AND RECIDIVISM Mary Carmichael.org/healthpolicy/product. revised 2007).” Accessed 10-7-2010. during. PEOPLE WITHIN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM REQUIRE TREATMENT National Institute on Drug Abuse.rwjf. than employees in private facilities. “Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research Based Guide. investigators reported the following preliminary findings. Employees at public facilities identify offenders who need substance abuse and other treatment as effectively.nih. Staff Writer. Yet it is not widely provided. National Institutes of Health. while emphasizing that they could change as they collect and analyze further data: Substance abuse treatment lowers substance use and significantly reduces criminal behavior. presenting opportunities for intervention and treatment prior to.gov/PDF/PODAT/PODAT.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 28 Sample Negative PUBLIC HEALTH TREATMENT IS NEEDED WITHIN CRIMINAL JUSTICE 1.pdf Research has demonstrated that treatment for drug-addicted offenders during and after incarceration can have a significant effect on future drug use. according to the DEA. “Our system has taken the highest-risk and most ill people and put them in a place where they have constitutionally mandated health care. Individuals under legal coercion tend to stay in treatment longer and do as well as or better than those not under legal pressure. drug abusers come into contact with the criminal justice system earlier than other health or social systems.“ Rich says. which. More information on how the criminal justice system can address the problem of drug addiction can be found in Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations: A Research-Based Guide (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Combining prison. The case for integrating drug addiction treatment approaches with the criminal justice system is compelling.jsp?id=55936 Investigators at the University of Pittsburgh coordinated a longitudinal study of 1. http://www. January 28.nida. 2009. . and sometimes more so. Are we just trying to punish people? Or are we trying to rehabilitate people? What do we want out of this?” 3.355 serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix to learn what paths led them to continued engagement with the criminal justice system or away from it. 2. even if delivered in conditions that are not standardized by providers who are not highly trained.
S. a professor of medicine and community health at Brown University. Accessed 10-8-2010 Most parolees and probationers with a history of addiction are not receiving modern. 4. PhD.html. Research shows that combining treatment medications.” Accessed 10-14-2010. with behavioral therapy is the best way to ensure success for most patients. http://drugabuse. prisons are missing the best chance to cure them—and in the process to cut down on future crime.” Accessed 10-14-2010. and drug treatment alternatives to incarceration. http://drugabuse.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 29 Sample Negative PUBLIC HEALTH TREATMENT IS NEEDED WITHIN CRIMINAL JUSTICE 1. .newsweek. March 2009. “Treating Offenders with Drug Problems: Integrating Public Health and Public Safety. drug-abusing offenders can relapse to drug use and return to criminal behavior. have been committed in the service of feeding their addictions. leads to rearrest and re-incarceration. Yet despite known efficacy.html Multiple studies have examined treatment approaches that integrate drug abuse treatment into criminal justice settings. 3. their crimes. many U.000 inmates released back into the community each year have not received needed treatment services. 2. 2010. there were 195.one-half to two-thirds of inmates in jails and State and Federal prisons meet standard diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) for alcohol/drug dependence or abuse. Yet only 7% to 17% of these prisoners receive treatment in jail or prison.pdf. “Alcohol and Other Drug Problems: A Public Health and Public Safety Priority. Accessed 10-11-2010 Of the 2. such as burglary. June 29. But in many cases. LACK OF OFFENDER TREATMENT UNDERMINES PUBLIC HEALTH National Institute on Drug Abuse. April 2008. so that most of the over 650. March 2009. MD. by refusing or neglecting to provide treatment to these addicts. “Treating Offenders with Drug Problems: Integrating Public Health and Public Safety. The National Institute on Health has developed important new treatments involving medications and specific forms of psychotherapy which should be made available to those caught up in the justice system.html The connection between drug abuse and crime is well known . where available. http://www1. This jeopardizes public health and public safety. These approaches include therapeutic communities (TCs) in prison and community work-release settings. Staff Writer.gov/tib/drugs_crime.american. evidence-based treatment.. Left untreated. http://www.3 million inmates in the U. is worried that.S.edu/justice/documents/2434. “The Case for Treating Drug Addicts in Prison.com/2010/06/29/the-case-for-treating-drug-addicts-in-prison.spa. more than half have a history of substance abuse and addiction.” Physicians and Lawyers for National Drug Policy. Not all those inmates are imprisoned on drug-related charges (although drug arrests have been rising steadily since the early 1990s. STUDIES SHOW AN INTEGRATED APPROACH WORKS BEST FOR TREATMENT National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rich. drug courts designed to blend treatment with judicial monitoring and sanctions. and further taxes an already over-burdened criminal justice system. Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities (TASC) case management approaches. pharmacological treatments for drug addiction are underused in the criminal justice system.” Newsweek. The result is relapse and return to prison in a revolving door fashion. PLNDP Leadership Council. A HUGE PORTION OF PEOPLE IN PRISONS NEED TREATMENT FOR ADDICITON Mary Carmichael.gov/tib/drugs_crime. PEOPLE WHO LEAVE THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM DO NOT RECEIVE TREATMENT Charles O’Brien.700 arrests in 2007).
http://online. Kerlikowske. or ensuring law and order. 2009. known officially as the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. Accessed 10-10-2010.com/article/SB124061336043754551. the privileged rich can afford expensive treatment while poor people are condemned to a life of dependence. with no prevention or treatment available. court-sanctioned treatment works best. 2010. where he tried to debunk the belief that taxing and regulating currently illegal narcotics would somehow put narco-traffickers out of business. Lexis Nexis. President. September 5. We are increasing the pathways to treatment -. LEGALIZING DRUGS MAKES THEM CHEAPER AND MORE ACCESSIBLE Julian Aguilar.wsj.through routine health care. Do we want to end all this by taking the courts out of the equation? Supervised. “Drug Czar Gil Kerlikowske: Legalizing Drugs Is Not the Answer. Legalised drugs would unleash an epidemic of addiction in the developing world.. millions of people caught taking drugs are sent to jail. places of worship and schools. 3.” he said. Drug policy does not have to choose between either protecting health. “ What’s Wrong with Legalizing Illegal Drugs?.” The Observer (England). LEGALIZATION ROBS US OF THE STRONG ADVANCES IN TREATMENT WE HAVE ACHIEVED John P. former executive director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime from May 2002 to August 2010. Society must protect both health and safety.org/pdfs/WhatsWrongwithLegalizingIllegalDrugs32409. 2010. .” 2. Last but not least. In some countries.” Wall Street Journal. the workplace. If the US were to legalize the drugs that are now illegal. As a group these drugs pose far greater risks than alcohol or tobacco because they are so much more powerfully reinforcing. LEGALIZATION GUARANTEES A HIGHER AMOUNT OF DRUG USE Robert L. the number of users would increase for each drug to numbers similar to alcohol and tobacco.ibhinc.” Texas Tribune. Now extrapolate the problem on to a global scale and imagine the impact of unregulated drug use in developing countries. Accessed 10-10-2010 To fairly evaluate the current restrictive international drug laws we need a realistic assessment of the risks of making drugs of abuse more easily available. through drug control. “Comment: Legalise drugs and a worldwide epidemic of addiction will follow. Institute for Behavior and Health.pdf. http://www. and the first Director. spoke this morning at a border security conference in El Paso. People are sentenced to death for drug-related offences. “[Traffickers] would not change their ways and turn to legal pursuits if drugs were legal. there's the question of human rights. April 25. 2009. executive vice president of Hudson Institute and was director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy from 2001 to 2009 under President George W.org/texas-mexico-border-news/texas-mexicoborder/drug-czar-kerlikowske-legalizing-drugs-not-answer/ Advocates pushing for the legalization of drugs in this country have a long fight ahead of them if current “Drug Czar” Gil Kerlikowske has anything to say about it. Around the world. “Legalizing drugs makes them cheaper.” http://www. governments should not kill because of them. DuPont. “Drugs: To Legalize or Not. Inc. drug treatment amounts to the equivalent of torture. Staff Writer. Drug courts leading to referral for treatment by the criminal justice system are now the major pathway through which the dependent are getting the help they need. 4. makes them more accessible and therefore makes them more widely abused. August 13. Bush.texastribune. In a world of free drugs. M. We have learned that addiction is a treatable disease.D. by liberalising drugs. March 24.html We have learned to apply public health tools that have been proven effective against other diseases. LEGALIZED DRUGS WOULD UNLEASH AN GLOBAL EPIDEMIC OF ABUSE Antonio Maria Costa. Accessed 10-15-2010. Accessed 10-10-2010. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) 1973 to 1978. Legalization robs us of this tool. Walters.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 30 Sample Negative LEGALIZATION INCREASES DRUG USE AND ABUSE 1. Although drugs kill.
pdf). The markets for illegal drugs are opaque.com/inquirer/opinion/20101003_Making_an_economic_case_for_legalizing_drugs. 3. just for marijuana. 2. these benefits might be a deciding factor. such as whether legalization applies nationwide. “Alternatives to Incarceration. Both sides in this debate. These savings rose to $12. CURRENT ALTERNATIVES. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. Stern School of Business at New York University. Accessed 10-14-2010. Reduced recidivism and other longterm program outcomes resulted in an average public savings of $6.ncjrs. Miron. Accessed 10-10-2010 The fact that legalization would generate a fiscal dividend does not. SAVINGS ESTIMATES DO NOT ASSUME A HOST OF VARIABLES THAT IMPEDE SUCCESS Jeffrey A.392 lower per drug court participant. under both federal and state law (the scenario we consider). ALSO RESULT IN MASSIVE SAVINGS James Burch Acting Director. and opinions differ on whether these are desirable on net. October 3. Bureau of Justice Assistance Office of Justice Programs. make it a better policy than prohibition. Research is clear that drug courts can reduce recidivism and future drug use. however. July 22. Legalization would have many effects. 2010.philly. One study that looked at the impact of mature drug courts over ten years showed that compared to traditional criminal justice system processing. Stern School of Business at New York University. doctoral candidate in economics at. costs averaged $1. by itself. Our results imply that the budgetary implications of legalization are neither trivial nor overwhelming. Lexis Nexis. http://www. JUST BECAUSE IT SAVES MONEY DOES NOT MAKE LEGALIZATION A SOUND POLICY Jeffrey A. director of undergraduate studies at Harvard University and a senior fellow at the Cato Institute and Kate Waldock. Miron. doctoral candidate in economics at. legalization. director of undergraduate studies at Harvard University and a senior fellow at the Cato Institute and Kate Waldock.218 if victimization costs are included (http://www. treatment. Yet the budgetary benefits are more than mere rounding error. “Making an economic case for legalizing drugs. the budget effects are small in comparison with current deficits. LIKE DRUG COURTS.philly.html. and just under state law (the California experiment). “Making an economic case for legalizing drugs. different approaches make different implicit or explicit assumptions about exactly what policy change is under consideration. http://www. 2010. Accessed 10-10-2010 These estimates should be taken with several large grains of salt. should want to know the order of magnitude of the fiscal benefit that might arise from legalization. Our estimates are in the middle of available numbers. or in just one state.html.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/219225.744 per participant. and other investment.” The Philadelphia Inquirer. .com/inquirer/opinion/20101003_Making_an_economic_case_for_legalizing_drugs.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 31 Sample Negative LEGALIZATION SAVINGS DO NOT JUSTIFY THE POLICY 1. 2010. Legalization will not solve America's fiscal woes. for those with mixed feelings about prohibition vs.” The Philadelphia Inquirer.” CQ Congressional Testimony. Further complicating matters. October 3. and different approaches to estimating either the size of this market or the effect of legalization can therefore vary substantially.
Staff Writer. They estimated that there were nine million such drivers and called upon the states to adopt criminal laws setting strict standards against the presence of illegal drugs in the driver’s body. John A. Senior Legal Fellow in the Center for Legal & Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation. the study found this could result in production of smaller quantities of highpotency marijuana which would still bring in less revenue than the rosy pro-drug projections. September 13. 4. but drugged drivers are not detected nearly as often as drunk drivers. and social disintegration. “Legalizing Marijuana: Why Citizens Should Just Say No. Increase Consumption. LEGAL MARIJUANA LEADS TO “DRUGGED” DRIVING ACCIDENTS Dr. Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP). Even with a fixed-rate-per-ounce tax. 2010. as embodying the hopes of pro-legalization activists—has weighed the costs and benefits and concluded that marijuana legalization would compromise public health and safety.” the report noted. from $375 per ounce today to $38 an ounce. The report. marijuana trafficking remains a source of violence. found that prices for legal pot could drop as much as 80%. military prosecutor and law professor. “Driving under the influence of drugs is a growing national problem. THE COSTS OF MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION OUTWEIGH THE BENEFITS Charles D. September 13. federal.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/27488. Gil Kerlikowske. among other conditions. heart disease. Accessed 10-12-2010. Accessed 10-15-2010. The Daily Caller reports a new study by the Rand Corporation finds the legalization of recreational marijuana use in California could sharply reduce prices for the drug and the tax revenues touted by proponents of drug legalization. http://www. 3. http://www. senior fellow of the Howard Center for Family.heritage.” . for a time. Howard.heartland. That would drastically undercut the theoretical tax revenue drug legalization proponents are using to seduce Californians. particularly among young people. Religion & Society.org/Research/ Reports/2010/09/Legalizing-Marijuana-Why-Citizens-Should-Just-Say-No The scientific literature is clear that marijuana is addictive and that its use significantly impairs bodily and mental functions. immune system deficiencies. Marijuana use is associated with memory loss. July 7.pdf In 2002 the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the National Highway Traffic Commission reported on their national study of automobile drivers who were under the influence of illegal drugs. LEGALIZATION MEANS MARIJUANA TRAFFICKING VIOLENCE WILL ESCALATE Charles D. 2010. for any purpose. state. In an article titled “How Safe Is Pot?” Newsweek (January 7. Accessed 10-14-2010. Stimson. http://www.” Legal Memorandum #56. is a non-starter in the Obama Administration. Senior Legal Fellow in the Center for Legal & Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation. Even where decriminalized.heritage. April 16. and birth defects. state. Accessed 10-14-2010. military prosecutor and law professor. Lexis Nexis.” Legal Memorandum #56.” Heartland Institute White Paper. “Legalizing Marijuana: Why Citizens Should Just Say No. “Most investigators now agree that marijuana does share with alcohol the danger of impairing coordination and judgment among its users. “Study: Drug Legalization Would Reduce Tax Revenue.org/Research/ Reports/2010/09/Legalizing-Marijuana-Why-Citizens-Should-Just-Say-No The federal government shares these concerns. aptly titled Altered State? Assessing How Marijuana Legalization Could Influence Marijuana Consumption and Public Budgets. 2010. federal. formerly a local.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 32 Sample Negative LEGALIZING MARIJUANA IS A DANGEROUS MISTAKE 1. Stimson. LEGALIZATION WOULD INCREASE CONSUMPTION AND GUT TAX REVENUE Bob Ellis. 1989) noted.” Dakota Voice. crime. formerly a local. recently stated. cancer. 2010.” The Administration—widely viewed as more liberal than any other in recent memory and. “Legalized Marijuana: A Pending Disaster. 2. “Marijuana legalization.
Reports of this research and other circumstances that argue against the use of marijuana have largely been withheld from the American people by a news media blackout. .org/Research/ Reports/2010/09/Legalizing-Marijuana-Why-Citizens-Should-Just-Say-No Marijuana advocates have had some success peddling the notion that marijuana is a “soft” drug. Religion & Society.” Heartland Institute White Paper. 2010. “Legalizing Marijuana: Why Citizens Should Just Say No. Senior Legal Fellow in the Center for Legal & Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation. http://www. prevention. state. federal. no question. and it is not lawful to produce. formerly a local. distribute. 2. therefore. and treatment initiatives. Indeed. treatment. September 13. it is a gateway drug that can lead users to more dangerous drugs. but that is not to say that it is safe. “Legalized Marijuana: A Pending Disaster. http://www. 2010. Accessed 10-14-2010. or consume them. district attorney for Texas' 34th Judicial District. Accessed 10-12-2010. We cannot afford to send a message of tolerance for drug use of any kind. January 18. military prosecutor and law professor. education. parole or probation officers. This is especially the wrong message for America's youth. similar to alcohol. DECRIMINALIZATION SENDS A DANGEROUS PRO-DRUG MESSAGE TO THE YOUTH Jaime Esparza. marijuana shares more in common with the “hard” drugs than it does with alcohol. The final point to be made in this preface is the most troublesome of all. 3. judges. STUDIES PROVING THE DANGERS OF MARIJUANA HAVE BEEN WITHHELD FROM THE PUBLIC Dr. MARIJUANA IS CLOSER TO HARD DRUGS THAN ADVOCATES ADMIT Charles D.” El Paso Times (Texas). Lexis Nexis.heritage. Prosecutors.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/27488.” Legal Memorandum #56. Accessed 10-15-2010. federal. http://www. Decriminalization is not good public policy from a health and public-safety standpoint. Senior Legal Fellow in the Center for Legal & Judicial Studies at The Heritage Foundation. Howard. Leaders on the front lines in the battle against drug addiction -.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 33 Sample Negative LEGALIZING MARIJUANA WILL LEAD TO HARD DRUG USE 1. are harmful.pdf The gathering momentum of the marijuana legalization juggernaut lends urgency to this effort to unveil the truth about the years of marijuana research conducted in many nations which consistently has discovered harmful consequences of smoking marijuana. “Legalizing Marijuana: Why Citizens Should Just Say No.can attest to the devastating affects of harmful drugs. “Drug legalization is not the answer. 4. interdiction. 2009. police officers. John A. Stimson. In addition to marijuana’s harmful effects on the body and relationship to criminal conduct. April 16. formerly a local. and even defense attorneys know that the vast majority of defendants arrested for violent crimes test positive for illegal drugs.in health care. can not deviate from the message that drugs. Whereas millions of Americans consume moderate amounts of alcohol without ever “moving on” to dangerous drugs. which includes El Paso. September 13. as serious as those declared by the French National Academy of Medicine. The many consequences of drug use are ugly. Stimson. We.heritage. MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION CREATES AN OFFICIAL GATEWAY TO HARDER DRUGS Charles D.heartland.” Legal Memorandum #56. 2010. They also know that marijuana is the starter drug of choice for most criminals. marijuana use and cocaine use are strongly correlated. state. Accessed 10-14-2010. detectives. and fundamentally different from “hard” drugs like cocaine or heroin. military prosecutor and law professor.org/Research/ Reports/2010/09/Legalizing-Marijuana-Why-Citizens-Should-Just-Say-No Citizens also should not overlook what may be the greatest harms of marijuana legalization: increased addiction to and use of harder drugs. and law enforcement -. It is true that marijuana is not the most dangerous of the commonly abused drugs. including marijuana. senior fellow of the Howard Center for Family. in all forms. A legitimate national discussion and open dialogue should focus on how to decrease both the supply and demand for drugs through a variety of prevention.
Accessed 10-14-2010. Deputy Director. “Alternatives to Incarceration. October 13. 2010. combines these two successful programs into a single Problem-Solving Courts Initiative. Local. Another type of specialty court is community court. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. and schools." he said. who presides over that county's drug court. July 22. accountability. 2. rather than only responding to crime after it has occurred. he said. Drug courts offer an alternative to simply sentencing every offender to prison. Research funded by OJP's National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and others verifies that problem-solving courts significantly improve mental health and substance abuse treatment outcomes. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. graduated sanctions and rewards. monitoring and supervision. Drug courts combine assessment. These courts strive to create new relationships with neighborhood stakeholders. Bureau of Justice Assistance Office of Justice Programs. Accessed 10-14-2010. and assault. churches. from committing new crimes and returning to drug use. Like drug courts. p. Lexis Nexis. community courts link addicted offenders to judicially monitored drug treatment.” CQ Congressional Testimony. Tucker. Numerous evaluations over many years have shown drug courts are cost-effective alternatives to traditional incarceration. called upon Kanawha County to set an example for the rest of the state. “Drug court graduates grateful for program. July 22. vandalism. Deputy Director for State. which is expensive and has a high chance of recidivism. Local. "There aren't many programs that get the bang for the buck that drug courts do. also $57 million. shoplifting.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 34 Sample Negative DRUG COURTS ARE AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE 1. During FY 2010. allowing state. and treatment and recovery support services. and Tribal Affairs. C1. ALTERNATIVE DRUG COURTS REDUCE DRUG USE AND ADDICTION James Burch Acting Director. 4. Office of National Drug Control Policy. 3. merchants. . and Tribal Affairs Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2010. State. such as residents. Lexis Nexis. and substance abuse providers. and tribal jurisdictions increased flexibility in funding strategies that address unique local needs and that can expand collaboration among drug courts. judicial interaction. “Alternatives to Incarceration. local. substantially reduce crime.” CQ Congressional Testimony." Mercer Circuit Judge Derek Swope. DRUG COURTS REDUCE ADDICTION AND RECIDIVISM Ben B. 2010. Data also indicates drug courts prevent most offenders. mental health. The FY 2011 Budget Request. These problem-solving courts can effectively serve the needs of misdemeanant drug-using offenders. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. COMMUNITY-BASED DRUG COURTS REDUCE LOCAL CRIME AND PROVIDE TREATMENT Benjamin Tucker. they pilot new and more proactive approaches to public safety. July 22. and they make use of a broader array of mandates. Community courts are neighborhood-focused courts that address local problems. Accessed 10-14-2010. DRUG COURTS ARE THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE TO INCARCERATION Andrew Clevenger. Staff writer. such as job training and community restitution. BJA is directing $57 million in funding for problem-solving courts through the Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program and the Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program. 2010. "This program gives us the opportunity to change things. who successfully complete their individualized programs. Lexis Nexis.” Charleston Gazette (West Virginia). including misdemeanor drug possession. and produce greater cost benefits. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications. Furthermore.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. July 22. July 22. Accessed 10-14-2010. Accessed 10-14-2010. be they pre-trial. Local. Bureau of Justice Assistance Office of Justice Programs. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. the criminal and juvenile justice systems can deter drug use and dealing. psychological. Various factors affect a drug court program's success. and social problems such as substance abuse. Accessed 10-14-2010. who successfully complete their individualized programs. 2010. homelessness.” CQ Congressional Testimony. Bureau of Justice Assistance Office of Justice Programs. and reentry courts that rely on collaboration with social service. and who. as a result. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications. and Tribal Affairs. reduce drug availability. Local. monitoring and supervision. and other variable influences such as drug use trends. and Tribal Affairs. from committing new crimes and returning to drug use. July 22. 2. When implemented effectively. “Alternatives to Incarceration. July 22. deferred entry of judgment. accountability. Based on these evaluations. Accessed 10-14-2010. help make our neighborhoods safer. However. the role assumed by the judge and the nature of offender interactions with the judge.” CQ Congressional Testimony. “Alternatives to Incarceration. have been shown to be effective in addressing these underlying problems and in reducing recidivism. many adults and juveniles have been steered away from further offending by programs that use the coercive and monitoring power of the court. and treatment and recovery support services. 3. DRUG COURTS ARE DIRECTLY TIED TO TREATMENT SERVICES James Burch Acting Director. Drug courts have been evaluated for approximately 20 years. 2010. DRUG COURTS HAVE BEEN PROVEN EFFECTIVE FOR OVER 20 YEARS Benjamin Tucker. Many of today's court cases involve individuals with medical. graduated sanctions and rewards. 2010. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. Lexis Nexis. Problem-solving forums such as drug. Deputy Director for State. mental health. we have seen drug courts make adjustments and improve their models of operation. in scope and size. Deputy Director for State. "Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders" Congressional Documents and Publications. and other criminal justice agencies. or community supervision. continue to cycle through the criminal justice system. Traditional court practices have not always been shown to be particularly effective in addressing the underlying social and psychological issues that propel individuals into involvement with the justice system. high-need offenders who may be prison-bound. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. 2010. staff turnover and resource allocation.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs 35 Sample Negative DRUG COURTS ARE AN EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE 1. judicial interaction. such as proper assessment and treatment. . Data also indicates drug courts prevent most offenders. 4. Lexis Nexis. Office of National Drug Control Policy. public health. DRUG COURTS COMBINE TREATMENT WITH ENFORCEMENT TO REDUCE DRUG ABUSE Benjamin Tucker. of such problem solving courts. Lexis Nexis. The President's FY 2011 Budget request provides for expansion. steer users toward getting the help they need and. or lack of access to mental health treatment. ALTERNATIVE COURTS DIRECTLY LEAD TO TREATMENT AND REDUCE RECIDIVISM James Burch Acting Director. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. Numerous evaluations over many years have shown drug courts are cost-effective alternatives to traditional incarceration. Drug courts combine assessment. due to continuing substance abuse and criminal activity. which drive criminal behavior. Lexis Nexis. This same approach of evaluating and adjusting must be conducted for other promising alternative approaches to incarceration being employed across the country to reach maturity and scalability. and we should concentrate efforts on increasing their impact on high-risk. Research findings show that drug courts can reduce recidivism and promote other positive cost-saving outcomes. This can be done by supporting demonstration projects and pilots.
and an officer is assigned to monitor enforcement. July 22. Accessed 10-14-2010. 2. Associate Professor. DIVERSION PROGRAMS PROVIDE TREATMENT AND SHOULD BE EXPANDED Harold A. prison population. 2010. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. compared with probationers assigned to probation-as-usual. Participants must find employment.West Coast Publishing November / December 2010 LD – Drugs THERE ARE MANY ALTERNATIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE MEASURES 36 1. Lexis Nexis. Accessed 10-14-2010.” CQ Congressional Testimony.S. and days incarcerated. Interventions built on these two premises encourage or coerce drug-involved offenders into treatment. HOPE CAN REDUCE DRUG USE THROUGH THE TERMS OF PROBATION Angela Hawken. CQ Congressional Testimony. Professor University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration. This avoids the cost of incarceration (and the damage it can inflict on the offender's chances of successfully integrating into law-abiding society) and promises rehabilitative benefits from requiring the offender to live lawfully in his or her home community. as currently configuredmarkedly reduce the U. 2010. July 22. including a randomized controlled trial of high-risk primarily methamphetamine-using probationers. These evaluations were conducted with support from the National Institute of Justice and the Smith Richardson Foundation. Pollack. and fewer no-shows for probation appointments. Pepperdine University School of Public Policy. Back on Track has reduced recidivism among its graduates to less than 10 percent. in San Francisco is a problem. Lexis Nexis. A large research literature shows that these interventions indeed reduce drug use and associated criminal activity and are highly cost-effective. enroll in school full time. July 22. July 22. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. and comply with all the terms of an individualized Personal Responsibility Plan (PRP). Accessed 10-14-2010. Testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy Hearing. 4. 2010. “Alternatives to Incarceration. Associate Professor.” Accessed 10-15-2010.solving court aimed at reducing recidivism among low-level drug. Lexis Nexis. “BACK ON TRACK” IS AN EXAMPLE OF ALTERNATIVE CRIMINAL JUSTICE APPROACHES James Burch Acting Director. . 2010. They do not-and probably cannot. new arrests. an offender promises to comply with a set of conditions. 2010. One such program. Bureau of Justice Assistance Office of Justice Programs. probation revocations. Evaluation findings from both studies show that HOPE probationers have lower drug use. “Alternatives to Incarceration. 3. Drug courts and related diversion programs provide better help and monitoring for individual offenders. Expanding and improving these programs deserves high policy priority. Pepperdine University School of Public Policy. Statement Before the Committee on House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Domestic Policy. Over a two-year period. Back on Track combines strict accountability with real opportunities for self-improvement. Probation and parole supervision are intended to serve as an alternative to incarceration: In lieu of a prison term. PROBATION AND PAROLE WITH TREATMENT REDUCES USE Angela Hawken. HOPE has been subjected to two evaluations. “Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders” Congressional Documents and Publications. and (b) Reduced drug use produces marked reductions in crime. Back on Track. “Quitting Hard Habits: Efforts to Expand and Improve Alternatives to Incarceration for Drug-Involved Offenders” Congressional Documents and Publications. with authority to report violations to the court or Parole Board for possible sanctions.trafficking defendants. Lexis Nexis. July 22. An array of diversion programs have been fielded based on two well-documented premises: (a) Treatment can significantly reduce drug use.