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ke | Issue 002 - June 2013

Promoting Professionalism in Supply Chain Management


A quarterly Issue | 003 - June 2013

e-Newsletter
KISM News
Universities Excellence Award Program Commences

Inside this this issue: Inside Issue


1 KISM News 2 KISM Programs 3 Where they are 4 Notice Board 5 A Date with KISM 6 Articles from Practitioners

We have added to our programs a recognition scheme for the best performing students in the Procurement and Supply Chain Management discipline. This award targets students at Bachelor and Master Degree level and has the following categories: 1. Overall best performing student in Procurement and Supply Chain Management at Bachelor level at year 3. The sponsorship is a cash award of Ksh. 10,000, a certificate of excellence issued by the Kenya Institute of Supplies Management and a one-year membership subscription. 2. Best performing graduate in Procurement and Supply Chain Management at Bachelor level. The sponsorship is a cash award of Ksh. 15,000, a certificate of excellence issued by the Kenya Institute of Supplies Management, and a one-year membership subscription.

3. Best performing graduate, specialized in procurement and supply chain management at Master level. The sponsorship is a cash award of Ksh. 25,000 and a certificate of excellence issued by the Kenya Institute of Supplies Management, and one-year membership subscription The above awards are part of the Institutes initiative to promote the Procurement and Supply Chain Management discipline and encourage research. The Institute has formally invited local universities through their Vice Chancellors offices, to participate in this Excellence Award program. University of Nairobi has confirmed its interest in the award program, and students pursuing Bachelors and Masters Degrees in procurement and supply management at UoN, will be the first to receive the award at their upcoming award ceremony.

7 Articles from around the World

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KISM presentation at the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya (ICPAK) Conference on Devolution - 25th April 2013
addressed governance and leadership issues both emergent and anticipated in the devolution process, with focus on procurement. The need to engage procurement professionals in the management of resources at county level was underscored, alongside adherence to strategic approaches to procurement. The apparent risk of devolving corruption to the counties was also discussed with a call to professionals to observe ethics while discharging their duties. In closing, the chairman highlighted the interdependence of the various professions and urged all to work together to support the devolution process.

KISM presentation at the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya (ICPAK) Conference on Devolution - 25th April 2013

KISM Chairman Eng. Chris Oanda, delivered a key note presentation to Finance Officers at their workshop on County Governments Addressing

the Transition Challenges, at the Safari Park Hotel. The presentation titled Public Procurement in the Counties; Responsibilities and Controls

Council Congratulates the Cabinet Secretary and Governor


Procurement and Supply Chain Practitioners in Kenya take pride and congratulate Governor Cornel Rasanga on his election as Governor of Siaya and Hon. Felix Kiptarus Koske on his appointment as Cabinet Secretary for Agriculture. The Council of the Institute has sent personal congratulatory messages and joins members in appreciating this assumption of high offices by procurement professionals.

KISM to participate in the Devolution process


KISM will, together with its development partners, organize weeklong workshops in the coming months to address issues of professional ethics and code of conduct, while at the same time engaging actors in the devolution process in order to strengthen systems and build procurement capacity for professionals and institutions.

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Our Products
Membership
Our focus this year is to add value to our members through a number of membership benefiting activities. As part of our strategy to create dialogue forums with members, KISM in partnership with UN Women successfully organized a 1 day forum on Preference and Reservation Scheme on 19th April 2013, at Hilton hotel, Nairobi. Members shared their experiences and difficulties in implementing the Scheme and a key recommendation is that an implementation framework needs to be developed to guide practitioners. We will devolve this forum and indeed other forums to the counties in order to reach a wider audience. We have also enhanced our job reference benefit to members where we periodically send job alerts via emails; we encourage members to constantly check their inboxes; those who have changed addresses should notify the membership office through membership@kism.or.ke. We have also assisted our young professionals to secure internship opportunities and employment opportunities that will equip them with industry experience to complement their academic knowledge. Members are also encouraged to renew their membership in case they have not done so in order to keep their status in good standing as required by law.

Participants in a CPD workshop on Tender Evaluation in Nakuru

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Trainings


KISM workshops have traditionally featured a mix of PowerPoint presentations, exercises and sharing of practical examples. To further improve the learning experience for participants in our workshops, we are putting more emphasis on learning through cases. The CPD workshop themed Tender Evaluation and Contract Management workshop held on 23rd 26th April 2013 in Nakuru, took a different approach from the traditional form of training. The training, which focused on the tender evaluation stage and its relationship to other phases of the procurement process, was delivered using one comprehensive case that was discussed over a period of four days. Activities and various exercises were also incorporated in

the sessions providing an opportunity for discussions and sharing of experiences. This approach to training will feature in subsequent open workshops, as well as in-house or in-company trainings.

In- Company Trainings


We acknowledge that organizations have unique needs in fulfilling their mandate. In this regard, KISM has continued to respond to the growing demand for tailor-made trainings that seeks to address emerging challenges in procurement. In this second quarter, we have trained Kenya Forest Service staff on Inventory Management and we look forward to training more organizations on this topic. Other topics that continue to elicit demand include Public Procurement and Disposal Act 2005 and its subsequent Regulations, the Tendering process, Contract Management among others.

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Noticeboard
Membership
1. Membership Forum Role of Supplies Practitioners in implementing Public Procurement and Disposal (Preference and Reservation) Regulation 2011 When: 28th June 2013 Where: Mombasa Time: 8am 5pm CPD Hours: 8 2. Sensitization forums Devolution and Code of Ethics When: 8th -19th July 2013 Where: Mombasa, Kisumu, Nyeri, Nairobi, Kakamega, Nakuru Time: 8pm 5pm (5 Days) CPD Hours: 24

Where they are


This segment traces where senior supplies practitioners are, particularly those that have changed jobs in the recent past. We shall be profiling other practitioners in our subsequent issue and encourage those who have taken up new positions to notify the secretariat through: communication@kism.or.ke Name: Felix Chelimo Current Employer: Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) Current Position: Head of Procurement Former employer; Energy Regulatory Commission Qualifications; MBA (Procurement), MKISM, MCIPS Name: Hilda Gatwiri Kaaria Current Employer: Kenya Markets Trust Current Position: Procurement Manager Former employer; Kenya National Bureau of Statistics Qualifications; MBA (Procurement), Dip. Procurement, B. Business Admn, CIPS

A date with KISM

An Interview with Governor Amoth Rasanga


What are your expectations?
County governments are bound to receive 15% of the total revenue collected by the national government, with the current budgetary allocation of 210 billion to be distributed to 47 counties in the Financial Year 2013/2014; and procurement function managing close to 70% of the allocation, it is incumbent upon me as Governor to ensure that there is value for money in the expenditure in order to bring about development in Siaya County.

Workshops
1. Workshop Theme: Value for Money in Procurement Dates: 18th 21st June 2013 Venue: Mombasa CPD Hours: 24 2. Workshop Theme: Strategic Procurement Dates: 17th 19th July 2013 Venue: Mombasa CPD Hours: 24 3. Workshop Theme: Procurement Process Documentation & Improvement Dates: 14th 16th Aug 2013 Venue: Embu CPD hrs: 24

Who is Amoth Rasanga?


Im the first governor of Siaya County elected under the new constitution to serve the people of Siaya. Before joining politics, I was the secretary to the Public Procurement Administrative Review Board (PPARB). I bring to the Governorship over thirty years of service and management in both public and private sector.

What role do you think procurement will play in the Counties?


The Transition Authority (TA) has seconded staff from the national government to counties to midwife a smooth transition of functions and built structures within this transition phase. Procurement is one of those functions being undertaken by a practitioner seconded by TA.
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However, they are currently facing hostility from some people who are used to the old order of doing things. But we are hopeful that this will change once the devolution process is completed.

procurement process.

Are there employment opportunities for Supplies Practitioners in your government?


Yes of course, once we have fully settled and established proper structures, we aim to absorb professionals in various cadres to drive the agenda of Siaya. Currently we have six sub counties which will require professional staff, and this is a good opportunity for those in the practice of procurement.

What is your take on the notion that Counties will be a source of devolved corruption?
There is that risk considering that the fourth schedule of the Constitution directs County governments to take over all the functions that were performed by the now defunct local authorities. Some of these staff come with fixed mindsets and work-culture - they are used to doing things in their own way and not necessarily within the law. However in Siaya, we are trying to prevent this by incorporating into our system professionals who value integrity, uphold the rule of law and are committed to serve the people of Siaya. Being a procurement practitioner, I understand procurement systems very well and I will ensure that people with vested interest are locked out of the

need for the procurement law to be localized within the respective counties, without conflicting with the national procurement law. In this way individuals at county level will have a higher appreciation and understanding of the laws.

I understand the office of Governor is very busy currently, but Im curious to know whether you really find time to unwind.
Yes I do. I am a teetotaler and a family man I enjoy spending time with my family. Also, I like watching football, particularly local teams and I believe we have a lot of talent in the country which needs to be nurtured. I do like reading widely, mostly early in the morning because as you grow old, you sleep less and therefore by 2am Im up doing my personal reading.

What is the future for procurement profession?


There is no doubt that the profession has grown tremendously, from those dark ages when procurement officers used to walk with LPOs in their pockets to the current situation. The existing laws on procurement have served us well but we need to awaken to the realities of our County system of government. There is

Thank you for your time Governor and congratulations for winning the election
Many thanks and wish KISM well.

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Articles from Practitioners


Empowering the Kenyan Youth through Public Procurement: Reality or Fiction?
The Jubilee Manifesto promised 30% of public procurement for the Kenyan youth. The regulations to implement this policy have already been published within the realm of the existing public procurement law. The purpose of the Public Procurement and Disposal (Youth Owned Enterprises) Regulations 2013 is to implement the Youth Access to Government Procurement Opportunities Program (YAGPO). The program will provide procurement opportunities to youth owned enterprises for 10 years. The regulations set registration of youth enterprises, eligibility criteria, general rules, establishment of YAGPO, and compliance monitoring. The regulations define a youth as a person between the ages of 18 and 35 years. In case of a partnership or companies, the youth should have 70 percent ownership to be eligible. The risk inherent in this definition is that, those aged above 35 years are likely to enlist the youth in registering firms whose sole purpose will be to win government business. The net effect is that the youth will remain as agents of the older generation and only earn a fee for use of their names in obtaining business. There is nowhere in the present procurement laws where this risk has been addressed to ensure that the real beneficiaries are the youth. The regulations set eight qualification criteria for the youth enterprise. One of the criterion is tax compliance, which might not be a problem to obtain even for the newly established youth firms. The problem will come when the youth start getting business and fail to submit the tax returns. The other condition is that the youth enterprise should be registered with the Directorate of Supply Chain Management Services at the Ministry of Finance situated in Nairobi County. It is understood that there will be a system in the Counties to register the youth enterprises. Registering youth enterprises in Nairobi is likely to be a problem for persons who dont have resources to travel from their stations to the city to have their firms registered. It was expected that the regulations will give guidelines about doing business with the youth and the responsibility would rest with the procuring entities to implement the policy. This provision for registration is likely to be the main challenge in the implementation of this policy. More so because the regulations stipulate that only registered youth enterprises shall benefit from the YAGPO program. The list of registered youth firms will be circulated to the procuring entities. The regulations also require that the youth enterprise may only participate in public procurement once it has been successfully registered by procuring entities! This double registration is a cost for the youth in effort and time spent filling myriad compliance forms. Besides, little benefit would accrue to the youth if they then have to compete with the older-than-35 years olds that are seasoned in business. Positively, the regulations require that at least 10 percent of the budget shall be set aside for youth enterprises. The procurement plan from each procuring entity shall show the items to be procured from the youth. These are good provisions, but again there are implementation realities. Not all entities have embraced procurement planning. Where plans are prepared, they are only meant to satisfy the compliance auditors from the Public Procurement Oversight Authority (PPOA). The figures used in budgeting are rarely based on sound supply market research. Even if entities indicated the amounts dedicated for the youth in their budgets, the PPOA and the PPD have no capacity to audit all the procuring entities to ensure compliance to the regulations. Good provisions in the regulations are the waiver of bid securities, fee for tender documents, and prompt payment of invoices. However, most of the youth have little experience in business. Therefore, the procurement experts will consider their firms as high risk that could be

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awarded contracts for critical supplies and fail to deliver. To safeguard against this occurrence, the regulations stipulate that any youth enterprise that fails to adhere to the tender conditions will be liable to debarment. The problem is that the PPOA has not debarred any firm since the procurement laws came into effect in 2006. Therefore, procurement experts wont have any assurance that youth enterprises that do not perform will be debarred. The net effect is a risk averse posture that would slowly bring YAGPO to a grinding halt. An interesting provision in the regulations is the recommendation to reserve specific categories of procurements to the youth. The list includes supply of flowers, newspapers, etc. It also has cleaning services painting and bush clearing. There is no information how the government drew up this list, but it seems to be based on low-level jobs being preserved for the youth. Surely, it is not the intension of Government to keep the youth businesses preoccupied with low value supplies, leaving the older generation to deal with the real money. There is a requirement to unbundle procurement packages to smaller quantities to enable youth firms to bid for business. This is a reasonable idea that would have more Kenyan youth access to business. To the procurement expert however, it means more contracts and more procurement staff required to manage the large number of procurement contracts. The positive effect is that there would be more jobs for qualified procurement recruits. The negative effect is a larger wage bill across the public sector. The implementation structures are provided in the regulations. The YAGPO Secretariat is established under the Directorate of Supply Chain Management Services at the Ministry of Finance in Nairobi. The functions of the Secretariat have been laid out in the regulations, including recommending action to be taken against procuring entities that are not conforming to the regulations. The secretariat shall also agree with the procuring entities on the list of goods, works, and services to be reserved for the youth. This proposed system is likely to be cumbersome and bureaucratic in this era of devolved county system. The

main reason is that this program focuses on which items should be reserved for the youth. It is impossible to list all categories of items that the public sector will ever buy. Instead, the focus should be on the process to be put in place to enable procuring entities legally evaluate and award contracts to the youth. That way the youth would also benefit from high value government business. The regulations require procuring entities to submit detailed reports to the Ministry of Finance about the contracts awarded to youth enterprises. However, the Ministry neither has a system nor the capacity to efficiently process the large amounts of data. The system is likely to fail as a monitoring tool for compliance. Any entity that does not comply with the regulations shall be subject to sanctions of the Ministry of Finance. However, no sanctions can be made against a procuring entity if it is not contained in the Public Procurement and Disposal Act. This is because where there is a conflict between the regulations and the procurement act, the act prevails. Lack of an effective compliance system in the YAGPO program is the Achilles heel of this program. There is no assurance that the entities will follow these regulations. Therefore, the benefits to the youth are far from being realized. Government is better off with an overhaul of the current public procurement system. A public procurement process is conducted by nine committees. Hence to promote efficiency, the first to delete digitally is eight of the nine committees that hinder effective public procurement. From a professionals point of view it is only the evaluation committee that adds real value to the procurement process and should be retained, all functions handle by the other committees should be handle by the procurement professional. Dr. Joseph Ogachi is the Vice President Africa Region of the International Federation of Purchasing and Supply Management. He serves on the Council of the Kenya Institute of Supplies Management.

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Articles from Practitioners


(Source: International Federation of Purchasing and Supplies Management- IFPSM)

Five strategies to negotiate like a pro


Dont buy the belief that negotiators are born and not made. You can be one of the best wherever you begin. But purchasing professionals are often held back by their own practices and behaviours. Here are the top five things you need to do differently to negotiate like the pros and take your results and career to the next level. 1. Dont leave Ts and Cs until last come to a negotiation with a surprise proposal or, perhaps, not ready to discuss the same topic. What the purchasing professional needs to do is to ask to receive the suppliers proposal at least two business days before the negotiation session takes place, and the proposal needs to be in exact response to the purchasing professionals specific areas of identified focus for negotiation. What it cannot be is a list of things that are important to the supplier to negotiate. If time is of the essence, the purchasing professional can ask the supplier to put their most aggressive offer in this proposal, because this will be compared to other pricing information available in industry (let them wonder what that means). This way, if the proposal is off base, feedback can be given before the negotiations indicating as such, and telling the supplier they have missed the mark and need to come into negotiations prepared to make movement in specific areas if they want to have a chance at the business. It also encourages the supplier to be aggressive, for fear of losing the business due to a non-competitive proposal. Additionally, substantial time is saved by reviewing the suppliers proposal before the meeting rather than at the meeting, and this time can be used for the purchasing professional to develop a much better negotiation strategy, knowing exactly where the supplier stands on every position before going into negotiations. Take this step to slash cycle time and improve total cost of ownership (TCO). 3. Assess the suppliers need level

Purchasing professionals very frequently tell suppliers: Well save the terms and conditions (Ts and Cs) for last, or Our legal department will handle the Ts and Cs after we are done . This practice is a deal killer for purchasing. What happens is the supplier will mark up the contract heavily because by that time, there will be nothing left to lose. Price will have already been agreed upon, and from their perspective, you will have already made commitment to do business with them after all, you already spent the time to negotiate everything else with them. The heavily marked-up contract then goes to the understaffed and overwhelmed legal department, where it sits for sometimes weeks before you get it back. Instead, weave the Ts and Cs into the negotiations upfront and make it clear the suppliers ability to secure the business is contingent upon adherence to your standard terms and conditions. Develop some purchasing contract law expertise, and reduce your reliance on the legal department. Remember, a contract approved by legal doesnt mean its a good business contract it might be a terrible contract for the business. Legal is looking for different things than you are. Empower yourself with knowledge and negotiate Ts and Cs up-front like the pros. 2. Ask for the suppliers proposal before negotiations

Your time is valuable, and you cant afford to spend it in unproductive negotiations. Suppliers need to know before negotiations start exactly what positions you will, and will not, be negotiating, and this is your choice, not theirs. Purchasing professionals cannot afford to have a supplier

Suppliers are trained to act as if they can walk away from the business. This is rarely actually the case, but sometimes it is. Purchasing professionals need to know the difference, and there are a few questions that must be asked in order

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to do this. One is are you currently operating at or near full capacity? . That singular question will tell you if they can walk or not. If they say yes , then not only is it clear they may in fact be able to walk from the deal, but it is also clear this is a high-risk supplier who could present supply line interruptions. Another question to ask is where would this level of proposed spending put us relative to your other top customers? . If the answer is anywhere in the top 10 - or especially the top five - then the purchasing professional can be confident that the supplier needs this business and cannot walk from the deal. Always know where you stand in importance to the suppliers business and negotiate accordingly. 4. Always include data-based negotiation tactics

There are several different types of cost models which purchasing professionals should get training on (should cost, total cost, must cost). Remember, it doesnt matter how big a player you are on the block, you still need to build a rock-solid case to achieve world-class results, and that starts with data analysis. 5. Focus on the Win for the Supplier

Years ago, I mentored a first-time buyer who was working in a Fortune 50 company. He thought he could use his companys strength, leverage, and huge spending levels to quickly get what he wanted in negotiations, after all, his company was the big gorilla in that industry. He met with his targeted supplier and confidently demanded an increase in discount schedule from 12 per cent to 18 per cent. The supplier calmly responded why 18 per cent? Why not 20 per cent or 25 per cent? . Not expecting this response, the buyer was stunned and speechless, and he was forced to discontinue negotiations until he could regroup. He never did get 18 per cent. The moral of the story is negotiations are won or lost before they ever start, and that foundation is all built on data-driven analysis. This involves some logical basis to leverage to influence and achieve your objectives, usually related to pricing. This can be benchmarking data or it can be from cost modelling data, but it cannot be based on nothing, as the individual above attempted to do. The best benchmarking data comes from RFQ/RFP data. Absent that information, the purchasing professional should do a cost model to build their case.

Negotiating is both an art and a science. Rookie negotiators use win/lose pressure tactics to get the upper hand or they use their authority to achieve their negotiation objectives. Savvy negotiators look to use their ability to influence and recognise that true win/win is only achieved when both parties feel good about the deal. Even still, some negotiators will sacrifice on price objectives to help make it a win/win deal another rookie mistake. The purchasing pros know how to do this right. The key to doing this is identifying supplier objectives that have high value to them (the supplier), but low TCO implications to the purchasing professional. For instance, allowing the supplier to use the purchasing professionals company name in advertising (if allowed) will cost the purchasing professional little to nothing in TCO, but may have tremendous payback in terms of negotiation objectives achieved in return for this concession. Another example is to expedite a deal so that the supplier can report it on this quarters revenue report which may mean a bonus for the sales personnel involved. This costs the purchasing professional little in terms of TCO, but this concession should only be given in return for helping the purchasing professional meet their most aggressive pricing and TCO-related objectives. Always focus on the win for the supplier just make sure you are doing so in a way that helps you meet or exceed your TCO and pricing objectives, while making the supplier feel good about the deal. That is the art and science of negotiating, and that is the only true definition of win/win for purchasing. Omid Ghamami is president of training and solutions provider Purchasing Advantage, and can be reached at omid@purchasingadvantage.com

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What buyers want to see in an RFP


What are purchasers looking for in an RFP response? And how can suppliers provide the right answers? Peg Guinta has some tips. Put yourself in the shoes of a supplier. Youve just sent off a rushed response to a request for proposal (RFP) of services your company is well equipped to deliver. You breathe a sigh of relief when it goes out on time; convinced youll get the chance to really wow them during the presentation phase. Then the call comes from the buyer: Thank you for your participation, but your company was eliminated from consideration. What went wrong? The evaluation of an RFP begins earlier than a supplier might think. No matter how strong a vendors service capabilities are, a written RFP response has the power to influence purchasers compatibility perceptions of a firm. Buyers will assess the suppliers ability to understand their own individual situation and judge the vendors consultative capabilities from the RFP response documents readability and style. The RFP response should be considered an emissary capable of enhancing or diminishing a companys invitation to the next phase, an in-person meeting. Here are a few RFP response elements that can derail an opportunity if not well approached.

all candidates and apples-to-apples pricing comparisons. When potential bidders under consideration do not follow these requested formats, evaluation teams often deduct points and may even generalise this is a characteristic of the suppliers daily working style.

Responses should be customised for each project


A one-size-fits-all RFP response could leave an impression the supplier views all clients similarly. Instead, a memorable RFP can differentiate your companys response by demonstrating awareness of prospects particular situations or challenges and addressing them within the RFP response. Buyers sometimes share specific issues or request solutions as part of its RFP questionnaire. If not, these can sometimes be anticipated or extrapolated from available information. For example in mobility services, RFPs note where prospects headquarters or other activity areas are located for insight into possible destination or departure challenges. To set an RFP apart from competitors, for example, suppliers could incorporate solutions for potentially limited temporary housing options in remote destination areas or home marketing ideas in challenged real estate economies to demonstrate a clientfocused and consultative approach. While a customised approach to each prospect is essential, the supplier must also establish a memorable and positive impression of their firms character. Vendors should avoid a plain vanilla profile and personalise the company by including service team biographies or briefly discussing community or charitable activities that are important to the firm. Strategically placed proof sources, such as key service performance statistics or testimonials from existing clients and customers, will also sharpen the companys persona to the buyers evaluation team. Industry accolades and awards also informally convey company characteristics and qualities, but these should be included sparingly and strategically.

Suppliers should follow RFP instructions explicitly


Evaluation teams often use a point system to rank companies in pertinent subject matter categories, but they also notice how well bidders follow instructions. Corporate service buyers often request RFP recipients to use specific formats such as Word or Excel to convey responses or to place collateral materials in specific locations such as an appendix or separate binder. Its also typical to request bidders use a specific protocol for a Q&A or pricing/fee proposals to permit equitable information sharing among

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Written style sensitivities


In addition to a final proof read to check spelling and grammar, RFP responses should also consider style compatibility and readability from the purchasers perspective. Approaching the response from the buyers point of view may uncover unclear responses or unused opportunities to enhance a response by including additional benefits. Answers should be direct, brief and respond to the spirit of the question, even if not expressed well. If multiple authors prepare RFP content and writing style differences are often apparent, so any mismatched passages should be blended. Materials should be physically easy for readers to use, too. Difficult-to-read fonts, dense text and missing navigational tools, (i.e., content tables, divider tabs) can limit focus and reader absorption. Many suppliers use prepared responses for frequently needed service descriptions, but look out for verbatim paragraphs and phrases. These distract readers and forfeit opportunities to showcase additional service dimensions and advantages. Its tempting to repeat responses to seemingly redundant questions or refer to a previous response, but bidders would be better to inject ancillary services descriptions or explain how the company resolved a related situation for another client.

An RFPs written response qualities, including style and tone, can affect selection progress considerations and a supplier could miss business its ideally suited to provide. Its not always just about what is written, but how aptly and convincingly your companys culture and work style is conveyed. Cultural compatibility and style isnt always a conscious evaluation element within RFPs, but could play a key role in a final decision, so materials should not send unintended messages. All other criteria being equal, buyers are likely to select the service provider they most comfortably envision working with. Peg Guinta is projects director at RIS Consulting Group

Woes of a Buyer
A purchaser coming from Homa Bay from suppliers sourced all he could buy With lead times too long most forecasts went wrong And unsellable stock turned high With tension rising high And the costs soaring high The delivery hour becoming nigh A lift-truck driver from Naivesha, Loyal to him and with suave, And whose name was Dave, Up he was sent with verve, made up his own replenish wave. Filled the aisles with stuff, thought pickers had enough. Now they call him congestion Dave. M. J Ratemo

Materials should be physically easy for readers to use, too. Difficult-toread fonts, dense text and missing navigational tools, (i.e., content tables, divider tabs) can limit focus and reader absorption.

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