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Loadcap
Parte I Foundation Bearing Capacity 1
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 2 2 Optimal Computer ................................................................................................................................... Set Up 3 3 Program Installation ................................................................................................................................... 3 4 Registration ................................................................................................................................... 4 5 Program Tools ................................................................................................................................... 5
FloatMenu ScreenTip .......................................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................................... 6 6

Parte II Loads acting Parte III Techniques and Tools

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1 Cartesian coordinates ................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Graphic Print ................................................................................................................................... Preview 7 3 Report Print Preview ................................................................................................................................... RTF 8 4 Zoom ................................................................................................................................... 8

Parte IV Program Menus
1 File Menu 2 Edit Menu

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3 View Menu ................................................................................................................................... 10 4 General Parmeters ................................................................................................................................... Menu 10
Geometry .......................................................................................................................................................... Soils DataBase .......................................................................................................................................................... 11 12

5 Graphic Input ................................................................................................................................... 12 6 Computation ................................................................................................................................... Menu 13
Set-up Parameters .......................................................................................................................................................... Computation .......................................................................................................................................................... Results Enbankment Module .......................................................................................................................................................... 14 16 17

7 Export 9 Window 10 Help

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8 Preferences ................................................................................................................................... 18

Parte V Bulbs Parte VI Stratigraphy Parte VII Seismic action

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1 Seismic corrections ................................................................................................................................... 22
© 2009 Geostru Software

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II

Loadcap 2 Seismic Eurocode8 ................................................................................................................................... 23 3 Richards ................................................................................................................................... 24

Parte VIII Tecnical Notes

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1 General Theory ................................................................................................................................... 25 2 Footings on ................................................................................................................................... Slopes 25 3 Liquefacion Potential ................................................................................................................................... 26

Parte IX New project Parte X Bibliography Parte XI Contact

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© 2009 Geostru Software

Foundation Bearing Capacity

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Foundation Bearing Capacity
A special problem that may be encountered occasionally is that of a footing located on or adjacent to a slope (Figura). From the figures it can be seen that the lack of soil on the slope side of the footing will tend to reduce the stability of the footing.

The solution of this problem (Bowles) is resolved by calculating reduced coefficients N'c and N'q and assuming the the slope line is a principal plane.

Compute a reduced N'c based on the failure surface ADE = L0 and the failure surface ADE = L1 of Fig.(a) to obtain:

Compute a reduced Nq based on the ratio of area D(ce) = A0, for a level footing, to the equivalent area Efg = of Fig.(a), or the alternative Efgh = A of Fig. (b), to obtain the following: Where A1³A0 :

The overall slope stability should be checked for the effect of the footing load using your slope-stability program (Slope by GeoStru). The ultimate bearing capacity may be computed by any of the usual equationsand reduction coefficients:

© 2009 Geostru Software

2 Loadcap Coefficient Ng . Static probing Slope stability © 2009 Geostru Software . Graphical representation of permissible load depth. permissible load foundation width. Foundations may have an inclined base or be subject to eccentric loads. Piles and Micropiles form GeoStru Software. Seismic corrections according to Vesic and Sano can be applied. Elastic settlement is calculated by the methods of Timoshenko and Goodier. Brinch-Hansen.1 Introduction Calculation of critical load on loose soils according to Hansen. is not corrected to account for the slope. load settlement diagram. Computation of foundation constant according to Terzaghi & Bowles. For stratified media. Terzaghi. 1. Interfaces to: · · · · · Stratigrapher. Display of stress contours derived by Boussineq's theory. Consolidation analysis. When b = 0 the coefficients N'c and N'q are the same as those acting when the footing is on level ground foer every value of f indipendently of the ratio D/B and b/ B. When D/b>0 coefficient di should no longer be used as that correction is already contained in N'c and N'q. Eurocode 8 and Vesic and of foundations on rock according to Terzaghi and Zienkiewicz.that is a function of the weight of the soil. Generation of bearing capacity table of foundation varying depth and width. Meyerof. Deformations may be calculated for any given point both within and outside the foundation. Other significant features: · Unlimited number of soil layers. · Display of tensions’ bulb and failure wedges. Dynamic Probing. the Schmertmann method and confined consolidation with passage of time are also performed. · Library of soil textures per type and editor to personalize these. For loose soils. drained and non drained conditions are considered. calculation may be based either upon the weighted average of geotechnical characteristics or upon borehole results.

please refer to the file: “TechLoadCap. This is present in all Windows 2000 operating system and higher.Foundation Bearing Capacity 3 For a fuller discussion of technical aspects. rtf” placed in the program folder. This same file is reproduced in the Numerical report that may be requested after calculation. 27 1. Use Windows Explorer to view contents of the CD. the hardware key and printed manual. Installation requires the presence on the system of MS installer program. See Optimum computer configuration for recommended configuration. Minimum configuration Windows 95/98/2000/Vista or NT operating system. See also:New project for the calculation of load-bearing capacity and settlements. No automatic loading occurs.3 Program Installation Package contents The package should contain a CD–ROM. · Screen Resolution: 1024 × 768 pixels recomended. the program’s usage license and optionally. 1.2 Optimal Computer Set Up Set up values are: · Operating system: WINDOWS 95-98-2000-ME-XP-Vista-NT. however not inferior to 800 x 600. but otherwise must be installed as a one time requirement. A VGA screen with 16 Mb memory and 6 Mb free disc space. © 2009 Geostru Software . Installation Start computer and insert CD–ROM in drive.

Click on HDD32. This removes the previous version.4 Loadcap For Windows 95/98 click on MSInstaller.S. or as a download. Disintallation This may be achieved in control panel (Start. For WindowsNT click on MSInstallerNT. some functions. It is not normally necessary to re enter the registration number but if the program invites it enter the same registration number before the new version obtains full functionality. a new registration number should be requested.4 Registration The program is distributed both on CD. Follow instructions displayed during program installation. 1. See Demonstration Mode 4 (Registration from the Foundation Bearing Capacity).a. (One file for each program). Software lock The use of this system requires the exchange of information between yourself and GeoStru Software S. export and save are suppressed. An alternative to this process is to obtain a hardware lock (dongle) which when inserted in the parallel port or USB as selected. giving the control number.a. Then proceed as above to install the new one.S. the Control Number to be found in the registration window 19 . The registration number is specific to the computer and if the program is to be loaded on another PC.S.a. will respond with the correct registration number. Control panel). and assignment of point coordinates is randomly altered while the other functions remain active. Hardware lock If you have purchased a hardware key you will need to install an additional item on the CD. among which. The whole exchange may occur by Email quoting the license number. Then click on each file with extension msi that installs the actual program. Select Application Installation and chose remove against the program name. opens all the functions of the program. Until this is done the program operates in demonstration mode. in a demonstration mode. This may then be entered (one time operation) into the registration window field. print. GeoStru Software S. In Demo mode. Version Update When a version update is obtained.exe to do this. This must © 2009 Geostru Software . You will send Geostru the control number that is generated by the computer where the software is installed and Geostru responds by sending you a registration code which is the key that opens the full functionality of the program. When the user purchases the program the registration number necessary for full functionality may be obtained by sending GEOSTRU Software S. click on the msi extension as above but select remove a first step. which appears on that machine. Settings. thus demonstrating its capabilities.

Against some of the commands a ‘Ctrl’ + a letter is shown. which can be used to perform some of the more common commands.5 Program Tools The program supplies two main tools for the achievement of its objectives.) the image may be zoomed to include these and renumerate the coordinates . profile. While this is a real classification. Within this and other drawing windows a Floating Menu the right hand mouse button. displays a short text 6 that describes the function of the button. Above the drawing window appear the Toolbar area and above it the Menu bar. File is called by Alt+F+F and New By Alt+F+N ). which either determine the environment or cause computation and its results to be effected and displayed. © 2009 Geostru Software . Letting the mouse pointer rest on the button. According to a Microsoft convention. but sometimes are used as switch buttons. may be drawn in scale. barriers. supports etc.Foundation Bearing Capacity 5 however be present whenever the program should be used. 6 can be invoked by pressing Below the drawing window there is a so called status bar.g. · A set of commands. in which the worksheet is represented. These are used to display various conditions. Around the top and left side of it are shown figures that represent the values of the ordinate and abscissa with reference to the zero points and are expressed in metres. If values that fall outside the screen are defined (extent/height of the terrain. The command can be invoked alternatively by the use of that combination. 1. Ctrl+C to Copy and Ctrl+V to paste).g. is blank when the program is opened. in a CAD inspired environment. barriers position etc. it can be difficult to see the line of distinction as the drawing environment provides its own commands (move. The first pane is dedicated to the display of the exact coordinates of the mouse pointer. The Menu bar consists of a number of menus from which (or from whose submenus) any of the commands of the program may be chosen by clicking on them with the mouse. These buttons are grouped into so called toolbars. which gives the area its name. commands can also be selected from the keyboard (without use of the mouse) by a combination of the key ‘Alt’ and the letter underlined in the command name (e. These are: · A drawing window wherein the object. The drawing window. Many of these combinations are standardised such that they can be used in any program (e. However the distinction clarifies the process of arriving at the desired result. with a number of panes. zoom etc) and the commands also display results in the graphic environment worksheet. slope. The Toolbar area displays a number of buttons with (hopefully) self explanatory icons.

6 Loadcap 1.1 FloatMenu This type of menu occurs in may different windows and has the purpose of supplying functions associated with that window in an easily retrievable manner.5. 2 Loads acting The loads acting on the foundation can be distinguished in design loads and service loads. together with the amplifying coefficients of the actions. More design loads and service loads combinations can be assigned simultaneously in order to execute the computation according to the normative. The design loads are used for the computation of the bearing capacity.2 ScreenTip Note that toolbar buttons exhibit a short text string (in a small yellow textbox) that give a prompt as to the function of the button. 1. The values to be inserted are design values so they must be assigned. The menu is invoked by pressing the right mouse button while the pointer is in the worksheet area. © 2009 Geostru Software . when an ultimate limit state verification is carried out.5. This text is also available in a number of windows specifically those with abbreviations such as in table column headers. The service loads are used for the settlement computation.

The coordinates of the pointer are indicated in the tracking panel on the status bar (base of window). 3. May be altered as desired. Coordinates can of course also be imported from ASCII. while coordinate (-1.1) is one unit up and to the right of this point. Trispace. Each coordinate in your drawing has its own unique address.-1) is below and to the left of the (0. See also Plan Scale factor . In the preview window are present a number of menu functions which affect the print result without affecting the original in the worksheet. The scale adopted is displayed in the plan scale frame.above a datum) metres. Coordinate (1. Press enter to actuate the new scale. Scale + and Scale -: Alters the scale of the drawing up or down in steps of 100:1. coordinate (0. The scale adopted is displayed in the plan scale frame. (Selection of paper size and orientation occurs in the Set Up printer in the File menu). Print: Prints the preview image on the predefined printer (see Set Up printer in the File menu). No. or DXF files whereupon these coordinates appear on the coordinates sheet. One of these invokes printing of the image to the predefined printer. Coordinates may be recorded either numerically by entering values on a coordinates sheet.Techniques and Tools 7 3 3. composed of x (horizontal). Plan Scale: Displays the scale at which the plan diagram will be printed. of Copies: Default is 1. The commands are: Move: Pressing this button causes the mouse pointer to change to a hand and can be used to ‘take’ (click) the drawing and move it (drag) elsewhere on the paper as seen in the preview.0) is below and to the left of your screen.0) point.1 Techniques and Tools Cartesian coordinates Your drawing is like an unlimited sheet.2 Graphic Print Preview When this command is invoked it opens the Print preview dialog window displaying a print preview of the drawing in the worksheet set up to print at a scale such that it will fit on the predefined page size. © 2009 Geostru Software . Fit to page: Adjusts the scale of the image such as to fit on the defined page size exactly. (In those programs that operate in three dimensions the y is the vertical and z the elevation) When a new drawing is created. The program defines a specific location. y (elevation . or by selecting an insert function (menu or toolbar) and clicking the points with the mouse. or coordinate by measuring the horizontal (on the screen) distances to the desired spot and recording its elevation.

This figure may be altered (press enter) to achieve an exactly defined zoom factor. The effect may be varied with the following commands: Zoom Window: Lets you draw a selection rectangle or "window" to view part of your display in the drawing window. The zoom factor may be read in the toolbar display. when you use a printer to get a paper copy. to be produced edited and saved using RTF format. © 2009 Geostru Software . Thereafter the user may modify its aspect or contents at will.) and thereafter edited and saved in the text processor native format. Previous Zoom: Returns to the zoom factor current before the last operation. control returns to the original program. and/or save or print it. The screen is redrawn to show the part of your drawing that fits within the rectangle. or zoom in for a magnified view of a detail. Use the left button to select one corner of the view you want. Through the lens of the drawing window you can zoom out to see your entire drawing ( reduced to fit the screen).4 Zoom Enables alteration in the view of the worksheet. while downwards drag reduces it. Dragging the pointer upwards increases the size of the image.3 Report Print Preview RTF The program includes an internal text editor which enables text. Now the cursor becomes a stretching rectangle. All basic text processing functions are both regarding editing and formatting are available. Select a second corner for the view. such that the whole contents of the worksheet are displayed. This format may be read by these text processors (Word. The same functions are available on the toolbar where a frame indicates the zoom factor. When invoked the editor is opened and the program’s data report is inserted into it. The editor may be invoked from the File menu by requesting Print Report or from the toolbar. A plan is a life-size drawing on a virtually unlimited surface. to either reveal greater detail or obtain a more distant view in the manner of a camera zoom. Word Perfect etc. 3. Once the left mouse key is pressed the pointer alters into an enlargement lens. Dynamic Zoom: Provides an interactive zoom effect using the mouse to control it.8 Loadcap Exit 3. you can scale it to fit the paper or to any predetermined scale. RTF (Rich Text Format) is a document format that is compatible with all major text processing programs. The drawing window is like a camera lens focused and centered on part of that unlimited paper. When the editor is closed. such as reports. Zoom All: A zoom factor is applied. Later.

Save: Save file(s) for the currently open project. ( Function is also available from the Standard toolbar) The function also operates in the graphic worksheet allowing backtracking through a number of actions.1 Program Menus File Menu The File menu contains those functions that enable the insertion. Save As: Save file(s) for the currently open project under the name and in the folder. Exit: Program exit.Techniques and Tools 9 N. Print Set-up: Presents standard Windows printer select & set up dialogue window. Open: Opens file(s) for a previously created project (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar). Print Preview: Presents preview 7 of worksheet printed page(s) with dialog window for the control of the printed image. © 2009 Geostru Software . New: Creates file(s) for a new project (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar).: Note Zoom does not alter the absolute dimensions of the drawing and does not impact on its scale when printing. 4.2 Edit Menu The Edit menu presents those functions relative to editing data for the currently open project. recall. Recent Projects: Recalls the names of the last three files opened. Print Report: Produces the Computation Report in an internal text editor 8 that permits editing in place or saving in word processing editable format.B. Guide for New Project: Create new complete prototype project on homogeneous surface. 4 4. Undo: Cancels the last amendment restoring the situation as before the change. to be entered in a subsequent dialogue window. This creates a new file with that name. Function is also available from the Standard toolbar). Redo: Reapplies the actions undone by the undo function. If the file already exists the user is asked to confirm that it should be overwritten. printing and closure of project files and their management. replacing any previous version ( Function is also available from the Standard toolbar).

Text Management: Enables user to manage text size and font by type. Elevation offset: Relates elevation figures to a base value. the contents of the clipboard. Dynamic interactive preview is given.10 Loadcap Copy: Copies to the clipboard the selected area of the active window.g. Where these coincide enter GWT depth as 1cm. Works etc. Ground Water Table: Enter depth of GWT from field level. (Function is also available from the Standard toolbar). Note: Zoom does not alter any of the dimensions of the drawing but only it's display. Redraw: Redraws the drawing correcting any defects due to editing process. slope sections read with a scanner) to be copied to the current work sheet and then be used to define a new profile and/or layer by operating with the mouse. passive. Cancel Bitmap: Remove any previously inserted on the worksheet. loads. or transitional breakage areas. 4. or summary report legends.3 View Menu Elevations: Switch to activate or deactivate display of elevations in layer.4 General Parmeters Menu Soils database: Opens the Soils to enable soils management. Display Failure Wedges: Displays active. (Normally caused by editing of the contents) Zoom: Opens a submenu 8 to give access to one of the many options to enlarge or reduce the current image dimensions. Foundation geometry: Opens the Foundations geometry in which the salient foundation dimensions and character can be recorded. Legend Management: Enables user to relocate layer legends for each legend type.) Paste: Copies to the current active window. Heading: Opens the Headings window to record the project title and header. © 2009 Geostru Software . Copy may profitably be used to copy results including graphics from the worksheet for pasting on the numeric report or as required. Relocate: Moves the image by dragging with the mouse. This command permits any raster image (e. Set up parameters: Opens the Set Up Parameters (Set Up Parameters from the Computation Menu). This function is particularly useful to copy bitmaps of images in the various phases of computation to a preferred editor (Word. 4.

Footing height (m): Enter dimension in metres. Bearing surface depth (m): Enter dimension in metres. · Terzaghis’ method Selects this method to determine limit load on loose terrains. Remove text: Point to text and press left mouse button to remove.Program Menus 11 Loads: Opens the Loads window to enable load data to be entered in the three alternative type (Strip/Spread footing or Mat). · Meyerhofs method Selects this method to determine limit load on loose terrains. · Hansens’ method Selects this method to determine limit load on loose terrains. Footing width left (m): Enter dimension in metres. Inactive for mat foundations. · Terzaghis’ method on rock Selects this method to determine limit load on rock. © 2009 Geostru Software . An elastic frame appears in which text may be entered. Press enter to complete entry. Column height (m): Enter dimension in metres.4. The use of this option can be of value in cases where the bearing surface is some depth below ground level. Footing width right (m): Enter dimension in metres. Inset height (m): Gives the terrain height above the bearing surface that is considered in the limit load term (Nq × gamma × D).1 Geometry Type of foundation: Select the type of foundation from the drop down list. · Zienkiewiczs’ method on rock Selects this method to determine limit load on rock. The types are Strip footing. Inactive for mat foundations. After activating point to where text should appear. Inactive for mat foundations. Spread footing and Mat. Foundation width (m): Enter dimension in metres. Selecting the option below that equates inset height and bearing surface depth deactivates this value. click mouse. · Vesics’ method Selects this method to determine limit load on loose terrains. in which cases the limit load could become rather high. 4. Foundation length (m): Enter dimension in metres. Insert text: Enable entry of text on the worksheet.

which the user is invited to enter. Then enter the characteristics required in the centre column and select the bitmap texture that will characterize the soil in graphics from the third column. in degrees.2 Soils DataBase This command enables the management of a database of soil types to be used as descriptors and quick selectors of soil layer attributes.12 Loadcap Inclination of bearing surface (º): Give if any inclination Slope inclination (º): Give if any inclination 1 1 in degrees. 4. one for geotechnical parameters and the last for association with a bitmap image to appear in the graphics. but these may be altered or expanded by the user at will using this tool. If alternatively only a colour is required. Inset height= Bearing surface depth Check this box to set inset height to the value of bearing surface depth and ignore the value in inset height. A dialog window with the depth appears which can be confirmed to draw the layer or cancelled. namely one for a textual name. Click the texture box in the middle column and select a colour from the resulting colour palette. After selecting the command click on the worksheet where the layer boundary is to be drawn. The column in the centre now appears with no data ready for input of the characteristics of the new type. As the dimensions are given the profile of the foundation is drawn in the centre pane.4. To start entry Click on the ‘New Type’ text in he left hand column and take the opportunity to enter a name for the type. Remove To remove a type from the list (irrevocably!) select the type with the mouse and press ‘delete’ in the floating menu (right mouse button). Needless to say the point clicked should be below ground level and is © 2009 Geostru Software .5 Graphic Input Insert Layer: Enables a layer to be inserted graphically on the section in the worksheet. 4. A number of the more standard soil types accompany this product from the producer. Insert To insert a new type. This bitmap column is actually four columns that may be rotated so that the actual one is foremost by use of the tool at the top of the column. Click on ‘New’. To associate a bitmap drag the image from the left column to the relevant box at the bottom of the centre column. This name will be the identifier for the type in other operations and of course for any later amendments. Colours or textures can be assigned in this window: Colours by clicking on the drawing and selecting a colour from the palette which appears textures by dragging the image in the right pane to the drawing. A dialog window opens that is composed of three columns. point to the word Terrains in the left hand column (the header word for the list) and open the floating menu associated with this (right mouse button).

See also Set Up parameters 14 . The command acts a switch. Click with the mouse to remove. To import the Stratigraphy constructed by this program on the base of penetrometer readings.6 Computation Menu Data Validation: Performs validation of input data and produces a window with the results. (total parameters). When the file is opened.Program Menus 13 treated as upper or lower boundary depending on its position with respect to the section base. Assign ground type: Enables the ground type for a layer to be selected interactively. Note that this option is a switch that remains active until clicked again. 4. Select one of them and exit the window to apply. select this option. The results are shown in a Summary Results 16 window. © 2009 Geostru Software . A File Open window opens to select the file with the soundings. Soundings management: This is the interface to the GeoStru Software programs Dynamic. Delete Layer: Enables a ground layer to be removed from the section. based on the weighted average (by depth) of the individual layer parameters. click on the section below the foundations. (effective parameters) Undrained condition: Select this option to evaluate the limit load in undrained condition. Computation according to layer weighted averages: Select this option to evaluate the foundation limit load. The user may continue to do this until the command is deactivated by again clicking on the menu item. Analysis Options Opens a dialog window from which the analysis options can be selected: Drained condition: Select this option to evaluate the foundation limit load in drained condition. Foundation's Analysis: Performs computation of bearing capacity and of allowable pressure with the selected methods. Click on layer and a window with a list of ground types appears. Click on the undesired layer and the layer is removed. Not selecting this option causes only the parameters of the layer upon which the foundation is resting to be considered ( Classic method). When active clicking on a layer causes a dialog window with the current depth of the layer to appear. which makes it operative until again clicked. Alter the figure as reqd. Note: That it is not the layer boundary that is removed but the layer slice itself. Static or Stratigrapher. the blows bar chart will be shown at the point clicked and imported stratigraphy applied. Delete soundings: Removes the penetrometrics imported above. and press OK. Alter Thickness: The thickness of a layer may be altered with this command.

Meyerhof. Display the target diagram. or copy/paste of these diagrams. The window appears as a hierarchic list of subjects on the left while on the right the actual data entry windows appear in response to the subject identified (scroll or point). The left pane (list) has the following subjects: General Data Type of soil Select type of terrain as soil for which classic methods (Terzaghi . (Set Up parameters 14 in General Parameters Menu. Note the floating menu (right mouse click) that contains functions for export. print. as a function of depth (z) using Boussinesq's or Werstergaard’s theory as previously determined. print. Embankment module: Opens the Embankment module window 17 for design and analysis of embankment projects. 4. This is a separate module available at additional cost. or copy/ paste of these diagrams. Click with the right mouse button within the diagram. Hansen. for each proposed length L. B-Pamm Diagram: Displays a diagram showing the variation of bearing capacity evaluated with the methods selected as a function of the width of the foundation width B. 4.6. The table is based on the Graphics section of General set Up parameters in General Parameters Menu. 2.) The above diagrams may be copied and pasted both as bitmaps in a text document or as proper graphics in Excel. For each pair of base B and length L a diagram is constructed. Note the floating menu (right mouse click) that contains functions for export. For each pair of base depth D and length L a diagram is constructed.1 Set-up Parameters This window is intended for the recording of a number of determinant parameters for the various calculations that will be required by the user.14 Loadcap Report Diagrams: Displays a table in which the various values of allowable load as a function of depth of base level D and width B. A submenu appears that enables the diagram either as a bitmap or a graphic object or print it. 3. or Vesic) are used or whether it is a rock foundation in which the methods are Terzaghi & Zienkiewicz (parameter RQD) © 2009 Geostru Software . The diagram copied can now be pasted into Excel with the paste cells function or into any document as a bitmap. To activate these options proceed as follows: 1. Tensions diagram: Displays a diagram showing the variation of the underground tensions evaluated at the centre of the foundation. D-Pamm Diagram: Displays a diagram showing the variation of bearing capacity evaluated with the methods selected as a function of the depth of the foundation base D.

These may be user specified based on the structure or calculated on the base of limit load. Either Bowles or Terzaghi may be selected and in this latter case unit Ks value obtained by plate load tests. See utility below. The required data are the minimum and maximum depths and the step by which to increment the progression. Qamm-Base graph This graph illustrates the variation of limit load as a function of variations of (B) and length (L). must be entered. Ks Ks Computation Select parameters for evaluation of subgrade reaction modulus. The required data are the minimum and maximum widths (B) and the step by which to increment the progression. Correction parameters Corrections for cohesion and friction angle: Select values from drop down menu. Pressures Select either Boussinesq or Westergaard as the method to be employed in the evaluation of pressures induced by the foundation into the ground below it Settlements Select whether to perform settlement computation and according to which method. Length variation Enter length variations for the above diagrams: minimum and maximum lengths (B) and © 2009 Geostru Software . using the ‘Loads’ command in the parent menu. Vesic applies a correction of 2º on the friction angle while Sano’s applies a correction that is a function of the horizontal seismic acceleration. See utility below. Graphics Qamm-D graph This graph illustrates the variation of limit load as a function of variations of (B) and length (L). In the latter case the next line enables the user to select the method by which to perform the calculation.Program Menus 15 Layered terrain Where the support consists of a number of soil layers. the user may select either to consider only the characteristics of the layer supporting the foundation directly (Classic) or a weighted average (by depth) of those for all layers in the computation of limit load and settlement. Limit load Select among the various methods for calculation. Loads Specification of loads is determinant in settlement calculation. In the first case the loads must be specified by the user. More than one method may be selected. For secondary settlement (viscous) specify the number of years. Seism Select the seismic acceleration (0=none) and if present the correction to apply.

· Settlement calculation for rough grain terrains according to Burland & Burbridge and the various correction factors. The first four items are discussed in the Technical note (TechLoadCap. Progress of settlement Over time shows total and percentage settlement for each layer after n days of load being applied.Rtf) that is included with the program installation. See topic 26 . Safety factors Limit load FS Enter the FS value to consider in calculation of allowable load.16 Loadcap the step by which to increment the progression. 4. and also the choice of including or not the graphs in the final report. · Liquefaction evaluation.6. These are the mesh extents in the x and y axes and the mesh step interval similarly in both axes. See utility below. Limit load and elastic settlement Tab are shown limit and permissible pressure according to the authorities selected in the General Parameters 10 menu and sub menu. For the bulbs enter the step for evaluation of the (q/q0) report and the number of points on the curve. · Confined Consolidation according to Schmertmann. See utility below. · Settlement progress over time. Utility Enables predefined value to be selected for graph boundaries above. In cases of deeper layers the user is invited to divide them into 2 © 2009 Geostru Software .2 Computation Results The numerical results of the various computes are shown in a summary window with five tabs for: · Limit load and elastic settlement. Tension bulbs Bulb parameters The window enables a number of parameters for the construction of tension bulbs ( isobars) to be entered. It is worth noting that for a reliable estimate of settlement the layers depth should be < 2m. Settlement graph Enter the bounds and increment for the construction of this graph: minimum and maximum loads and the step by which to increment the progression.

The program automatically selects the first approach when the user enters Layer oedometric modulus (Stratigraphy from the Numeric Input) (Ed) in Layer Properties and. · Embankment unit weight (g). the coefficient of secondary consolidation (CS). · Distance axis. In the displayed plan view of the foundation. it is possible to see the total settlement reported along the line. · Net increment to base plane. it requests a password. · Embankment height. · Number of soil layers to be considered. · Unit weight of foundation. deep slices retaining the original geotechnical values of the original. upon purchase of the module. is intended for the design and settlement analysis of Embankment projects. When called the Embankment window opens that contains headings for the following construction parameters: Pressure on the embankment: · ½ Rectangle width. a red dotted line highlights the centre line. When opened for the first time.6. The second approach is selected when the above data is absent but the Elasticity modulus (Stratigraphy from the Numeric Input) (Ey) is given in the same window. © 2009 Geostru Software . · Excavation unit weight. · Distance footing/substratum. · Excavation base.3 Enbankment Module This module available as an add on to the GeoStru program LoadCap. Confined consolidation – Schmertmann Performs and displays the computation of settlements utilizing two approaches: confined consolidation and Schmertmann. for secondary settlement computation. 4.a.S.Program Menus 17 m. · Width of rectangle base. obtained from Geostru Software S. Clicking with the mouse and dragging the resultant blue line in the area under influence of the foundation.

· Constrained Modulus.CadutaMassi\Geostru_Project folder as : Noname. is generated for the layer characteristics: · Thickness. 4. Options Opens the Options window in which the following may be determined: Worksheet Line & background colours. In response to the number of layers declared. · Consolidation degree OCR. 4. etc.7 Export Enables selection of export format for the calculation results. The results of computation can be read off in a small pane on the right.bmp.8 Preferences Menu for the assignment of options for the operation of the program.18 Loadcap As the data is entered a drawing is generated in the pane beside the parameters. · Foot. © 2009 Geostru Software . or print and closing of the window. Export in Bitmap format: Export in BMP format the contents of the worksheet window. The file is generated in C:…. export. a table. reopening. This provides its own File menu with Print and Save functions Save occurs in RTF (Rich Text Format) format which may be read by most text processing programs (MS Word. · Axis. · External edge. Export in DXF format: Export in DXF format the contents of the worksheet window. Lotus Word Perfect. Generate RTF Report: Generates the computation report in an internal editor window.CadutaMassi\Geostru_Project folder as : Noname.dxf.). The file is generated in C:…. Buttons on the right enable saving of the project data.

Start Screen: Displays the start screen for the program.9 Window Horizontally: Arrange the open windows in horizontal rows down the screen. background colour. Measurement units Select metrics or S. Language Selection Opens a ‘Flags’ window to enable an alternative language to be set. Register: Opens the registration screen in which the registration number can be entered or seen at a later time. Cursor tolerance Grid interva. Information on Foundations program: Gives version number of this copy of the program.I. Until the number is entered the program operates in demonstration 4 mode. & table formatting. © 2009 Geostru Software . 4. Note that this contains the version number. When the window is closed the program is also closed so that i may start again in the new language.l Outputs DXF file export folder path text size & scale factor. RTF report margins. Labels Specify title text for each of the various diagrams produced by the system. 4. Line thickness.Program Menus 19 Texture folder paths and dimension percentage.10 Help Index : Opens the help guide for this program. Vertically: Arrange the open windows in vertical columns across the screen.

on the worksheet. previously defined layer descriptions may be recalled from the database. The other is a rotating list of bitmaps to represent different soil types grouped by major type (cohesive. Drop down list that lists the terrain types currently present on the database (Manufacturer supplied and user added). saturated © 2009 Geostru Software . Clicking on one fills the row. U. P. the triangular mesh net used for the modelling of the progress of the states of tension below the foundation base plane. The window consists of two panes. Tension Colour map Displays Tension bulbs on the worksheet as coloured areas. rocks and others. Tension increases below the foundation may be evaluated with Boussineq’s or Westergaard methods. N. P.: Layer data should be entered from the upper layer and progressively downwards. U. DB terr. The table contains the following columns: Proprieties N°: Ordinal layer number.20 Loadcap 5 Bulbs Display tension bulbs Display tension bulbs. cohesion less. (see General Parameters in Main Parameters menu) Display mesh Displays on the worksheet.B. V. 6 Stratigraphy This window enables the properties of terrain layers and a display texture to be specified or displayed for amendment. The major one is a table of layer properties one row to each layer. This shows to the progress of the relation q/q0. Hs (m) Layer height. The data thus entered may be altered individually if opportune. where q is the pressure induced by the applied load q0 upon the foundation bearing surface. Instead of entering each layer data. Unit volume weight of this layer. The table title text line displays an explanatory title for the column triggered by the mouse pointer. V.

(if no water table is present this parameter is not required). the colour will probably already be assigned. This parameter. Coeff. settlements are calculated by the confined consolidation method (requires entry of respective modulus value). FI Angle of layer shear resistance. Texture Selects texture/colour to be associated with current layer. Where the gwt is present. insert the effective parameter for analysis in drained conditions or zero for undrained condition. If this is not specified. © 2009 Geostru Software .Stratigraphy 21 Unit volume weight of layer within gwt. is required to evaluate the secondary consolidation settlement (viscous). obtained by the confine consolidation tests (secondary consolidation). This is required foe evaluation of settlement over time with Terzaghi’s mono dimensional method. Ni (Poisson) Poisson coefficient value. but it can be altered in the same way. This parameter is required for computation of increments of tension below the foundation according to Westermann Additional data Opens a subsidiary dialog window for the specification of the following parameters related to cohesive soils: Consolidation type None. This parameter is required to evaluate the consolidation settlement by the confined consolidation method. If otherwise it is desired to assign a texture. If both moduli are specified then settlement is calculated by the confined consolidation method. Ed (Confined Consolidation Modulus) Deformation modulus obtained though the Confined consolidation (oedometric) tests (lateral expansion inhibited). primary consolidation Cv (cm²/s) Primary vertical consolidation coefficient. select a relevant one from the list in the right hand pane and drag to this column. This is the default calculation method. Coeff. secondary consolidation Cs Secondary consolidation coefficient. The parameter is required for Schmertmann computation of settlement. Referred to Parameters RR & CR or Confined consolidation selectable from drop down list. Click the mouse to open a colour palette from which the colour to be applied can be chosen. Ey (Elasticity Modulus) Elasticity or Young's modulus for the terrain. insert the effective parameter for drained condition or the total parameter for undrained condition. Normal or Over consolidated selectable from a drop down window. C (Cohesion) Terrain cohesion. Where the gwt is present. in degrees. Note that if the row was filled from the database. See under Elasticity modulus for logic regarding method selection.

g. a. Import Pile & Micropile: Imports Statigraphy from the GeoStru Software program Piles & Micropiles (Geotechnical Software Products from GeoStru Software S.22 Loadcap Note: A floating menu is available in the table by clicking the right mouse button with the following options: · Copy Layer: These four functions enable manipulation of individual rows. from the Graphic Input).S.1 Seismic corrections Corrective factors: © 2009 Geostru Software . · Paste Layer · Delete Layer · Insert Layer · Colour Layer: Select colour palette for selection of colour. to Word or Excel. Calculation of the load-bearing capacity factors under seismic conditions 24 7. · Print Stratigraphic copy: Copies whole table for pasting e. 7 Seismic action The design seismic actions can be assessed with: DM 88 OPCM3274 Eurocode 8 NTC 2008 23 See also: Seismic corrections 22 .

the seismic corrections with zq. Calculation of the load-bearing capacity factors under seismic conditions 24 Warning: When you choose to calculate the load-bearing capacity factors according to Richards et al. zg are not carried out. See also: Seismic correctionsorrections 22 .Seismic action 23 Corrective factors bearing capacity Where: is the horizontal seismic coefficient calculated according to the maximum ground acceleration ag / g and the soil category. 7.5 × K h where: © 2009 Geostru Software .. zc.2 Seismic Eurocode8 For the application of Eurocode 8 (geotechnical planning). the horizontal seismic coefficient is defined as follows: Kh = a gR × g I × S g K v = ±0.

method Richards. and consequently proceeding to the checks of both limit states (ultimate and damage ~). Addendum H of “Geotechnical aspects of planning in a seismic zone” – Italian Geotechnical Association). The limit load assessment is pursued through a simple extension of the limit load issue to the case of the presence of inertia forces in the foundation ground due to the earthquake. S: soil factor. See also: Seismic correctionsorrections 22 . depending on the kind of ground (from A to E).3 Richards Richards’ et al. See also:Seismic correctionsorrections 22 . evaluating both the limit load bearing capacity and the induced settlements. Calculation of the load-bearing capacity factors under seismic conditions 24 7.24 Loadcap agR: reference peak acceleration on hard outcropping ground. is the “design ground acceleration on type A ground”. gI: importance factor. Helm and Budhu (1993) developed a procedure which allows – under seismic conditions. while the assessment of the settlements is obtained through an approach to the Newmark (cf. Calculation of the load-bearing capacity factors under seismic conditions 24 © 2009 Geostru Software .

Compute a reduced N'c based on the failure surface ADE = L0 and the failure surface ADE = L1 of Fig. This same file is reproduced in the Numerical report that may be requested after calculation. to the equivalent area Efg = of Fig. From the figures it can be seen that the lack of soil on the slope side of the footing will tend to reduce the stability of the footing. 8.2 Footings on Slopes A special problem that may be encountered occasionally is that of a footing located on or adjacent to a slope (Figura). please refer to the file: TechLoadCap. (File or Export menus).Tecnical Notes 25 8 8. for a level footing.1 Tecnical Notes General Theory A full discussion of the theoretical aspects of this program.rtf placed in the program folder. or the alternative Efgh = A of Fig. The solution of this problem (Bowles) is resolved by calculating reduced coefficients N'c and N'q and assuming the the slope line is a principal plane.(a). (b).(a) to obtain: Compute a reduced Nq based on the ratio of area D(ce) = A0. to obtain the © 2009 Geostru Software .

For layers whose depth is > 1 metre. is not corrected to account for the slope. Are in seismic zone (Seismic acceleration > zero. 1982) as the ratio between cyclic resistance (CRR) required to induce liquefaction in a noncohesive terrain at a given depth and and the cyclic tension (CSR) produced by a sism at the same depth by a specifed project sism (defined by peak sismic acceleration to the terrain by a specified magnitude). Fs (liquefaction) = CRR / CSR Where: with: © 2009 Geostru Software .3 Liquefacion Potential Liquefaction potential is calculated for terrains that: · · · · Are below GWT. Are non cohesive.26 Loadcap following: Where A1³A0 : The overall slope stability should be checked for the effect of the footing load using your slope-stability program (Slope by GeoStru). 8. Liquefaction potential is calculated using the process developed by Seed e Idriss (1971. The ultimate bearing capacity may be computed by any of the usual equationsand reduction coefficients: Coefficient Ng . When b = 0 the coefficients N'c and N'q are the same as those acting when the footing is on level ground foer every value of f indipendently of the ratio D/B and b/ B. When D/b>0 coefficient di should no longer be used as that correction is already contained in N'c and N'q.that is a function of the weight of the soil.

9 New project NEW PROJECT FOR THE CALCULATION OF LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENTS. Obviously.e. In so doing.7/(s + 0.67·tanj.7)]Nspt + Dnf Nspt = Number of SPT blows at the depth in question s = Effective lithostatic pressure for the terrain Dnf = Corrective factor for clay percentage (%) with: st = Total lithostatic pressure for the terrain amax = Seismic acceleration Values of Fs in excess of 1. the programme executes a © 2009 Geostru Software . reducing the cohesion to 2/3 and the tangent of the angle of resistance to shearing stress to 0. the programme will initialize all the data necessary for completing the calculation without mistakes.3 are considered appropriate for safety from slip shear risk for quakes of higher magnitude. we suggest that you carry out the Creation of a guided project/Guide for a new project control from the File Menu. after making said choice.Tecnical Notes 27 Na = [1. Seismic action In the presence of earthquake shocks. RQD). Terzaghi suggested applying a correction to the geotechnical calculation parameters. Correction of parameters For particularly sandy soils. the user must change the project data so as to adapt them to his/her own specific case: the project data must be changed from the General Data Menu: Soil type Chose between loose soil and rock. the programme automatically fits the data window upon the stratigraphy (e. i.g. In order to start a new project for the calculation of the load-bearing capacity and settlements with the LoadCap programme. For foundations upon rock. according to the type of soil the foundations rests upon.

Soil stratigraphy The geotechnical data used by the programme for the calculation of the load-bearing capacity and settlement must be entered in the window displayed with the selection of the control under examination. the excessive depth of the laying level might involve high load-bearing capacity values due to the high value of the terms (g·D·Nq). said data must be the characteristic parameters of the layers. The input of a load for the evaluation of the limit load-bearing capacity of the ground is only used to determine the safety level as the Qlim/Qd limit load – design load ratio. the programme will consider the D depth in the calculation of the first term of the load-bearing capacity (g·D·Nq). which reduce the three terms of the load-bearing capacity (for the relevant formulas. 3. In compliance with Ministerial Decree 2008. it is necessary to assign said coefficients a value. both for the load-bearing capacity and for the settlements. the programme will assign the D variable the Embedding height value. so it could be useful to execute the calculation with the embedding height. please refer to the RTF report). © 2009 Geostru Software . The programme allows estimating different load conditions. deselecting the option above and entering the actual embedding of the foundations into the ground. In the presence of completely or partially underground-laid foundation level. it is possible to carry out an estimate of the layer susceptibility to liquefaction in the presence of seismic action. Such estimate is made using the Seed and Idriss Method and on condition that the layer thickness exceeds 1 metre. calculating zi correction factors. Therefore. Loads The input of the loads is only necessary in order to allow the calculation of the settlements.2. Foundation system data Enter the geometrical data relevant to the foundations in hand according to the instructions provided in the window for geometrical data input. groundwater and non-cohesive soil. The correction factors are calculated on the basis of the horizontal Kh and vertical Kv seismic coefficients. Seismic Action – Help. the depth of laying level D compared to the natural surface level as well as the embedding height are requested: if you type in both and tick off the “Embedding height = Laying level depth” option. Otherwise. to be defined in the Actions – Resistances window shown in the figure.28 Loadcap correction on the load-bearing capacity. In compliance with Ministerial Decree 2008. If you have at your disposal the results of the standard penetration tests in terms of Nspt of the layer. the Kh and Kv seismic coefficients must be calculated according to the indications reported in Chap. Amongst other geometrical dimensions.

For instance. cu. the availability of such solicitations is more immediate than the normal design pressure. In any case. it will be meant as a Service type for the purposes of the assessment of the settlements. This type of coefficients is only considered for the load conditions belonging to Design type and not for those belonging to Service type. Each load condition must be entered in the form of Normal design pressure or of N normal stress. it is necessary to type in the Vertical and Horizontal Reduction Coefficients of the Load-bearing Capacity (e.New project 29 For each condition defined. Mx and My moments and Hx and Hy shears.g. the load entered refers to the foundation laying level and must therefore include the specific weight of the foundations as well. Besides. In order to define the safety levels acceptable by the user or imposed by applied regulations. The seismic correction on the load-bearing capacity too is only referred to © 2009 Geostru Software . equal to 3 if Ministerial Decree 1996 is applied). in the case of plinth foundations. which reduce the geotechnical parameters defined in Stratigraphy. tanj. each load condition must be assigned already amplified of possible factors on the loads. the Type must be chosen: it will be meant as a Design type for the purposes of the assessment of the safety level on the soil limit load-bearing capacity. g): said coefficients represent the Mi partial coefficients introduced by NTC 2008 or Eurocodes. In the same box (Seism + Partial Coefficients of the Soil Geotechnical Parameters + Resistances) are also defined the partial coefficients on the geotechnical properties of the grounds (c’.

the Winkler coefficient of subgrade reaction (ks) is calculated by means of the method proposed by Bowles: ks = qlim/DH with DH = 2.g. For each load. bordering buildings).g.30 Loadcap the load conditions concerning the load-bearing capacity and consequently belonging to the Design type. Meyerhof. The user can therefore make the necessary changes both in the loads and in the coefficients without exiting the control and entering again the Actions – Resistances window from the General Data Menu. Finally. for soils. The control proposes once more the same window as for loads with the addition of a results chart. © 2009 Geostru Software . Terzaghi and Zienkiewicz. Their effect is only considered as an increase in the subsurface strain for the assessment of the settlements and in the interference of the bulbs. for rocks. The calculation of the limit load returns the results of each Design load condition entered in the loads window. Distributed Loads These are additional loads which can be assigned to the right or left sides of the foundations concerned by the calculation in order to take into account the presence of overloads adjoining the foundations (e. Hansen and Brinch-Hansen. for each author. The values of the seismic reduction coefficients are described in the report produced by the RTF format programme (Export Menu. Calculation methods The analytic methods for the assessment of the soil limit load-bearing capacity are the classical ones existing in the geotechnical literature: Terzaghi. Vesic. respectively.5 cm shifting considered as admissible. and assign the normal design pressure an indicative value in case this datum is not available. Export in RTF format control). The Generate combination and Assign loads buttons shown in the window in hand activate the number and type of combination to be adopted according to the choice of the regulations to be implemented (e. A1+M1+R3 for NTC 2008 . according to whether the safety factor found is higher or not than the safety level imposed by the user in the loads window. Calculation The programme includes calculation controls for the load-bearing capacity and the settlements.Approach 2). the safety factor is returned as a Qlim/Qass limit load – assigned load report (design strain or pressure) and the Checked/Unchecked condition.

Wiley & Sons . J. Zienkiewicz. 1968 © 2009 Geostru Software . Bologna.C. SM 1. J. Hoepli. vol. ASCE.. Pasquale De Simone Fondazioni. Burland J B. 1325. Berardi G.H. Joseph E. Bowles (1991) Foundation Analysis and Design. Proceedings of the conference on in-situ measurement of soil properties. (1968) << The behaviour of foundations during costruction>>. McGraw-Hill. Liguore Editore Lambe T. Lancellotta R. June 1-4. I. (1967) Soil Mechanics Engineering Practice. American Society of Civil Engineers. Terzaghi K. Zanichelli. pp. (1980) Pile di Foundation Analysis and design. Burbridge M C (1985) Settlement of foundations on sand and gravel. 93-130. J.3. Ed. vol. Wiley & Sons . B.G. S. Schmertmann. Stagg. vol. Enciclopedia dell'Ingegneria. vol. Bowles. (1980) Geotecnica e Tecnica delle fondazioni. 2a ed. New York. Proceedings. W. VII. JSMFD. Timoshenko. II.Bibliography 31 10 Bibliography AGI (1984) << Raccomandazioni sui pali di fondazione >>.81 Cestelli Guidi C. 163-172. (1972) << Ingegneria delle Fondazioni >>. Zienkiewicz Continum mechanics as an approach to rock mass problems. . pp. Goodier Theory of Elasticity McGraw-Hill 1970 O. Milano. V n. Wiley & Son. Davis E. G. (1975) Measurement of insitu shear strength.. Institution Civil Engineers 78 (Dec). J. New York. ISEDI. Rock Mehanics in Engineering Practice edited by K. (1994) Geotecnica. H. Colombo P. 1975. keynote lecture. J. Peck R. vol 94. C. (1971) << Osservazioni sul comportamento di pali a grande diametro >> RIG. O. Poulos H.N.

Ed. (1983) Fondazioni. La Tecnica Professionale (AGOSTO 1998) << Rivista edita dal collegio Ingegneri Ferroviari Italiani >>. Micropali ad elevata capacità portante << Rivista Italiana di Geotecnica >>. © 2009 Geostru Software . Napoli. CUEM.32 Loadcap Viggiani C.

Italy Tel.Bibliography 33 11 Contact GeoStru Software Lungomare.geostru.com E-mail: geostru@geostru. +39 0964992341 Skype Nick: geostru_support_it-eng-spa Web: www. 89032 . +39 0964911624 Fax.Bianco (RC) .com © 2009 Geostru Software .

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