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CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

The Operational Amplifier


Abstraction

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 1


Review
„ MOSFET amplifier — 3 ports

power
VS
+ port
+ vO output
input port
vI –
port –

„ Amplifier abstraction
VS
+

vI vO
+ +
vI v
– – – O
Function of vI

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 2


Review
vI vO

Function of vI

„ Can use as an abstract building block for


more complex circuits (of course, need
to be careful about input and output).
„ Today
Introduce a more powerful amplifier
abstraction and use it to build more
complex circuits.

Reading: Chapter 15 from A & L.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 3


Operational Amplifier
Op Amp

VS

power +
+ port –
input
port – output
port

+

−VS

More abstract representation:

+ +
vIN vOUT
– –

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 4


Circuit model (ideal):

+ vO
i=0
v+
+
v +
Av

– v– A→∞

i=0

i.e.  ∞ input resistance


 0 output resistance
 “A” virtually ∞
 No saturation

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 5


Using it…

12V + VS = 12V

+ vO
vIN

− VS = −12V RL

12V +

Demo
vO active region
12V
saturation

vIN
− 10 μV 10μV
A ~ 106
− 12V but unreliable,
temp. dependent

(Note: possible confusion with MOSFET saturation!)

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 6


Let us build a circuit…
Circuit: noninverting amplifier
v+
+
v− vO
vIN +


R1

R2

Equivalent circuit model

+ op amp
i=0
v+ vO
+ A(v + − v − )
vIN +
– – R1

v

i=0

R2

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 7


Let us analyze the circuit:
Find vO in terms of vIN, etc.

vO = A(v + − v − )

⎛ R2 ⎞
= A⎜ vIN − vO ⎟
⎝ R1 + R2 ⎠
⎛ AR2 ⎞
vO ⎜ 1 + ⎟ = AvIN
⎝ R1 + R2 ⎠
AvIN
vO =
AR2
1+
R1 + R2

What happens when “A” is very large?

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 8


Let’s see… When A is large
AvIN AvIN
vO = ≈
AR2 AR2
1+
R1 + R2 R1 + R2
(R1 + R2 )
≈ vIN
R2
Suppose A = 10 6
R1 = 9 R gain
R2 = R
10 6 ⋅ vIN
vO =
10 6 R
1+
9R + R
10 6 ⋅ vIN
= Demo
1
1 + 10 ⋅6

10
vO ≈ vIN ⋅ 10
Gain:
„ determined by resistor ratio
„ insensitive to A, temperature, fab variations

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 9


Why did this happen?
Insight:
5V
v+ 12V
+ 10V
v− A vO = 2vIN
vIN + 5V –
– R
6V 6V
vO

negative i =0 2
feedback R

e.g. vIN = 5V
Suppose I perturb the circuit…
(e.g., force vO momentarily to 12V somehow).
Stable point is when v+ ≈ v- .
Key: negative feedback Æ portion of
output fed to –ve input.
e.g. Car antilock brakes
Æ small corrections.

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 10


Question: How to control a
high-strung device?

Antilock brakes

is it
turning?

yes/no c k
db a it’s
fee all about
Michelin control
no yes
release apply
cs
di

v. v. powerful brakes

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 11


More op amp insights:
Observe, under negative feedback,
⎛ R1 + R2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟vIN
v R1 ⎠
v+ − v− = O = ⎝ →0
A A

v+ ≈ v−

We also know
i+ ≈ 0
i -≈ 0

Æyields an easier analysis method


(under negative feedback).

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 12


Insightful analysis method
under negative feedback
v+ ≈ v−
i+ ≈ 0
i− ≈ 0

R1 + R2
a vIN g vO = vIN
R2
+
vO
b vIN –
vIN +
– R1 f vIN
c vIN R2
e i=0
vIN
d R2
R2

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 13


Question:
a vIN v +
+ c vIN
v − vO ?
vIN +
– b vIN –

vO ≈ vIN

R1 + R2
or vO = vIN
R2
with R1 = 0
R2 = ∞

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 14


Why is this circuit useful?

+
vO
vIN +

vO ≈ vIN

Buffer
voltage gain = 1
input impedance = ∞
output impedance = 0
current gain = ∞
power gain = ∞

6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 19 15