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INF 5190

Great Ideas often have 3 stages of reaction: first. Its crazy and dont waste my time Second. Its possible, but its not worth doing. And finally. I ve always said it was a good idea

A. C. Clarke

INF 5190

Knowledge Management Roadmap


(the 10 steps)

[Knowledge Management]

Agenda
Infrastructure Infrastructure Evaluation Evaluation KM KM System System Analysis, Analysis, Design Design & & Development Development Deployment Deployment Evaluation Evaluation

Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen

[Knowledge Management]

The 10-step Knowledge Management Roadmap


1 2 3 Analyze the Existing Infrastructure Align KM and Business Strategy Design the KM Infrastructure Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development Phase 1 : Infrastructure Evaluation

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems 5 6 7 Design the KM Team Create the KM Blueprint Develop the KM System

8 Deploy, Using the Results-driven Incremental Methodology 9 10 Evaluate Performance, Measure ROI, Incrementally Refine the KMs
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Manage Change, Culture and Reward Structures

Phase 3 : Deployment Phase 4 : Evaluation


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[Knowledge Management]

Infrastructure evaluation
1

Analyze and evaluation of the Existing Infrastructure


Phase 1 : Infrastructure Evaluation 2

Align KM and Business Strategy

The greatest difficulties lies not on persuading people to accept new idea , but persuading to abandon the old Aurelieones. Aurilla Arntzen

Analyze the existing infrastructure (1)


multiple format
Mainframes

[Knowledge Management]

Understand the role of your company's existing networks, Intranet and extranets in knowledge management.(data
platform independance)
Legacy Systems Obsolete Systems Macintosh iMACs

RAIDs Paper-Based Documents Unix Workstation

The Internet

Archives Proprietary Tapes DOS and Windows PCs Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen Linux Systems

PalmOS data

Understand the knowledge management technology framework and its components.


Entreprise KM Network
Knowledge Flow Web sites, pointers Databases Messaging File systems Legacy systems Workflow Collaborative tools Discussions Information Mapping Repository Models Distribution Channels Enterprise data Metadata Informal conversation Check in/out External networks Information Sources Information and Knowledge Distributed search Exchange Distributed retrieval Viewving tools Multimedia content Collaborative annotation Versioning controls Context addition Bulletin boards Messaging integration PM Tools Legacy integration Operational data Threading Transaction reports Platform independance

Analyze the existing infrastructure (2)

[Knowledge Management]

Intelligent Agents and Network Mining Push agents Pull agents Data and text mining Web farming technologies Information indexing and classification Information clustering and lumping

5 metacomponent of the KM technology framework


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[Knowledge Management] Analyze the existing infrastructure (3) Workflow Document Management Transparent Capture Tools Croosspads
Informal Capture

Web Conferencing Expertise Pointers


Dialog Conversation

Telephones

Routing Electronic Publishing Conversion Control Distribution

Informal Conversation Making

Watercoolers
Conversation

Project Activities Management

Knowledge Management Technologies


Brainstorming Operational Data Knowledge discover Tacit k Capture Validation, Cleansing

Distribution Connectivity Collaboration Publishing

Problem Solving

Intranets GroupWare

Data Warehouse

Digital Whiteboards

Decision Support Systems Case based Reasoning

Informal Capture Doc exchange Collaboration

Data Mining Data Cleansing Validating Independent Thought Mind Maps Visual Thinking Tools

Notes

Framework of technologies required toArntzen support KM Aurelie Aurilla

[Knowledge Management]

Analyze the existing infrastructure (4)


Analyze, leverage and build upon data mining, data warehousing, project management and DSS tools that are already in place.

Understand how knowledge servers work and help in enterprise integration. Perform an analysis of business needs that match up with relevant knowledge server choices.

Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen

[Knowledge Management]

Analyze the existing infrastructure (5)

Integrate existing Intranets, extranets and GroupWare into your knowledge management system. Understand limitations of implemented tools and identify gaps in the existing infrastructure of the company. Take concrete steps to leverage and build upon existing infrastructural investments.

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[Knowledge Management]

Analyze the existing infrastructure (6)


Knowledge server Document management Groupware Visual thinking tools Workflow ....

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[Knowledge Management]

Knowledge Server
Intelligent Agent Support Indexing Common Search Gateway Cache Input from K-admin staff working for the CKO

Exchange File Server

Notes dBs

Operational databases

Mail

Web

Information Servers of Various Types and Sizes Throughout the Enterprise

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[Knowledge Management]

Infrastructure evaluation
1 Analyze the Existing Infrastructure Phase 1 : Infrastructure Evaluation 2 Align KM and Business Strategy

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[Knowledge Management]

Align KM and Business Strategy


Understand how to shift KM in your company from strategic programming to strategic planning Performs KW based SWOT analysis to create KW map Analyze KW gaps and relate them to strategic gaps Translate your KM strategy link to KM system design characteristics

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[Knowledge Management]

Align knowledge management & business strategy (1)


Perform a knowledge-based SWOT analysis in your company. involve assessment of the companys strengths and weakness relative to the opportunities and threats brought by the environment in which your company operates. Determine whether a codification or personalization focus is better suited for your company. Effectives KM strategies using KW maps
SWOT= strengths, weakness opportunities and threats
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Create knowledge maps: Internal, competitive, and industry-wide


Innovative
Innovator

Align KM & business strategy (1)

[Knowledge Management]

Your companys knowledge

Market Leader

Advanced
Capable competitor Straggler

Risky player

Core Advanced Innovative

Competitor A,B,C,D, industry average


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Align KM & business strategy (2)


Environment
Technical opportunities Competitive threads Regulatory control
impacts Drives impacts

[Knowledge Management]

Strategic context
Product/Service Markets/customers Ressource allocation
influences Enables

impacts

KM strategy
Role of IT Innovation Competitive advantage KW mapping

Enables

KM Technology
infrastructural investments

Aligns

Strategic IT choice Collaborative richness


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Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen

[Knowledge Align knowledge management and business strategy (3)Management]


Feedback

Articulate intended business strategy Articulate business strategy-knowledge link

Process of creating a well articulated link between business strategy & knowledge Strategy

Create an internal knowledge map to identify what you need to know Choose either codification/personalization or Personalization/codification as your KM focus Create a knowledge map for each key competitor Create a knowledge map for your industry Assess your and your competitions learning capabilities Assess how your internal/external knowledge gap Influences your current and futur business strategy Determine the balance between exploitation and exploration that you want your knowledge strategy and KMS support
Feedback Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen
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Align knowledge management & business strategy (4)

[Knowledge Management]

Determine the right diagnostic questions to ask. How can we turn KW we have into something that adds value to the markets in which we operate? What do we know or think we know about different aspects of customers? Can we cut costs, reduce time- to market, improve customer service, or increase margins by more effectively sharing KW? .. Diagnose and validate your strategy-KM link. Articulate a clear strategy KM link is not easy.Use process flow method (slide 18)
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[Knowledge Management]

Align knowledge management & business strategy (1)


Translate your strategy-KM link to KM system design characteristics. Mobilize initiatives to help you "sell" your KM project internally. Balance short term gains with long-term gains help to sell both to end-users and managers

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Align knowledge management & business strategy (1)

[Knowledge Management]

Strategic imperatives for a successful KM system: There is no one right way Reach a working definition of knowledge Focus on process and not just technology The 24 Live with vague knowledge measure critical Stability necessitates demonstration of short term success impact factors in 6. Count in tacit knowledge KM initiative 7. Create a shared context 8. Begin with what you have (1). 9. Accommodate Reasoning & assumptions 10. Future think 11. Minimize routing retransmissions 12. Give incentives, not faster computer
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

[Knowledge Management]

13. Allow everyone access & to contribute 14. Allow confidentiality 15. Allow access anytime,anywhere 16. Update automatically The 24 17. Supply resource maps to ease navigation critical 18. Use other databases in addition to corporate best success practices factors in 19. provide management support KM 20. Support informality initiative 21. Remember less is more (2). 22. Provide logical business extension 23. Determine your knowledge delivery world view 24. Focus on technology & internal consulting support for collaboration
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KM system analysis, Design & Development


3 Design the KM Infrastructure

[Knowledge Management]

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development

5 Design the KM Team

6 Create the KM Blueprint

7 Develop the KM System

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Design the KM infrastructure (1)


Interface Layer Browser Access and Authentication Layer Authentication, Recognition, Security, Firewall, Tunneling Collaborative Intelligence and Filtering Intelligent agent tools, Content personalization, Search Indexing, and Metataging Application Layer Skills directory, Yellow pages, Collaborative work tools Video conference...... Transport Layer Web and TCP/IP deployment, Streaming audio, Document exchange, Video transport, VPN core..... Middleware and Legacy Integration Layer Wrapper tools (such as TCL/TK......) Repositories Legacy Document Discussion others Data warehouse forum bases
Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development
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[Knowledge Management]

Choose IT components to find, create, assemble & apply KW

Integration via the web

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[Knowledge Management]

Design the KM infrastructure (1)


Identify elements of the interface layer: Clients, server, gateways and the platform interaction with the end users collaborative platform Requirements of the collaborative platform Consistent and easy to use client interfaces Scalability Security Integration with existing systems Flexibility Decide on the collaborative platform: Web or Notes, or .?
Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development
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[Knowledge Management]

Design the KM infrastructure (2)


Identify and understand components of the collaborative intelligence layer: Artificial intelligence, data warehouses, genetic algorithms, neural networks, expert reasoning systems, rule bases and case-based reasoning infostructure system provides a language structure and resource that people use to make sense of events.

Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development


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[Knowledge Management]

Design the KM infrastructure (3)


Optimize knowledge object molecularity (granularity); balance cost versus value-added. Balance push-based and pull-based knowledge delivery.

Create knowledge tags and attributes: Domain, form, type, product/service, time and location tags Identify the right mix of components for searching, indexing and retrieval.

Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development


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Design the KM infrastructure (3)


Socialisation
Tacit -> Tacit
Face to Face Communication Video Conferencing Tools Web Cams Virtual Reality Tools

[Knowledge Management]

Externalisation
Tacit ->Explicite
Process Capture Tools Traceability Reflective Peer-to-Peer networks Expert Systems Discussion platform

C:companies knowledge G: group or team Knowledge I: Individual Employees knowledge

I I I

I E C I

G I

S Internalisation I
Explicit -> Tacit

Combination
Explicit -> Explicit

Collective Knowledge Networks Notes Databases/ Org Memory Pattern Recognition Neural Networks

Systemic Knowledge Tools Collaborative Computing Tools Intranets, Groupware Discussion Lists Web Forums Best Practice Databases

G I

Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development


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KM Processes
Knowledge Processes Develop Knowledge

[Knowledge Management]

Apply Knowledge

Review Reviewquestions questions Find Findthe theappropriated appropriated technologies/tools technologies/toolsfor foreach each process process

Assess Knowledge

Knowledge Assets
Preserve Knowledge Transform Knowledge

Update Knowledge
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Transfer Knowledge
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[Knowledge Management] Knowledge processes

and technology enablers


Create new Knowledge Collaborative decision making processes, DSS tools, rationale capture tools, Notes DB, .. Reuse & revalidate Knowledge Customer support KW bases, past project record Database and communities of practices
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Apply Knowledge Search , retrieval & storage tools to help organize & classify both formal & informal KW, etc

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[Knowledge Management]

Knowledge processes and technology enablers


Package & assemble Knowledge Customized publishing tools, discussion group, push technology, etc Find Knowledge KW-bases in consulting firm, search & retrieval tools that scan both formal and informal source of KW, employee skill yellow pages, etc

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KM system analysis, Design & Development


3 Design the KM Infrastructure

[Knowledge Management]

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development

5 Design the KM Team

6 Create the KM Blueprint

7 Develop the KM System

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Audit Existing Knowledge Assets & Systems(1)

[Knowledge Management]

Understand the purpose of a knowledge audit provide value when companies are doing on or more of the following:
Planning to build a KMS Planning research and development Seeking to leverage its peopleassets Seeking to leverage what it already knows Attempting to assess the value of the enterprise as whole

Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development


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[Knowledge Management]

Measuring Knowledge Growth Bohns Stages of KW growth


Stage 1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8

Name
Complete ignorance Awareness Measure Control of the mean Process capabiliy Process characterization Know why Complete KW

Comment
Nothing known Resemble pure art Is pretechnological feasible scientific method A local recipe exists Tradeoff to reduce costs are known Takes on the form of science Nirvana

Typical form of KW
Doent exist anywhere KW is primarily tacit KW is primarily written Written & embodied in Hw Hw and operating manuals Empirical equations Procedures, methodologies, algoritms Never happens, but you can always hope for it

Phase 2 :KM System Analysis,Design and Development


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[Knowledge Management]

Congregate a preliminary knowledge audit team Corporate strategist


set goals , bring big picture perspective into the analysis

Senior management, company visionary


long term KM vision, aligned with the Business strategy of the corporate strategists

Financier
ability to value and attach a fair euro figure to KW asset

Human resource manager


bring good understanding of employee skills and skills distribution within the organisation

IS/IT expert
brings in kw , skills, expertise for mobilizing the technology implementation aspects of your km strategy.

Knowledge manager, CKO


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[Knowledge Management]

Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems(2)


Audit and analyze your companys existing knowledge. Define the goals Determine the ideal state Select the audit method Perform the KW audit and document existing KW assets Track KW growth over time Determine your companys strategic position within the technology framework

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[Knowledge Management]

Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems(1)


Audit and analyze your companys existing knowledge.
Define goals of the Knowledge audit Identify Financial and Other Constraints Determine the Ideal State
Increase Profits by 40% Reduce cost of sales by 12% Achieve 60 day project Turnarounds Validate assets for investor Whats the Industry high? How do Your Competitors Rank?

Beginning the Knowledge Audit Selecting the Against Measure

Whats the best profit Figure on Sales? What will you Measure Against?

Assign Desirably High Values

Select Audit Method Selecting the Audit Method Select Aspects of the audit Perform Audit Performing the Knowledge Audit Knowledge Assets
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Use the KM Assessment tool

Document Knowledge Assets


Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen

[Knowledge Management]

Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems(2)


Identify your companys K-spot. The kw audit provides a clearer picture of the k-spots on the kw niches on which a company must focus its knowledge management efforts. identification of promising processes that stand to gain through KM.

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M system analisys, Design & Developm


[Knowledge Management]

3 Design the KM Infrastructure

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development

5 Design the KM Team

6 Create the KM Blueprint

7 Develop the KM System

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Design the KM team


Identify sources of requisite expertise.
Corporate strategy

[Knowledge Management]

Knoweledge Evangelist

Project Sponsor

Marketing

Kw manager Kw analyst

Finance

Information system

Human ressources

Human ressources
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Design the KM team

[Knowledge Management]

Structure the knowledge management team: organizationally, strategically and technologically. Balance technical and managerial expertise, manage stakeholder expectations. (not only a technical project) Resolve team-sizing issues (KM is a self-eliminating field) Identify critical points of failure: requirements, control, management buy-in, and end user buy-in.

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M system analisys, Design & Developm


[Knowledge Management]

3 Design the KM Infrastructure

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development

5 Design the KM Team

6 Create the KM Blueprint

7 Develop the KM System

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[Knowledge Management]

Create the KM Blueprint (1)


Develop the knowledge management architecture. Understand and select the architectural components. Design for high levels of interoperability. Optimize for performance and scalability. Understand repository life-cycle management.

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[Knowledge Management]

Create the KM Blueprint (2)


Understand and incorporate requisite user interface considerations.

Position and scope the knowledge management system.

Make the build-or-buy decision and understand the trade-offs.

Future-proof the knowledge management system.


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[Knowledge Management]

KM system analisys, Design & Development


3 Design the KM Infrastructure

4 Audit Existing Knowledge Assets and Systems Phase 2 : KM System Analysis, Design and Development

5 Design the KM Team

6 Create the KM Blueprint

7 Develop the KM System

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[Knowledge Management]

Develop the KM System (1)


Define the capabilities of each layer of the sevenlayer knowledge management system architecture in the context of your company. Develop the interface layer: Create platform independence, leverage the Intranet, enable universal authorship, and optimize video. Develop the access and authentication layer: Secure data, control access, and distribute control Develop and integrate the application layer with the intelligence layer and the transport layer.

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Develop the KM System (2)


Develop the collaborative filtering and intelligence layer. Leverage the extant transport layer.

[Knowledge Management]

Develop the middleware and legacy integration layer to connect mainframe legacy. data, incompatible platforms, inconsistent data formats and retired systems Integrate and enhance the repository layer. Apply DMA (document management Alliance) and WebDAV standards to explicit content and documents. Advance the system from a client/server to Aurelie Aurilla Arntzen
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Deployment
8 Deploy, Using the Results-driven Incremental Methodology

[Knowledge Management]

Phase 3 : Deployment

Manage Change, Culture and Reward Structures

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[Knowledge Management]

Deploy, Using the Results-driven Incremental (RDI) Methodology(1)

Make an informed decision about the need for a pilot knowledge management deployment. Select the right, nontrivial and representative pilot project. Identify and isolate failure points in pilot projects. Understand the knowledge management system life cycle.

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[Knowledge Management]

Deploy, Using the Results-driven Incremental (RDI) Methodology(2)


Understand the scope of knowledge management system deployment.

Use the RDI methodology to deploy the system.

Identify and avoid the traps in the RDI methodology to maximize payoff.

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Deployment
8 Deploy, Using the Results-driven Incremental Methodology

[Knowledge Management]

Phase 3 : Deployment

Manage Change, Culture and Reward Structures

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Manage Change, Culture & Reward Structures (1)


Understand what exactly is a Chief Knowledge Officers (CKO) role.

[Knowledge Management]

Understand how a CKO is related to the CIO, and CEO. Decide whether your company needs to have an actual CKO at all. Understand the successful CKOs technological and organizational functions.
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[Knowledge Management]

Manage Change, Culture & Reward Structures (2)


Plan for knowledge management success using the CKO as an agent for selling fore-sight.

Manage and implement cultural change and process triggers to make knowledge management succeed.

Implement reward structures to complement successful knowledge management.

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[Knowledge Management]

Evaluation

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Evaluate Performance, Measure ROI, Incrementally Refine the KMs

Phase 4 : Evaluation

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Metrics for Knowledge Work (1)

[Knowledge Management]

Calculate returns-on-investment (ROI) for knowledge management investments. Evaluate benchmarking as a comparative knowledge metric. Evaluate knowledge management ROI by using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) method. Use Quality Function Deployment for creating strategic knowledge metrics.

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Metrics for Knowledge Work (2)


Identify what not to measure.

[Knowledge Management]

Understand alternative metrics such as the Skandia Navigator approach.

Classify and evaluate processes using The APQC Process Classification Framework.

Review and select software tools for tracking complex metrics, QFDs and BSCs.

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[Knowledge Management]

At Last

Three beggars were begging in New York City, each with a small cup in his hand. The first one wrote beg on his broken steel cup and he received 10 bucks after one day. The second one wrote beg.com on his cup and after one day he received hundreds of thousand dollars. Someone even wanted to take him to NASDAQ. The third one wrote e-beg on his cup. Both IBM and HP sent vice presidents to talk to him about a strategic alliance and offered him free hardware and professional consulting while Larry Ellison claimed on CNBC that ebeg uses 95% Oracle technology and i2 announced ebeg Trade Matrix, a B2B industry portal to offer supply chain integration in the beggar community.
Exhibit 8 - 1 Anonymous e-Mail Dot-Com Joke
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[Knowledge Management]

At last ..

the knowledge management toolkit, by Amrit Tiwana: Practical techniques for building a knowledge management system i

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Distribute knowledg e

Word Processing Desktop Publishing Web Publishing Electronic Calendars Presentations

Word Processing Desktop Publishing Web Publishing Electronic Calendars Presentations

Share knowledge

Groupware Intranets Networks E-mail

[Knowledge Management] Word Processing Word Processing Desktop Publishing Desktop Web Publishing Publishing Electronic Web Publishing Calendars Electronic Presentations Calendar Presentations Groupware Intranets Networks E-mail
Groupware Groupware Intranets Intranets Networks Networks E-mail E-mail

Capture knowledge

Databases Data Warehouses

Databases Data Warehouses

Apply knowledge

Expert systems Neural networks Intelligent agents

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