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Summary

We will now proceed to Section B in S.P.M. English Paper 2- Summary.

Summary We will now proceed to Section B in S.P.M. English Paper 2- Summary . General

General Requirements

Summary needs you to read the question carefully, then pick out the relevant points from the whole passage. Subsequently, you have to rewrite the points. As compared to Section A Directed Writing, summary requires more efforts. Although both sections cover 30% each out of 100% of Paper 2, the Examination Board suggests that students should take 45 minutes to do the summary while only 30 minutes for directed writing.

Some advices to our cousins in time management to tackle with summary:

  • 1. 5 minutes- read the question first.

  • 2. 10 minutes- read the passage carefully.

  • 3. 10 minutes- organise your points.

  • 4. 15 minutes- start writing your summary!

  • 5. 5 minutes- double check your writing.

Total time taken: 45 minutes! (More on the steps will be discuss later.)

Summary- Sample Question

Section B: Summary

Read the following passage and then answer the question that follows.

Please Speak Proper English

  • 1. "Lu think I don't know how to do this sinang job is it?" "Ask you to study, you go lepak pulak!" Have you ever heard of the above conversations? These are some of the informal dialogues that we can hear in our daily life ...... ......

  • 2. This phenomenon is also observed in our neighbour country- Singapore. Instead of mixing proper English with Malay words, "Singlish" is the miture of Engilsh and Hokkien dialect ...... ......

  • 3. One of the reasons why proper English is not used for conversation is that ......

  • 4. Secondly, many think that the interaction between individuals will become closer ......

  • 5. However, there are some disadvantages of not using proper English ......

  • 6. One way to encourage the usage of proper English is ......

  • 7. Government should organise some campaigns such as ......

  • 8. In conclusion, .....

(Adapted from ABC Magazine, Please Speak Proper English, published by Berjaya Sdn. Bhd. 2000)

The passage may look something like the above. The numbers on the left are to indicate the paragraph numbers. There should be line numbers on the right too. Sorry that I couldn't include them here.

Start Summarising

Steps:

 

Read the Question

5

minutes

Repeat reading so that you understand what is the

 

requirements of the question.

 

Read the Passage

Take note of the relevant points required in your summary.

  • 10 minutes

Highlight them for easy reference later. This will help you

 

save some time in revising the passage again to look for those

points.

 

Organising your points Make sure you do not miss any points. (All necessary information are from the specific line numbers given in the question.) Also, please make sure there is no redundant

  • 10 minutes

points.

 

At the same time, organise all your points to answer the question. For example, if the question asks for the reasoning first, then you should mention about it in the beginning.

 

Start Writing

Try to use your own words to write the summary.

  • 15 minutes

 

The format and techniques of answering will be discussed soon.

 

Double Check the Answer

5

minutes

Do not make any spelling or grammar error. Check whether

 

you are answering the question.

   

Total time taken: 45 minutes!

Techniques on Summarising

English summarising skills are almost the same like for the Malay. Anyway, I still have to emphasise some of them here so as to recall you all my dear cousins.

The format of your writing:

must be in one paragraph. Point or note form is not accepted.

must not be more than 160 words. (This is the normal maximum length of your

summary. Just be careful if the question states a lower limit.) must write in full sentence.

give a title to your summary! It can be as simple as just "Summary", which is still

better than nothing. count the number of words written and state it at the end of the summary.

Summary of the passage "Speaking Proper English"

Many people do not speak proper English because

(reason

(implication

(reason #1).

...... #2). However, there are some negative

#1). Besides, ......

(implication

#2).

Also, many think that consequences such as ......

......

Moreover, it is said that ......

(implication

#3). To promote the usage of

proper English,

(step #1). Secondly,

(step #2). Government plays a

role ......

(step

(Conclusion).

(159 words)

Directed Writing II - Giving Instructions

Directed Writing II - Giving Instructions

Giving Direction

This is another popular type of questions. The question may ask you to give direction to a place using a map or a series of pictures describing the steps to bake a cake. Refer to the following example:

Example: You are to give instructions to your sister, Susan, who wants to visit grandma. Below
Example:
You are to give instructions to your sister, Susan, who wants to visit grandma.
Below is a map of Kampung Kuchai. Assuming Susan reaches Kampung
Kuchai at the bus station, give clear instructions to her using the information
available.
Please include the following points in your writing:
1.
...
2.
...
3.
...

Directed Writing 2 - Dialogues and Conversations

Directed Writing 2 - Dialogues and Conversations

Dialogues and Conversations

A telephone conversation may have the common format as below:

Lee Mei

: Hello, may I speak to Charles please?

Charles

: Yes, Charles's here. May I know who is speaking?

Lee Mei

: Hi Charles, I'm Lee Mei. Remember me?

Charles

: Oh, Lee Mei! How are you?

Lee Mei

: ...

For face to face conversations, the format would look like this:

Chee Keong

: Good morning, Abu.

Abu

: Good morning, Chee Keong.

Chee Keong

: You look pale. Where have you been these few days?

Abu

: I am sick.

Chee Keong

: ...

Some tips to help you:

Use simple, everyday English for informal conversation.

Use formal tone for situations such as interview.

Remember to include pleasantries like: Good morning,

Remember to have a suitable closing at the end of the conversation.

Directed Writing 2 - Speeches

Directed Writing 2 - Speeches

Speeches

Situations:

debate competition

speech on the stage

seminar/talk

presentation

Inter School Debate Competition and you are in the propose team:

You are the first speaker in the propose team in a debate competition on a topic of "Privacy, Consumers are to be blamed". Prepare your speech based on the points below:

...

...

...

 

Consumers Are to be Blamed for Software Privacy

 

Mr. Chairperson, honourable judges, members of the opposing team, ladies and gentlemen.

 

Speech competition in your school:

A Speech on How to Spend Your Holiday Wisely

Good morning headmaster, honourable judges, teachers and all my dear friends.

Directed Writing I

Directed Writing I

We will start from Section A- Directed Writing.

General Requirements

Give a title for your writing, no matter what the type is! You must read the question carefully. Try to make full use of the points given, don't leave out any information. Give also some extra information of your own that is relevant. This is because:

  • 1. You will get full mark for content if you use all points given in the directed writing.

  • 2. Extra points will give you bonus marks.

  • 3. There are some marks left for the organisation of your writing, your grammar and some other subjective factors.

Directed Writing I Directed Writing I We will start from Section A- Directed Writing . General

Steps

  • 1. Read the Question Carefully ....

This is to understand question's requirements.

  • 2. Highlight important points ...

Highlight or underline the important instructions or points. The question will give you enough guide. Understand the type of writing, for example, is it a formal writing or informal writing?

  • 3. Draft Out the Content

...

(Brainstorming)

Think of what you are going to write. Recall the format of the writing. Organise the points given and fit them into your writing logically. Insert also some extra but relevant points.

  • 4. Start Writing ...

Write neatly, eligibly and carefully. Make sure you can finish writing in about 20 minutes as some times are used to do the planning and checking at the end. Practice more to help yourself to write faster.

5. Double Check ...

Check your grammar, spelling and the fluency of your writing. Have you used all the points given in the question? Have you put a title for your writing? Do not leave any careless mistake that can bring down your grade.

Types of Directed Writing

  • 1. Formal Letter

  • 2. Informal Letter

  • 3. Report

  • 4. Newspaper

  • 5. Note

  • 6. Direct/Indirect Speech

  • 7. Figure Analysis

8.

Others

5. Double Check ... Check your grammar, spelling and the fluency of your writing. Have you

Newspaper

Newspaper report has a simple format as shown. The title, the place of occurrence, the date/day and the author are the essential elements. The newspaper report gives information to reader. So, what you write shouldn't be a story, like what you will write in Section C- Continuous Writing. Read some articles from newspaper and you will be able to catch it.

Section A: Directed Writing- Newspaper Report

Give a title for your writing!!!

2 couples died in an accident

This is the important title for a newspaper report. Don't left out!

(Klang, Wed)- An accident ...

By Yvonne Yip The author's name...

 

Practice - Directed Writing 1

***For your own practice only. No submission required.

Directed Writing 1

Question 1: (Formal Letter Writing)

You read the following advertisement in Sunlight Press on 10 November 2000. Write a letter of application giving the necessary information.

 

Temporary Technicians and Salesgirl Needed

 

We urgently looking for 2 temporary technicians and a salesgirl to help up in our computer shop. Requirements for a:

 

Technician

Salesgirl

 
 

minimum S.P.M.

male only

good command in English

minimum S.P.M.

computer skills essential

computer skills essential

pleasant looking

able to drive a car

able to work in public

able to work on Sunday

duration: 1/12/2000-

holiday

 

duration: 1/12/2000-

 

31/3/2001

31/3/2001

   

We will pay at attractive rate. Any enquiries please contact 03- 77302032. Please write with full particulars to:

 

Mr. Edmund Lee, The Human Resource Manager, MiniHard Computer Sdn. Bhd., P.O. Box 4050, 50740 Kuala Lumpur. Dateline: 17/11/2000

 
   

Hints and Tips:

There are two jobs here. One is for male while the other is for female. You can

choose either one but not both. Just be careful of the name used. Some guidelines for you:

  • 1. Mention where and when you found the advertisement.

  • 2. Tell the manager about yourself. (Name, gender, educational qualification. You can assume that you have sat for S.P.M. examination.)

  • 3. Tell him about your qualification for the job you are applying. (For technician: computer skills, driving license,

availability to work on Sunday

etc. For salesgirl: good

... command in English, computer skills, pleasant looking

...

etc.)

  • 4. Tell him any extra important and relevant information about yourself that can help you to get the job. (E.g.: Any working experience?)

  • 5. Mention that you have enclosed a curriculum vitae with the letter.

  • 6. Show your confidence.

  • 7. Thank him for taking you into consideration.

  • 8. Mention that you can attend any interview to his convenient.

Question 2: (Formal Letter Writing)

Assuming you are Christine Goh, the Secretary of English Language Society (E.L.S.) of S.M. Raja Abdullah. Your society is going to host an inter-school debate competition in the coming holiday. The Chairperson asks you to write a letter to seek approval from the Administration Officer of the school to use the school's multi-purpose hall for the event. Below are some guides:

Millennium Inter-School Debate Competition

Date: 4 Dec 2000 (Preliminary round), 8 Dec 2000 (Semi-Final), 11 Dec 2000

(Final) 10 schools participate, total 16 teams

Special Guest- Professor Kassim, is invited on Final.

Add any other relevant information

You are requested to send a copy of the letter to the teacher advisor of E.L.S ..

Hints and Tips:

Again, this is a formal letter writing. For this type of application (looking for

approval), reasons must be given. Some guidelines for the contents:

  • 1. Mention the activity that is going to be held. Mention

that when it is approved.

  • 2. Mention the details of the debate competition. (Title,

date, time, parties involved, special event/guest

...

)

  • 3. Give reasons why the society needs the hall. (Capacity

of it, do not have to pay

...

etc)

  • 4. Mention that your society will be responsible for every facility in the hall.

  • 5. Show your responsibilities.

  • 6. Thank the officer for considering.

  • 7. Mention that reference can be made through the teacher advisor.

  • 8. Remember to include one line in the end of the letter, after the signature, stating that a copy is sent to the teacher advisor.

Question 3: (Informal Letter Writing)

Your family is planning to travel to Australia in December. You decided to ask your friend, Charles who is staying in Australia to clear some of your enquiries. You have to write a letter to him as you do not have his phone number and email address. Below are some questions arise when you are planning the trip:

places of interest in Australia accommodation food estimated cost

Tell Charles when is your trip and include also your email address for fastest reply from him. You are to add in any other relevant matters.

Hints and Tips:

Obviously, this is an informal letter writing. Format shall follow as taught in

lecture generally. Remember that you are only required to ask your friend some questions. So, ask

wisely, not silly question. Content wise:

  • 1. Tell Charles about your plan, the details of your plan and your budget.

  • 2. Remember to make use of the points given as questions.

  • 3. Ask some constructive question. (You may try to show off some of your general knowledge about Australia to "impress" the marker. But please remember that you are supposed to ask question, not giving suggestions.)

  • 4. Last but not least, remember to give him your email address.

Formal/Informal Letter

Formal/Informal Letter

Letter writing is the most popular type of Directed Writing. The format is quite standard for both formal and informal type of letter.

Formal Letter

The following is the basic format of a formal letter. Letter for job application, letter of complaint and letter for approval of an activity belong to the formal type of letter. We will discuss the content of each type of letter in exercises.

Section A: Directed Writing- A letter for job appplication

 

Give a title for your writing!!!

 
 

12, Jalan Bunga Raya,

   

Taman Star,

This is the address of the writer. (In this case the

  • 31650 Ipoh,

writer is Michael Chen.) It should be at the left hand side.

Perak Darul Ridzuan.

 

Draw a horizontal line after the writer's address.

   

Mr. Henry Chia, The Manager, CompuTech Sdn. Bhd.,

This block contains the name (if possible), position and address of the person this letter is writing to. It is also at the left hand side of the letter. Underline the last line of this block.

123, Jalan Iskandar Shah, Taman Industri,

The date is written at the right hand side, same line

  • 30500 Ipoh,

as the last line of the address block at the left.

Perak Darul Ridzuan.

 

25 NOVEMBER 2000

 
     

Dear Mr. Chia,

Salutation to the reader, followed by the topic/subject of your letter.

APPLICATION FOR THE POST OF TEMPORARY ASSISTANT

 

The content of your letter ...

 

In response to your advertisement in The Sun Press dated ...

 

My name is ...

For your information, ...

 

I'm ready for any interview ...

Thank you.

 
 

Yours faithfully,

   

Michael

Write your full name after your signature. (The question may prompt you to use another name.)

Michael Chen Teck Seng

   

Formal/Informal Letter

Informal Letter

The following is a sample of informal letter.

Section A: Directed Writing- A letter to my cousin in U.K.

 

Give a title for your writing!!!

 
 

21, Jalan Saroja,

 

This is the address of the writer. (In this case the writer is Mussa.) This time it is at the right hand side. Notice the difference. The date is just below the address block.

Taman Bunga, 31650 Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia.

25 November 2000.

Dear Kathi,

 

How are you, Kathi? ...

...

That's all for the time being. Bye!

 

Yours sincerely,

 

Mussa

Write your full name after your signature. (The question may prompt you to use another name.)

Mussa

   

Report

Report

A report does not have a fixed format. It can vary, depending on the type of report. At most of the times, the question will guide you about the format, by telling you some essential elements required and numbers of paragraph needed. For report on minutes of meeting, there are time, date and venue of the meeting, who are present, time when the meeting ends and when is the next meeting etc ..

Report of Minutes

Minutes for a meeting.

Section A: Directed Writing- Minutes for meeting

 

Give a title for your writing!!!

English Language Society of S.M. XXX Minutes for the 3rd Committee Meeting 2000

 

This is the important title for the report. Don't left out!

Date: 24 November 2000 (Friday) Time: 2 p.m. Venue: Class room B12 Attendance:

Present:

   

Thong Kah Leong Yap Wee Hiong Fatimah Baljit Singh Lee Tze Kiat Hashim Bakar

President Secretary Treasurer Project Coordinator Committee Member Committee Member

Absent with Apologies:

 

Timothy Leong

Committee Member

  • 1.0 Opening Address

  • 1.1 The meeting was called to order by the Chairperson at 2 p.m ..

  • 2.0 Confirmation of the Past Minutes

 
  • 2.1 Baljit Singh proposed that the minutes of the 2nd meeting be passed. Hashim Bakar seconded the proposal.

  • 3.0 Secretary's Report

 
  • 3.1 ...

  • 4.0 Matter 1

  • 4.1 ...

  • 4.2 ...

  • 4.3 ...

  • 5.0 Matter 2

  • 5.1 ...

  • 5.2 ...

  • 5.3 ...

  • 6.0 Matters Arising There were no new matters discussed. The meeting adjourned at 3 p.m .. The next meeting will be on next Friday at 2 p.m.

Prepared by,

 

WeeHiong

Yap Wee Hiong (secretary)

   

Report of Book Review

Book Review is another type of report. It keep a record of the book you have read. The question may ask you to write a book review of a book, with some descriptions about it. It is not a very popular type. You won't get wrong if you follow the question's instructions. (It will tell you what other elements you need to put in your book review.) Below is just a sample format of a book review.

Section A: Directed Writing- Book Review

 

Give a title for your writing!!!

 

Book Review 2000

Number of Books Read:

4

 

Duration:

10/11 - 24/11/2000

Type of Book:

Horror Story

Number of Pages

Writer:

311

Title of the Book:

The Bones Stephen Queen

Publisher:

ABC Printing Pte. Ltd. 1999

Character (if any):

Mary (a student)

Peter (an archeologist) ...

Summary of Content:

The story is about ....

A summary of what you have read.

Comment:

In my opinion, the story is very interesting ....

 

Write your opinion about the book, good and bad points of it.

Others:

Highly recommended for a secondary school student.

 

Worth to read?

 

Idioms

Why Idioms?

Idioms I

Let us take a break all cousins! We are now going to do some revision on idioms. Examples of idioms are "one's true colours", "an eye for an eye", "read between the lines" etc. Why idioms are important?

to express your points implicitly.

to show your strength in mastering English.

to score higher marks in your essay writing!

In this section, 10 idioms will be taught. I'll give each of them an explanation and how to use them to construct sentence(s). Dear Cousins, are you ready?

Idioms

1. "one's true colours"

Meaning:

the true character of someone; what a person is really like

Usage:

Esther will not even show her true colours in front of her good friends.

He showed his true colours once he became the chairperson.

You will only know Benjamin's true colours after knowing him for more

Comment:

It normally describes the negative character of a person.

Idioms I

  • 2. "practice makes perfect"

Meaning:

You will be able to become very good in doing something if you do it repeatedly and

continuously.

Usage:

Practice makes perfect, therefore you must work hard consistently in order to succeed.

Comment:

NA

Idioms I

  • 3. "with flying colours"

Meaning:

with great success

Usage:

It's unbelievable that she can passed her exam with flying colours!

After all the hard work, Kassim finally came through his exams with flying colours.

Comment:

Normally used for examination results.

Idioms I

4. "have something at one's fingertips"

Meaning:

know something very well

Usage:

Francis feels fearless towards the test because he has all the Mathematics formula at his fingertips.

Comment:

NA

Idioms

"the gift of the gab"

Meaning:

the ability to speak fluently

Usage:

She was selected to participate in the debate competition as she has the gift of the gab.

"read between the lines"

Meaning:

discover a meaning in something written or spoken that is not directly explained

Usage:

Only students who can read between the lines are able to understand the hidden meaning of this passage.

"work one's fingers to the bone

Meaning:

work very hard

Usage:

Due to financial problems, Mrs Koh has to work her fingers to the bone in order to bring up her children.

He work his fingers to the bone merely for the little pay from his stingy employer.

"pour/throw cold water on something"

Meaning:

be discouraging about something

Usage:

You have better come out with your own opinion instead of just pouring cold water on others' ideas.

Laurence purposely throw cold water on the plan.

"kill two birds with one stone"

Meaning:

achieve two aims with a single action or simultaneously

Usage:

If you follow her instruction, you can kill two birds with one stone

Idioms and "Either

...

or

& Neither

...

nor"

Idioms

 

the gift of the gab

read between the lines

work one's fingers to the bone

pour/throw cold water on something

Grammar - Subject-Verb Agreement

Either

...

or

& Neither

...

nor

"the gift of the gab"

Meaning:

the ability to speak fluently

Usage:

She was selected to participate in the debate competition as she has the gift of the gab.

"read between the lines"

Meaning:

discover a meaning in something written or spoken that is not directly explained

Usage:

Only students who can read between the lines are able to understand the hidden meaning of this passage.

"cross one's fingers"

Meaning:

hope or pray that something would happen; pray for success

Usage:

Let us cross our fingers that the world will stay in peace and harmony forever after.

I have done my best to study. What I can do now is just cross my fingers that I can pass the test.

"work one's fingers to the bone

Meaning:

work very hard

Usage:

Due to financial problems, Mrs Koh has to work her fingers to the bone in order to bring up her children.

He work his fingers to the bone merely for the little pay from his stingy employer.

"pour/throw cold water on something"

Meaning:

be discouraging about something

Usage:

You have better come out with your own opinion instead of just pouring cold water on others'

ideas. Laurence purposely throw cold water on the plan.

Grammar- Subject-Verb Agreement

Many students make mistake on subject-verb agreement. Be sure of the correct usage of the plural or singular form of verbs.

EITHER

...

OR

& NEITHER

...

NOR

See the following examples:

Either the boys or the girls like the teacher. (Both "boys" and "girls" are plural, so plural verb is used.)

Neither Helen nor Vincent has this idea. (Both "Helen" and "Vincent" are singular, so singular verb is used.)

When the subject differs in PERSON or NUMBERS, the verb agrees with the SUBJECT NEARER to it:

Either you or she is wrong. Neither this car nor those motorbikes are his.

"Either

...

or"

and "neither

...

nor"

are different from "either of" and "neither of". "Either of" and "neither of" take

SINGULAR VERBS.

Either of the students (this subject should be in plural form) wears spectacles.

Neither of us knows the way home.

Directed Writing 1 - Self Practice

***For your own practice only. No submission required.

Directed Writing 1

Question 1: (Formal Letter Writing)

You read the following advertisement in Sunlight Press on 10 November 2000. Write a letter of application giving the necessary information.

 

Temporary Technicians and Salesgirl Needed

 

We urgently looking for 2 temporary technicians and a salesgirl to help up in our computer shop. Requirements for a:

 

Technician

Salesgirl

 
 

minimum S.P.M.

male only

good command in English

minimum S.P.M.

computer skills essential

computer skills essential

pleasant looking

able to drive a car

able to work in public

able to work on Sunday

duration: 1/12/2000-

holiday

 

duration: 1/12/2000-

 

31/3/2001

31/3/2001

   

We will pay at attractive rate. Any enquiries please contact 03- 77302032. Please write with full particulars to:

 

Mr. Edmund Lee, The Human Resource Manager, MiniHard Computer Sdn. Bhd., P.O. Box 4050, 50740 Kuala Lumpur. Dateline: 17/11/2000

 
   

Hints and Tips:

There are two jobs here. One is for male while the other is for female. You can choose either one but not both. Just be careful of the name used.

Some guidelines for you:

  • 1. Mention where and when you found the advertisement.

  • 2. Tell the manager about yourself. (Name, gender, educational qualification. You can assume that you have sat for

S.P.M. examination.)

  • 3. Tell him about your qualification for the job you are applying. (For technician: computer skills, driving license,

availability to work on Sunday

etc. For salesgirl: good

... command in English, computer skills, pleasant looking

...

etc.)

  • 4. Tell him any extra important and relevant information about yourself that can help you to get the job. (E.g.: Any working experience?)

  • 5. Mention that you have enclosed a curriculum vitae with the letter.

  • 6. Show your confidence.

  • 7. Thank him for taking you into consideration.

  • 8. Mention that you can attend any interview to his convenient.

Question 2: (Formal Letter Writing)

Assuming you are Christine Goh, the Secretary of English Language Society (E.L.S.) of S.M. Raja Abdullah. Your society is going to host an inter-school debate competition in the coming holiday. The Chairperson asks you to write a letter to seek approval from the Administration Officer of the school to use the school's multi-purpose hall for the event. Below are some guides:

Millennium Inter-School Debate Competition

Date: 4 Dec 2000 (Preliminary round), 8 Dec 2000 (Semi-Final), 11 Dec 2000 (Final)

10 schools participate, total 16 teams

Special Guest- Professor Kassim, is invited on Final.

Add any other relevant information

You are requested to send a copy of the letter to the teacher advisor of E.L.S ..

Hints and Tips:

Again, this is a formal letter writing. For this type of application (looking for approval), reasons must be given.

Some guidelines for the contents:

  • 1. Mention the activity that is going to be held. Mention that when it is approved.

  • 2. Mention the details of the debate competition. (Title,

date, time, parties involved, special event/guest

...

)

  • 3. Give reasons why the society needs the hall. (Capacity

of it, do not have to pay

...

etc)

  • 4. Mention that your society will be responsible for every facility in the hall.

  • 5. Show your responsibilities.

  • 6. Thank the officer for considering.

  • 7. Mention that reference can be made through the teacher advisor.

  • 8. Remember to include one line in the end of the letter, after the signature, stating that a copy is sent to the teacher advisor.

Question 3: (Informal Letter Writing)

Your family is planning to travel to Australia in December. You decided to ask your friend, Charles who is staying in Australia to clear some of your enquiries. You have to write a letter to him as you do not have his phone number and email address. Below are some questions arise when you are planning the trip:

places of interest in Australia

accommodation

food

estimated cost

Tell Charles when is your trip and include also your email address for fastest reply from him. You are to add in any other relevant matters.

Hints and Tips:

Obviously, this is an informal letter writing. Format shall follow as taught in lecture generally.

Remember that you are only required to ask your friend some questions. So, ask wisely, not silly question.

Content wise:

  • 1. Tell Charles about your plan, the details of your plan and your budget.

  • 2. Remember to make use of the points given as questions.

  • 3. Ask some constructive question. (You may try to show off some of your general knowledge about Australia to "impress" the marker. But please remember that you are supposed to ask question, not giving suggestions.)

4.

Last but not least, remember to give him your email address.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions

Connectives, joining words or linking words, as they are sometimes known, Conjunctions are words that join words, phrases and clauses. Some conjunctions are more frequently used than others, e.g. "and", "but",

"then" etc

..

Following are a list of conjunctions. Try not to over-use only some conjunctions.

furthermore

further

moreover

in addition

 

instead

yet

although

though

even though

rather than

even if

despite

in spite of

 

however

in contrast

on the contrary

on the other

nevertheless

unlike

notwithstanding

hand

     

in fact

indeed

above all

unless

if

if then

as long as

for

so

because

as

as a result

consequently

therefore

thus

hence

in conclusion

in this way

accordingly

after

before

when

while

until

since

ever since

first, second ...

subsequently

next

meanwhile

where

wherever

       

Some advices:

One very common error with the usage of the conjunctions although and but is illustrated below:

XXX Although the question is easy but students still cannot answer it. Answer: Although the question is easy, students still cannot answer it. Answer: The question is easy but the students still cannot answer it. Answer: Although the question is easy yet students still cannot answer it.

Grammar- Parts of Speech 2 (Conjunctions)

Choose the best answer.

1. You have better start revising your homework

it is too late.

Error! Reference source not found.A. while

Error! Reference source not found.B. until Error! Reference source not found.C. before Error! Reference source not found.D. even though

  • 2. Rain brings freshness to the earth.

, rain causes disaster.

Error! Reference source not found.A. Meanwhile Error! Reference source not found.B. On the other hand Error! Reference source not found.C. Unless Error! Reference source not found.D. In addition

  • 3. Ali is not as smart as Suzy

he can answer this simple question faster than her.

Error! Reference source not found.A. -, because Error! Reference source not found.B. Even though, but Error! Reference source not found.C. Although, but Error! Reference source not found.D. Although, -

  • 4. you have the determination, you will be able to master the language.

Error! Reference source not found.A. Despite Error! Reference source not found.B. As long as Error! Reference source not found.C. In addition Error! Reference source not found.D. Rather than

  • 5. It's party time! Many of them are having fun playing games. their meal.

, some are enjoying

Error! Reference source not found.A. Meanwhile Error! Reference source not found.B. Consequently Error! Reference source not found.C. Furthermore Error! Reference source not found.D. Indeed

  • 6. He won't blame you for this.

, he is willing to excuse you if you apologize to him.

Error! Reference source not found.A. Nevertheless Error! Reference source not found.B. Moreover Error! Reference source not found.C. However Error! Reference source not found.D. Indeed

  • 7. Halim couldn't finish his task on time

all the hard work he had put in.

Error! Reference source not found.A. in addition to Error! Reference source not found.B. in contrast of Error! Reference source not found.C. in spite of Error! Reference source not found.D. in fact of

  • 8. the economic crisis, the nation's standard of living is improving from year to year.

Error! Reference source not found.A. Notwithstanding Error! Reference source not found.B. On the other hand

Error! Reference source not found.C. Nevertheless Error! Reference source not found.D. Since

| C

|

  • 1 -

  • 2 | B | - On the other hand - used to show contradictory statements.

  • 3 | D | - <i>"Ali is not as smart as Suzy <b>because</b> he can answer this simple question faster than her."</i><br>The sentence sounds grammatically correct but the reasoning is confusing.

  • 4 | B

|

-

  • 5 | A

| -

  • 6 | D

| - Indeed = In fact

  • 7 | - In spite of = Despite

| C

  • 8 | A | - Notwithstanding = Inspite of

Grammer - "One Of", "None", "All"

"ONE OF"

It takes a SINGULAR VERB or a PLURAL VERB according to the sense required.

One of the players is well.

This is one of the books that were torn that day.

This is the only one of the books that was torn. (Note the words THE ONLY in this usage.)

"NONE"

It is also used with either a singular verb or plural verb.

None of this business concerns me.

None of the players are ready.

Grammer - "One Of", "None", "All" "ONE OF" It takes a SINGULAR VERB or a PLURAL

"ALL"

It is used with a SINGULAR VERB when it means "everything" or "everyone".

All is well.

All has been done.

When "ALL" refers to A NUMBER OF ITEMS mentioned previously, A PLURAL VERB is used.

The girls are not here. All have gone home.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions

Connectives, joining words or linking words, as they are sometimes known, Conjunctions are words that join words, phrases and clauses. Some conjunctions are more frequently used than others, e.g. "and", "but",

"then" etc

..

Following are a list of conjunctions. Try not to over-use only some conjunctions.

furthermore

further

moreover

in addition

 

instead

yet

although

though

even though

rather than

even if

despite

in spite of

 

however

in contrast

on the contrary

on the other

nevertheless

unlike

notwithstanding

hand

     

in fact

indeed

above all

unless

if

if then

as long as

for

so

because

as

as a result

consequently

therefore

thus

hence

in conclusion

in this way

accordingly

after

before

when

while

until

since

ever since

first,

subsequently

   

second ...

 

next

meanwhile

where

wherever

       

Some advices:

One very common error with the usage of the conjunctions although and but is illustrated below:

XXX Although the question is easy but students still cannot answer it. Answer: Although the question is easy, students still cannot answer it. Answer: The question is easy but the students still cannot answer it. Answer: Although the question is easy yet students still cannot answer it.

Answer:

  • 1. C

  • 2. B On the other hand - used to show contradictory statements.

  • 3. D "Ali is not as smart as Suzy because he can answer this simple question faster than her." The

sentence sounds grammatically correct but the reasoning is confusing.

  • 4. B

  • 5. A

7.

C In spite of = Despite

  • 8. A Notwithstanding = Inspite of

Prepositions (Part 1)

Prepositions

It seems that little words are the ones that confound people most. Using the right prepositions at the right place and knowing when one is needed

Prepositions (Part 2)

Prepositions

Phrasal Verbs

Sometimes when the wrong preposition is used, it will result in a change in meaning. For example:

XXX He put of the fire.

Answer: He put out the fire.

when you actually mean that he has extinguished the fire, you are now saying that he has postponed it! The correct phrase is "put out". Such phrases are called Phrasal Verbs:

agree to

agree with

agree

agree on

 
   

about

   

angry with

angry

about

   

anxious

anxious for

     

about

       

compare to

compare

     
 

with

     

break down

break in

break off

break out

 

break up

break up

     
 

with

     

carry on

early out

carry off

carry

 
     

through

 

come about

come

come by

come down

 
 

across

 

with

 

come out

come round

come to

come up to

 

come up

cut down

cut into

cut off

 

with

       

get away

get on

get along

get through

get by

   

with

   

give away

give in

give off

give over

give up

look after

look down

look up

look into

look to

 

on

     

look up to

look for

     

put off

put on

put out

put up with

put down

Some examples of the usage of these phrasal verbs will be given in future lecture.

Exercise

Grammar- Parts of Speech 2 (Prepositions 1)

Choose the best answer.

  • 1. The boy is running

the road to meet with his father opposite.

Error! Reference source not found.A. on Error! Reference source not found.B. across Error! Reference source not found.C. along Error! Reference source not found.D. down

  • 2. Please do not lean

the wall. The paint is still wet.

Error! Reference source not found.A. over Error! Reference source not found.B. by Error! Reference source not found.C. behind Error! Reference source not found.D. against

  • 3. He is the smartest student

his classmates.

Error! Reference source not found.A. between Error! Reference source not found.B. among Error! Reference source not found.C. within Error! Reference source not found.D. in

  • 4. the arrival of Prime Minister, everyone in the hall stands up and claps to welcome him.

Error! Reference source not found.A. Without Error! Reference source not found.B. Since Error! Reference source not found.C. After Error! Reference source not found.D. Upon

  • 5. I could see a little boy crying in the

of the crowd.

Error! Reference source not found.A. midst Error! Reference source not found.B. middle Error! Reference source not found.C. between Error! Reference source not found.D. among

  • 6. After 3 years of marriage, Jessie was divorced

her husband.

Error! Reference source not found.A. with Error! Reference source not found.B. by Error! Reference source not found.C. from Error! Reference source not found.D. for

  • 7. He was found guilty

shoplifting in the supermarket.

Error! Reference source not found.A. in Error! Reference source not found.B. of Error! Reference source not found.C. for Error! Reference source not found.D. by

  • 8. The examiner said, "You may start writing now. Please be sure that you can finish answering the paper

two hours."

Error! Reference source not found.A. by Error! Reference source not found.B. within Error! Reference source not found.C. for Error! Reference source not found.D. between

9.

She works

that Japanese firm

a clerk.

Error! Reference source not found.A. for, as Error! Reference source not found.B. at, from Error! Reference source not found.C. at, for Error! Reference source not found.D. in, for

10. He looks sad everyday. I wonder what is he worrying

.

Error! Reference source not found.A. on Error! Reference source not found.B. about Error! Reference source not found.C. of Error! Reference source not found.D. off

Answers:

  • 1. B

  • 2. D

  • 3. B

  • 4. D

  • 5. A

  • 6. C

  • 7. B

  • 8. B

  • 9. A

10.

B

Interjections

Interjections

Many single-word or single-phrase expressions that express sudden emotions such as surprise, shock, happiness, excitement, disappointment, etc. are categorised as lnterjections. Examples include: "Oh!" "Goodness gracious!", "Help!", "Oh dear!" and "My goodness!".

Interjections Interjections Many single-word or single-phrase expressions that express sudden emotions such as surprise, shock, happiness,

Some advices:

Try not to use extremely vulgar interjections in your writing. Use alternative ones to show how well educated you are. (As this is quite subjective, I won't give any example here.)

Grammar- Parts of Speech 2 (Prepositions 2)

Grammar- Parts of Speech 2 (Prepositions 2)

Choose the correct answer from the list to fill in the blanks below. Each choice can only be used once.

down

off

on

out

1.

The manager says, "Let's put the machine Error! Reference source not found.and start

working!"

 

2.

After 2 hours of effort, the firemen successfully put Error! Reference source not found.the

fire.

3.

Here is the reminder for tomorrow practice. Please put the timing Error! Reference

source not found.in case you forget.

 

4.

The host has to put Error! Reference source not found.the match as it is raining heavily.

after down forward

out

5.

We shall never look Error! Reference source not found.on people who are less fortunate.

6.

My aunt helped to look Error! Reference source not found.my house when my family went

overseas.

 

7.

" Look Error! Reference source not found.for any pickpocket around when you are in the

concert," said Susan.

 

8.

All students are looking Error! Reference source not found.to their holidays after S.P.M.

examinations.

 

back

down

into

out

9.

It is not a good manner to cut Error! Reference source not found.others' conversation.

  • 10. A technician is repairing the photocopy machine that has cut Error! Reference source

not found.

  • 11. Aminah decided to cut Error! Reference source not found.her expenses to save money for

her school fees.

  • 12. The gardener is cutting Error! Reference source not found.the bougainvillea bush.

Answer

  • 1 | on | put something on - operate something

  • 2 | out | put something out - stop something from burning

4

| off | put something off - postpone

  • 5 | down | look down on somebody - despise somebody

  • 6 | after | look after something - be responsible for something

  • 7 | out | look out - be careful; wactch out

  • 8 | forward | 10 | looking forward - anticipating

  • 9 | into | cut into - interrupt out | cut out - stop working/functioning

    • 11 | down | cut down on something - reduce the amount of something

    • 12 | back | cut something back - shorten the branches of trees

Summary Writing

Summary Writing

  • 1. Summary means a shorten version of a full text article or passage

  • 2. In summary writing, only the main points are to be mentioned, and must be kept in within the word limit.

  • 3. Exclude all examples, explanations, repetitions, description, elaboration, conclusion and introduction.

  • 4. Use of conjunctions become essential in combining two ideas into a sentence.

  • 5. Summary should be in ONE paragraph only.

  • 6. Write down the number of words used to write the summary at the right end of the passage.

  • 7. The number of words allowed will be +/-10 words of the words mentioned in the instruction. Marks will be deducted if you exceed or do not match up t the number requested.

  • 8. Recheck summary for grammatical, spelling and detail error, and correct them before handing up

Adverbs

Adverbs

Adjectives are used to describe Nouns. The Adverbs are used to describe Verbs! When a person walk, you may ask," How does he walk? Slowly or gently?" Generally, adverbs are usually end with 'ly'.

Position of Adverbs

The trickiest part of Adverbs is their positioning. An adverbial can appear at up to seven places in a clause. Here is the example:

^ The car ^ must ^ have ^ been ^ washed ^ in that car park ^

(The adverb "recently"; can be inserted at any of the points marked "^" in the sentence.)

However, freedom of position does not apply to every adverbial. And positional differences would often be accompanied by differences in meaning. We will not discuss this here.

Verbs

Tenses

Verbs

One common problem with verbs is tenses. A verb would have different tense forms:

present, present participle, past and past participle. Many verbs word acquire the inflection 'ed' when they are in the past tense and past participle form. However, there are verbs that do not follow this rule. These are called Irregular Verbs.

Present Tense

Past Tense

Present

Past Participle

   

Participle

 

can

canned

canning

canned

cane

caned

caning

caned

kick

kicked

kicking

kicked

awake

awoke

awaking

awoken

beat

beat

beating

beaten

eat

ate

eating

eaten

lay

laid

laying

laid

steal

stole

stealing

stolen

cut

cut

cutting

cut

  • -'ed' is added to the verb in past tense and past participle form.

  • -irregular verbs: changes in spelling take place.

  • -irregular verbs: no change in spelling at all.

Subject-Verb Agreement

Verbs

Another problem lies with subject-verb agreement. Consider the following examples:

  • 1. They goes to the swimming complex everyday.

  • 2. They go to the swimming complex everyday.

The second sentence is correct. We will discuss more soon.

Subject-Verb Agreement Verbs Another problem lies with subject-verb agreement. Consider the following examples: 1. They goes

Some advices:

Many students will still have problems and therefore make mistake in Subject- Verb Agreement. More practice will be given in the coming lecture.

Modal Auxiliaries

Verbs

Modals are a special type of verbs that are auxiliary and cannot be the main verb in a verb phrase. There are several marginal modal auxiliaries, i.e. they can behave like modals.

 

Commonly Used Modal Auxiliaries

 

can

could

will

would

shall

should

may

might

must

     
 

Marginal Modal Auxiliaries

 

ought to

dare

need

used to

One rule to remember is that the verb that comes straight after a modal auxiliary will always be in the infinitive form (i.e. the form of verb that follows the word "to"). For examples,

  • 1. I shall study study study now as examination is around the corner.

  • 2. He will travel to Japan for a few days.

  • 3. Peter used to read articles from that writer.