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the accurate analysis of internal combustion engine is very complicated.

In order to understand them it is advantageous to analyze the performance of an idealized closed cycle that closely approximates the real cycle. One such approach is the air standard cycle

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WHY DO WE NEED AIR STANDARD CYCLES


1.Accurate analysis is a very expensive affair.
2. Accurate analysis consumes a lot of time 3. Accurate analysis is complex phenomena and cannot be modeled easily. 4. Theoretical analysis gives us the power to analyse engine performance without actually building it.
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ASSUMPTIONS

Working medium is a perfect gas There is no change in mass of the medium

All the process are reversible


Some heat is rejected to a constant low temp. Sink There are no heat losses from system to the surroundings
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DIESEL CYCLE
It was developed by RUDOLF DIESEL in the year 1892 as a

cycle in which the heat is added at a constant volume and it forms the basis for todays compression ignition engines. PROCESSES 0-1 SUCTION 1-2 ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION 2-3 HEAT ADDITION 3-4 ISENTROPIC EXPANSION 4-1 HEAT REJECTION 1-0 EXHAUST
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DIESEL CYCLE

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OTTO CYCLE
It was proposed by Nicholas Otto in the year 1876 as a

constant volume heat addition cycle which forms the basis for the working of todays spark igntion engines
PROCESSES

0-1 SUCTION 1-2 ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION 2-3 HEAT ADDITION 3-4 ISENTROPIC EXPANSION 4-1 HEAT REJECTION 1-0 EXHUAST

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DIAGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE OTTO CYCLE

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DUAL CYCLE
It is the hybrid form of diesel and otto cycle. Dual cycle

consists of cycles of both constant volume and constant pressure heat addition PROCESSES 0-1 .. SUCTION 1-2 .. ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION 2-3 AND 3-4 .. HEAT ADDITION 4-5 .. ISENTROPIC EXPANSION 5-1 .. HEAT REJECTION 1-0 .. EXHAUST
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DUAL CYCLE

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COMPARISON OF OTTO,DIESEL AND DUAL CYCLES


Important variable factors used for the basis of comparison COMPRESSION RATIO , PEAK PRESSURE , HEAT ADDITION, HEAT REJECTION , NET WORK To compare the performance of these cycles some of the variables must be fixed The analysis will show which cycle is more efficient for a given set of operating conditions 5 different cases are taken for comparison
HEAT REJECTION HEAT ADDITION NET WORK COMPRESSION RATIO

PEAK PRESSURE

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CASE 1:SAME COMPRESSION RATIO AND HEAT ADDITION


Figure below shows the Otto cycle 1-2-3-4-1, the Diesel

cycle 1-2-3'-4'-1 and the Dual cycle 1-2-2-3-4-1 in p-v and T-s diagrams respectively

From T-s diagram, Area 5-2-3-6= Area 5-2-3'-6 = Area 5-2-

2"-3"-6
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same heat addition


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CASE A SAME COMPRESSION RATIO AND HEAT ADDITION


All the cycles start from the same initial state point 1 and

the air is compressed from state 1 to 2 compression ratio is same


Observations from T-s diagram:

the

Heat rejection in Otto cycle (area 5-1-4-6) is minimum Heat rejection in Diesel cycle (5-1-4'-6') is maximum
Inferences :

Otto cycle has the highest work output and efficiency Diesel cycle has the least efficiency Dual cycle has the efficiency between the two
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CASE B SAME COMPRESSION RATIO AND HEAT REJECTION

Heat rejection QR is same for 3 cycles Heat supplied in otto cycle(QS )=area area under the curve2-3 Heat supplied in diesel cycle(QS )=area area under the curve2-3

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CASE B same compression ratio and heat rejection(contd.)


Efficiency of Otto cycle : Otto=1-QR/QS
Efficiency of diesel cycle: diesel=1-QR/Qs

Observations from T-s diagram: QS>Qs


Inference: The efficiency of the otto cycle is greater than

that of the diesel cycleOtto> diesel

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CASE C SAME PEAK PRESSURE,PEAK TEMPERATURE AND HEAT REJECTION

Peak pressure and temperature and the amount of heat rejected

(QR)are same for 3 cycles Heat supplied in Otto cycle(QS )=area area under the curve2-3 Heat supplied in diesel cycle(QS )=area area under the curve2-3
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CASE C SAME PEAK PRESSURE,PEAK TEMPERATURE AND HEAT REJECTION(contd.)


Efficiency of Otto cycle : Otto=1-QR/QS
Efficiency of diesel cycle: diesel=1-QR/Qs

Observations from T-s diagram: The heat heat absorbed in

case of otto cyle will be greater than that of the diesel cycleQS>Qs
Inference: diesel> Otto

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CASE D SAME MAXIMUM PRESSURE AND HEAT INPUT

Figures show Otto cycle (1-2-3-4-1) and Diesel cycle(1-2'-3'-

4'-1) shown in figure for same max. pressure and heat input
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CASE D SAME MAXIMUM PRESSURE AND HEAT INPUT


Observation from T-s diagram:

Heat rejection for Otto cycle (area 1-5-6-4) is more than the heat rejected in Diesel cycle (1-5-6'-4')
Inference: The efficiency for diesel cycle will be greater

than that for otto cycle diesel> Otto

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CASE E SAME MAXIMUM PRESSURE AND WORK OUTPUT


Area 1-2-3-4 (work output of Otto cycle) = area 1-2'-3'-4'

(work output of Diesel cycle)

Efficiency()= Work done/ Heat supplied= Work

done/(Work done+ Heat rejected)


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CASE E SAME MAXIMUM PRESSURE AND WORK OUTPUT(contd.)


For the same work output, we find thatentropy S3>entropy

S3
Observations from T-s diagram:

Heat rejection for Otto cycle is more than that of diesel cycle
Inference: The efficiency of diesel cycle is greater than that

of the otto cycle that is diesel> Otto

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TO FIND:- Pressure & Temperature at the salient points


SOLUTION:Consider the process 1-2, p2/p1 = r = 9.5^1.4 = 23.378 p2 = 23.378*1*10^5 = 23.378*10^5.Ans T2/T1 = r(-1) = 9.5^0.4 = 2.461 T2 = 2.461*298 = 733.34 K..Ans
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Consider the process 2-3, p3 = 50*10^5 N/m2 T3/T2 = p3/p2 = 50/23.378 = 2.139 T3 = 2.139*733.34 = 1568.7 K Consider the process 3-4, p3/p4 = (v4/v3) = (v1/v2) r = 9.5^1.4 = 23.378 p4 = p3/23.378 = 2.139 N/m2.Ans T3/T4 = r(-1) = 9.5^0.4 = 2.461 T4 = T3/2.461 = 1568.7/2.461 = 637.42 KAns
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To Find:- Maximum Pressure, Compare this value with obtained when Cv = 0.717 KJ/kg K
SOLUTION:Consider the process 1-2, P2V2n = P1V1n P2= P1(V1/V2)n = 1*6^1.3 = 10.27 bar T2 = T1(P2V2/P1V1) 330*(10.27*(1/6)) = 565 K
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