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Principal Aspects of Designing: The general layout forms an important part in the design of an industrial enterprise. It indicates the location of an enterprise and the relative location of the main shops and the auxiliary shops, storages, all underground, on ground and over-ground energy and transport communication lines with consideration of technological, transport, fire protection, safety and site leveling requirements. The technical solutions in the general layout and transport designing of an industrial enterprise depend upon the main production technology, composition of main technological and auxiliary shops, capacity of units and relational interconnection between shops and unit/ structures in the production process. Technological link with shops in the production process in the enterprise is accomplished with the different modes of transportation ( railway, conveyor, automobile and others ) which essentially unites all shops into a composite production complex. Such mutual connections between shops and storages with the help of different modes of transport exerts an essential influence on the relative disposition of shops in one hand and on the other the mutual location of shops on the general layout exert an influence on the choice of mode of transport between shops and storages and technical facilities used in it. The locations of different shops and structures within the area of the enterprise, to a large extent, is determined with consideration of architectural construction requirement and geological topographical conditions of site. Location of the enterprise within the area of an industrial complex, proximity and mutual location in relation to population settlements, necessary creation of architecturalaesthetic look of an enterprise, site-levelling requirement with consideration of natural relief, orientation of the site relative to the side natural lighting, predominant wind direction and a number of factors exert an essential influence on the technical solutions of general layout. According to the above considerations general layout of an industrial enterprise in itself contains understanding of complex technological, transport and architectural/ construction solutions of the industrial enterprise. The general layout constitute an elaborated drawing (or a set of drawings) in which mutual locations of all buildings and structures, transport and energy communication lines tied up with the relief of site and leveling decisions for the site (with consideration of the requirement of technology and transportation) are indicated. The general layout also indicates the shops/units in various stages of development say first phase and future units. In determining the mutual locations of buildings and structures on the general layout of the enterprise prevailing norms for distances in accordance with sanitary, fire-fighting and safety (like pressure vessels regulations, explosive regulations, electricity regulations etc) rules are to be followed. The general layouts are made to serve different purposes like Design, Constructional and Asbuilt. The Design general layout is elaborated and revised in all stages of design but with different degrees of details (depending on the various stages of the project). It is necessary as a main document for construction on the enterprise site to indicate where and how buildings and structures are located.

The Constructional general layout is worked out on the basis of Design general layout and serves for the location of temporary structures essential for constructional needs of the enterprise for example storages for construction materials, for equipment storages for construction workers residential area etc. The As-built general layout is as the project has been executed. These drawings show the actual location of the structures as they have been built on the enterprise site. The possible deviations ( as a rule small ) from Design general layout. The deviations in general may be due to reasons connected with construction engineering, inaccuracy in the execution of construction work and unforeseen circumstances. General Principles of Design The following are the principles of the design of general layout: 1. Location of shops must correspond to the requirement of production process and operational requirements of shops, provide for smooth material flow, adoption of rational means of transportation and the conditions of their automation. In accordance with the direction of material flow in the production process the following different schemes of general layout and transport are obtained : a) with transverse material flow perpendicular to the direction of longer axis of the plant b) with longitudinal production flow direction along the longer axis c) combined direction (longitudinal and transverse) of material flow. It may be mentioned that the classification of schemes takes into account the specific characteristics of a production process as such the schemes of general are different for Ferrous Metallurgical Plants, Chemical Plants etc. By the term rational means of transport it is understand the harmonious combination of different means of transport and an effective coordination of external, in-shop and interplant transportation by different means and with the main production technology. 2. It must achieve zoning of territory i.e. clear divisions of zones in accordance with the type of production shops and fixing of buildings and services with unification between similar group of shops in order to improve coordination and their operating conditions. Zoning of territory takes into account the energy services, water supply, transport services, Fire-safety and sanitary-hygenic conditions. Energy services and water supply units are located close to the main shops requiring these services. Auxiliary units are to be located as close as possible to the main shops. General plant services buildings (plant administration, computer center, central laboratory etc) is located near the main entrance separating them from inter-plant zones. 3. It is necessary to ensure compact planning decisions so as to allow rational use of territory. Compactness of general layout depends on the built-up system and is estimated on the basis of the built-up coefficients. The following built up systems are adopted : Ordinary Block System, Unified Block System and Multi-Block System with Peripheral rectangular, Oblique and mixed planning. From

the point of view of increase in built-up coefficient, more rational block system with continuous mode of transport shall be used. In order to increase built-up coefficient maximum unification of into blocks of buildings, stores, unite small shops into a block of shops, using multi-floor buildings with application of means of transport which is known as vertical means of transport and automation of conveyor transport. In most cases the compactness of general layout is estimated with two indices: Built-up Coefficient and the Specific Area Coefficient. Built-up Coefficient is estimated as the percentage ratio of area of structures/ units to the area of the enterprise within boundary wall with inclusion of area occupied by railway tracks, roads etc. While estimating the built-up coefficient the area of buildings is taken as the sum of area occupied by buildings and structure including open facilities and storages, underground structures ( tunnels, basements, communication channels) and also reserved plots of the enterprise earmarked for the future expansion. The other index for the estimation of compactness of general layout is the specific area coefficient i.e. the area of the plant in Ha (Hectares) which is necessary for construction of the plant in order to get the required capacity of the plant. 4. General Layout must foresee sequence of construction, possible convenient stages of development and future expansion of the enterprise with use of earlier constructed structures and principal concepts of general layouts. The territory for future expansion of plant should as far as possible be earmarked generally on the outer periphery of the plant. Possible future expansion of plant is foreseen in all stages of design starting from selection of area for construction of enterprise. It is worth mentioning that the requirement of provision of future expansion of the enterprise is largely contradictory to the requirement of compactness. As such possible expansion of the enterprise in future must be provided with consideration of principle of compactness of planning decisions of first stage construction. 5. In the design of General Layout, Climatic, engineering geological and topographical characteristics of area of enterprise and regional location must be considered. Special consideration is given to the direction of wind, frequencies and wind velocities. In locating dusty and gas evolving shops it is necessary to foresee protective arrangement and also take into consideration the predominant wind direction avoiding possible pollution by smoke and dust on territory of the plant and township. Consideration of climatic peculiarity of minimum insolation in production shops in locating the enterprise near the Equator. On the other hand location of enterprise in northern climatic zone generally in an increasing snow covered region needs a special consideration of this factor in elaboration of general layout. Engineering, geological and topographical conditions of site must be taken into consideration in the design of site leveling as a part of layout planning. Specially large main shops and also shops where heavy cranes work must be located in well suited geological conditions, in less filled up soils or in cutting that relieves the design of foundations for buildings and equipment. 6. Design of general layout must provide for most convenient conditions for people working in the enterprise, safe passenger transport and pedestrian movement, convenient location of first aid premises , welfare buildings, canteens and rest shelters. It must be mentioned that the above essential principles of design of general layout are indicative in general view and their realization depends on projects of different branches of industry which possess specific characteristics connected with general technology of production.

ENGINEERING PREPARATION OF INDUSTRIAL SITE The engineering preparation of an industrial site covers a complex activity necessary for making the site suitable for smooth construction and operation of the proposed enterprise. Such preparation activities include: Site Levelling (Vertical levels of the enterprise site), Network of Engineering Communications, Railway Tracks and Automobile Roads, Public Services on the territory with provision of its necessary protection. All these activities are considered while designing the general layout. Engineering preparation of the territory of the proposed industrial site may include in itself the necessary activities to enable use of otherwise unfit or operationally unfit territory for the construction of the units-structures. Such activities may include protection against washouts, submerging (flooding), erosion of soil or cell flow, mastering of soil with losing micro-porosity. Site Leveling: Modification of the natural ground surface of the territory so as to close create satisfactory conditions for construction of building structures, transport and water drainage is known as site leveling (vertical level planning). Design of site leveling which forms a part of the engineering preparation of site, comes as an integral part of the design of general layout and transport. Purposes and aims of site leveling is the necessary reduction of large difference of levels of ground surface where buildings, structures, railway tracks, automobile roads and engineering communications are located to provide for normal operation of transport-technological link and reliable & efficient water drainage for territory. The aim must be to achieve minimum cost for volume of earthwork (in cutting and filling) satisfying the other requirements of the general layout. In designing the site leveling it is recommended to maintain to the maximum extent the natural relief of the area, create optimum slopes for all modes of transport, convenient drainage of surface water, achieve minimum volume of earth work with a view to achieve balancing of earthwork (sum total of earthwork in excavation in area terracing and other-works like box cutting of road bed is equal to that of the sum total of filling of low lying areas and for embankment of railway track and road bed). There are usually three system of site leveling: Continuous, Selective and Combination Continuous system is proposed for fulfillment of leveling works only in the whole of territory site and is usually adopted with built up coefficient of more than 25% and also on large site congested with road, railway track and engineering network. Selective system is proposed for fulfillment of leveling works only in the area where building and structures are located, creating zones of units and maintaining the natural relief in the rest of the territory. It is adopted in cases of relatively low built-up coefficients in presence of rocky ground, unfavorable hydrological conditions and for maintaining green plantations. Combination system foresees achieving continuous leveling works in zones of main shops and selective leveling on the rest of the territory. It is used for large enterprise with distinct zoning of production shops (linked with cycles of production) possessing unequal built-up coefficients in different plots fulfilling various requirement and proper planning of each plot and also for plants with

harmful products necessitating more sanitary gaps. In continuous system it is necessary to execute more earthwork than in selective and continuous system. The selective system of leveling requires increased distances between buildings and structures for locating slopes, ditches, water drainage facilities by the side of the road beds for automobile roads and railway tracks, corridors for communication lines. The combination system combines the advantages of the first two systems and is optimum and most widely adopted in the design of large enterprises. In accordance with the nature of relief and modification of relief conjugating with separation f base surfaces, size of industrial site, proposed structures and mode of transport, the following schemes of site leveling are employed: Terrace-less characterizes the absence of use of steep designed slope and Terraced characterizes use of steep designed slope in place of natural ground slope.

Fig 1

Example of Terraced Planning

a. Terrace with slope of surface on one side b. Terrace with slope of surface on different sides 1. Line of leveling, 2. Surface of leveling, 3. Natural relief, 4. Axis of road 5. Railway track, 6. Retaining wall a. b. c.

Fig 2

Example of Terrace-less planning

With ground slope on one side With ground slope from centre towards the site boundary With ground slope from outer-side towards the centre 1. Line of leveling, 2. Surface of leveling, 3. Natural relief, 4. Axis of road 5. Railway track, 6. open ditch before slope of terracing, 7. Shops 8. Storages HH Height of filling HB depth of cutting B width of site, B1, B2 width of terrace

Terrace-less leveling is recommended a) where slope of natural surface does not exceed 1% in the plot of construction b) in dispersed construction with width of site less than 500 m, high water table and natural slope up to 3% and c) in plots of construction with very large size of buildings in plan and natural slope of site not exceeding 4%. Terraced planning is adopted or sites of width more than 500 m and zoning of territory with absence of direct railway connection between zones and in slopes of site more than 4%. Terraced planning present in itself a system associated with surfaces with significant difference in level and with the formation of a breast or a retaining wall between the surfaces. Difference I terrace level may vary from 0.5 m to even 6 8 m. The number of terraces and the level difference between them satisfy the requirement of transport and technological link and technical requirements of design of communication lines. Examples of terraced and terrace-less planning are illustrated in Fig 1 & 2. Utilisation of relief or solution of high altitudes is elaborated on the basis of system and scheme of vertical leveling of sites. The first step consists of the design of the utilization of relief known as micro-leveling and consists in fixing of ground surface levels (separate terraces), floor levels of buildings and structures and the axis of main thorough-fare. It must be mentioned that one of the deciding factors influencing the utilization of relief becomes railway transport, the slope of which may not exceed 2 2.5%. The second stage known as the micro-leveling consists in further detailed working of leveling solutions of territory making more precise levels of buildings and structures, automobile and rail roads, sidewalks and engineering networks with consideration of drainage of excessive rainwater. Levels are fixed with the provision of improved drainage, minimum volume of earthwork with due consideration of the ground water regime or measures for reducing these effects and creation of conditions for normal operation of all modes of transport. For securing reliable discharge of surface water careful planning of cross sectional profile of automobile road with the scheme of drainage is necessary. Depending on the location of buildings and their lengths, position of automobile and rail roads and also the relief of terrains, different types of schemes of surface drainage are adopted. In fig 3 some typical schemes of drainage are shown. Finished ground floor level of the building must not be less than 0.15 m above the terrace level. Finished floor levels of shops in case of entry of railway tracks must be same as the railhead level of railway tracks. Slopes of railway tracks and automobile roads and sidewalks must be in accordance with the construction norms. Levels of railway tracks in the stations are fixed on the basis of slope of approach tracks and the terrace level. There are three types of widely used drainage system for industrial site: Closed with underground pipe drainage system (rain water sewerage), Open with use of trough, ditches, channels and other open structure (quick discharge) Combination of closed and open The scheme of drainage must correspond to the adopted construction of the track structure of railway tracks which may be open with open or submerged ballast layer and the type of automobile road

(levels generally above terrace level) It is necessary to bear in mind that the drainage facilities provided for interplant railway tracks and roads are often used for collection and drainage of water from adjoining territories. The design of earthen road bed for automobile and rail road special attention must be given on the possible presence of moistures to secure its protection from moistening. Such arrangements consist in reduction of reduction of level ground water with drainage facilities, provision of snow protection layer, provision of drainage of surface water. All these necessary provisions are envisaged in totality during design of site leveling. In closed system of water drainage, run-off water from building is accomplished satisfactorily with interconnection of building drains to the rain water sewerage networks. In open system of drainage, drainage of water from buildings is organized by channelising along the ditch or trench and from earthen roadbed of railway track and automobile road in ditches. In practice mostly combination system is adopted: - closed rainwater sewerage in built-up portion and open drainage in the remaining territory. System of water drainage must be calculated by collection and discharge of water both from all buildings and from the adjoining territory of the enterprise. In the construction of railway track and automobile road in the enterprise premises if the structure of the road bed goes below the level of the terrace (being planned) the earthen roadbed must be constructed as a temporary scheme of filling or excavation with drainage of water through ditches and water drains. In the subsequent stage during fulfillment of leveling work, water drainage scheme with proposed design is carried out for switching over to permanent scheme. Out of the possible cases of such stages of construction of railway track is shown in fig 4. The design of site leveling consists of plan of utilization of the relief (micro-levelling) and plan of earthwork (cartogram of earthwork). On the drawing of utilization of relief the designed level of the base point of leveling with indicated slope of relief, designed levels in place of sudden change of leveling and also at corner of buildings, bottom and top of retaining walls, stairs and fixed stamps, catch pits, ditches, trenches manholes with designed invert level, designed level and slope indicated on the axis of carriageway of automobile road and the ground and indication of gradient of railway tracks. The designed ground slope (direction of flow of surface water) is shown with arrows. In the plant site with higher built up coefficients utilization of relief is represented with method of designed ground levels. In this case contours are indicated with method of designed ground levels. In this case contours are indicated with intervals of 0.1 0.2 m. On all elements of leveling ground surface, automobile road, automobile roads, production shops and storage areas. Contours the levels of which are multiples of 0.5 m with interval of 0.1 m, and multiple of 1 m with intervals of 0.2 m are demarcated with thick lines. Design of site leveling with the help of designed levels permits with more detailed diagram of utilization of relief in accordance with the adopted scheme of water drain. This method requires fixation of elevation of separating points, length and value of slopes and other details of designed elements of site. For design of proposed levels detailed tables and graphs are worked out comprising of the basis of proposed schemes and formula permitting accelerated design work. Volume of earthwork, fulfillment of which calls for utilization of relief is calculated according to the earth work plan (cartogram of earthwork). For drawing the cartogram the general layout (to scale) with

major buildings and structures is divided into plots of square of side 20 m. It is permitted to use plots f squares with sides equal 10, 25, 40 and 50 m depending on the nature of relief and requirement of accuracy of calculation of earthwork. In the corner of the plot of each square the natural ground level (which is fixed by interpolation along horizontal line, below the natural ground level, the proposed and depth of earthwork are marked as per the plan of designed relief. Average depth of earthwork is calculated by summation of the difference between the designed and the natural level divided by the number of such values. The minus ( - ) sign indicates excavation and the plus ( + ) sign indicates filling. First the preliminary line of zero earthwork is drawn wherever applicable and the volume of earthwork is calculated in every square plot by multiplication of average depth of earthwork by the area of the plot and then the total volume of filling and cutting for all squares is summed up. Below each column of squares the summation of volume of cutting and filling over the territory is indicated. Example of a typical plan of earthwork is shown in figure 6. Volume of earthwork with complex curved line contours and also terrace planning must be determined by cross sectional profile. Cross sectional profile is worked out on the local nature of the sudden change of relief and the sections are taken at distances 50 m to 100 m depending on the complexity of the nature of relief. The area (separately for cutting and filling ) under each cross sectional profile is determined and the average area is multiplied by distance between the cross sectional profile to get the volume of earthwork. Engineering communications In the engineering preparation of sites an important place is occupied by the structures of engineering communication network of the industrial enterprise intended for catering to production and welfare requirements of the enterprise water, electric power, steam, heat, gas, and also drainage of faecal, process, and rain water drainage within the site boundary. Engineering networks according to the nature of services can be classified into process and welfare requirements. It must be noted that the presence of greater number of technological pipelines, especially in metallurgical and chemical process plants significantly complicate the solution of planning tasks, connected with the spacing of network on the territory of the enterprise. Spacing and location of network and ways of their construction have influence on the solutions of general layout. All engineering networks according to the method of constructions may be underground ( trenches, trays and tunnels ), on-ground ( tray or low support ) and over-ground ( on stockades, consoles/ brackets from building ). Typical variants of construction of engineering networks are shown in figure 7. Engineering network, as a rule, is located along the thoroughfare straight and parallel to the reference axis of construction. It is recommended to plan construction of engineering network from new-building line to the axis of thoroughfare observing following order LT cable, communication cables, electric supply cable, heat and air supply line, sewer and open drains.

Fig 7 Variants of construction of pipelines a. In trench b. over-ground stockade c. in single tunnel d. on under- ground stockade e. on ground surface It must as a rule adopt combined laying of networks of different purposes in a common trench, channel and on stockades which offers possible reduction in the gap between buildings. For securing rational connection of all engineering lines in planning and higher utilization a combined plan of communication network is drawn up, over-ground construction may be adopted for majority engineering lines except firefighting water line, sewage from welfare services and rain water. Construction of easily inflammable and hot liquid pipelines underground is not permitted. Methods of laying of networks must be chosen on the basis of technological requirement, condition of fire protection, safety and techno-economic calculation with observance of the requirement of construction norms. Data on comparison of underground and over-ground construction of engineering network shows that capital cost in laying in reinforced-concrete channel and tunnel is higher by 30 - 40% than in case of on-ground. Pipeline construction on ground is cheaper than over-ground by 50 80% but construction of electric cables on stockades is significantly cheaper than construction below ground. Cheaper over-ground construction is achieved by construction of different lines on a common support. Constructions on low supports is significantly cheaper than on high supports but this complicates crossing with railway tracks and automobile roads.