6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

The Operational Amplifier Abstraction

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

1

Review
MOSFET amplifier — 3 ports +

+ input vI port –

+ vO output port –

VS

power port

Amplifier abstraction
VS
+ vI – + + v – O

vI

vO
Function of vI

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

2

Review
vI vO
Function of vI

Can use as an abstract building block for more complex circuits (of course, need to be careful about input and output). Today Introduce a more powerful amplifier abstraction and use it to build more complex circuits. Reading: Chapter 15 from A & L.

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

3

Operational Amplifier Op Amp
VS power port output port + – + –

input port

+ –

−VS
More abstract representation: + vIN – + –
vOUT

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

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Circuit model (ideal):
+ i=0 + v – – i=0 vO

v+
+ –

Av A→∞

v–

i.e.

∞ input resistance 0 output resistance “A” virtually ∞ No saturation

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

5

Using it…
12V

+ – + –
12V

VS = 12V

vIN

vO − VS = −12V
RL

– +

Demo
12V
vO active region
saturation

− 10 μV
− 12V

10μV

vIN

A ~ 106 but unreliable, temp. dependent

(Note: possible confusion with MOSFET saturation!)
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19
6

Let us build a circuit…
Circuit: noninverting amplifier
v+ vIN + – v−
+ –
R1 R2

vO

Equivalent circuit model + i=0

op amp
vO

v+ v

vIN + –
– i=0

+ A(v + − v − ) –

R1

R2
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19
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Let us analyze the circuit:
Find vO in terms of vIN, etc.

vO = A(v + − v − ) R2 ⎞ ⎛ = A⎜ vIN − vO ⎟ R1 + R2 ⎠ ⎝
⎛ AR2 ⎞ vO ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = AvIN ⎝ R1 + R2 ⎠

AvIN vO = AR2 1+ R1 + R2
What happens when “A” is very large?

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

8

Let’s see… When A is large
AvIN AvIN ≈ vO = AR2 AR2 1+ R1 + R2 R1 + R2
≈ vIN Suppose

(R1 + R2 )
R2
gain

A = 10 6 R1 = 9 R R2 = R

10 6 ⋅ vIN vO = 10 6 R 1+ 9R + R

10 6 ⋅ vIN = 1 6 1 + 10 ⋅ 10 vO ≈ vIN ⋅ 10

Demo

Gain: determined by resistor ratio insensitive to A, temperature, fab variations
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19
9

Why did this happen? Insight:
5V v+
v−
+ –

10V
A
6V

12V

vIN + –

5V

vO = 2vIN

6V

negative feedback e.g. vIN = 5V

– i =0

R vO 2 R

Suppose I perturb the circuit…

(e.g., force vO momentarily to 12V somehow). Stable point is when v+ ≈ v- .

Key: negative feedback portion of output fed to –ve input. e.g. Car antilock brakes small corrections.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19
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Question: How to control a high-strung device?
Antilock brakes is it turning? yes/no ack b eed f yes release apply no it’s all about control

Michelin

v. v. powerful brakes

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

di s

c

11

More op amp insights:
Observe, under negative feedback,
⎛ R1 + R2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟vIN R1 ⎠ v v+ − v− = O = ⎝ →0 A A

v+ ≈ v−
We also know i+ ≈ 0 i -≈ 0 yields an easier analysis method (under negative feedback).

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

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Insightful analysis method under negative feedback
v+ ≈ v− i+ ≈ 0 i− ≈ 0
a vIN g vO = vIN + c vIN e i=0

R1 + R2 R2 vO vIN R2

vIN + –

b vIN –

R1 f

vIN d R2

R2

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

13

Question:
a vIN v + + – c vIN

vIN + –

b vIN

v

vO

?

vO ≈ vIN

or

R1 + R2 vO = vIN R2
with R1 = 0 R2 = ∞

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

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Why is this circuit useful?
+

vIN + –

vO

vO ≈ vIN

Buffer

voltage gain = 1 input impedance = ∞ output impedance = 0 current gain = ∞ power gain = ∞

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 19

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