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ENERGETICS 6. STANDARD ENTHLAPY CHANGES I. Standard Enthalpy Change Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction, symbolized as ∆H0298 , is defined as
The enthalpy change when the molar quantities of reactants shown in a balanced chemical equation completely react to from products under standard conditions.
Standard conditions are as follows: - a pressure of 1 atmosphere - a temperature of 298 K - if solution is used, 1M is specified. - Elements or compounds in their normal stable state Example: For the following reaction, H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ∆H0 = -285.9 kJ mol-1 When one mole of hydrogen and half mole of oxygen react to form one mole water, 285.9 kJ of heat are evolved under standard conditions. This is an exothermic reaction, ∆H being negative. Note: 1. All the substance involved must be in their normal physical states under standard conditions. 2. The enthalpy of all elements in their most stable form and standard state is conventionally taken as zero. For example, ∆H0298 [O2(g)] = 0 , ∆H0298 [Na(s)] = 0 Therefore, the standard enthalpy of formation of a compound represents the enthalpy content of the compound. 3. The precise physical state and allotropic form, if any, must clearly specified. This is because changes in state and allotropic form, involve energy changes even at a fixed temperature. A examples: (a) Change of State: H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(g) ∆H0 = -242.0 kJ mol-1 H2(g) + 1/2 O2(g) H2O(l) ∆H0 = -285.9 kJ mol-1 i.e. H2O(g) H2O(l) ∆H0 = -44 kJ mol-1 (b) Change in allotropic form: C ( graphite ) + O2(g) CO2(g) C ( diamond ) + O2(g) CO2(g) C ( graphite ) C ( diamond )
∆H0 –393.5 kJ mol-1 ∆H0 –395.4 kJ mol-1 ∆H0 = +1.9 kJ mol-1
(i. The ionization process consumes some heat produced during neutralization. . NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) ∆H0n.In experiments. The value of ∆H0n.298 = -57. 57.2 II. Neutralization is carried out in infinitely dilute solution.298 = -57.The heat change of a process is determined by multiplying heat capacity (C) of the calorimeter and its contents by the temperature change: ∆H = C x ∆T where heat capacity means the amount of heat per degree temperature change.e.3 kJ mol-1 4. .Enthalpy of neutralization can be measured by mixing solutions of acids and alkalis in a calorimeter and measuring the rise in temperature.3 kJ mol-1 When one mole of sodium hydroxide reacts with one mole of hydrochloric acid to give one mole of water under standard conditions. the enthalpy of neutralization is less negative.298 is the enthalpy change when an acid and a base neutralize to form one mole of water under standard conditions. Note: 1.298 involving strong acids and bases is quite constant ( -57. The enthalpy of neutralization is always negative because neutralization is exothermic. an insulated polystyrene cup or vacuum flask may be employed as the calorimeter. If either the acid or alkali is weak. . thereby reducing the magnitude of ∆H0n. 3. Example: The neutralization of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. (A) Experimental determination of Enthalpy of Neutralization .298 . Standard Enthalpy of Neutralization and its Experimental Determination Standard Enthalpy of Neutralization . less exothermic ) Energy is required to complete the dissociation of the weak acid or base as reaction proceeds. 2. ∆H0n.p.3 kJ of energy are released to the surroundings.3 kJ mol-1) The heat producing reaction is essentially H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l) ∆H0n.
change ) . Heat change = heat capacity x temperature change - - Specific heat capacity ( J g-1 K-1 ) is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g (or 1 kg) of a substance by 1K .3 - the heat capacity of the calorimeter and the contents can be found by measuring the electrical energy needed to raise the temperature by a certain degrees. Specific Heat capacity = Heat Change (J) / (mass x temp. If ∆H is measured in kJ and ∆T is measured in Kelvin (K).p.