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Susan McClary Assesses the Challenges and Contributions of Feminist Musicology Author(s): Susan McClary Source: The Musical Times, Vol. 135, No. 1816, 150th Anniversary Issue (Jun., 1994), pp. 364369 Published by: Musical Times Publications Ltd. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1003224 . Accessed: 12/06/2013 17:55
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in that rarefied space. only a half step above the drone) suggests that it might not be able to rise freely from that base.33 on Wed.especially the commonplacethat musiciansin the Middle Ages did not concern themselves with responding to their verbal texts in their musical settings. et nonopuscriminum. the melody revels in ecstatic melismas. Not only is her name absent from most textbooks (even those specialising in chant). The National Gallery. umbrae pertorrens plantatum Eto tu. but her music flagrantlyviolates many of the stylistic norms routinelyenumerated by medievalists. subvertentem abyssum.ruminans igneavox. felicesradices. cumquibus opusmiraculorum.Musicology today I OF AND What Susan PATRIARCH TOO MATRIAR musicology.155.. that it may be confined permanentlyto this low register. Initially. O vos.94.not in the standardstepwise motion of monophonic liturgical chant. Beginning with cautious moves by thirds. London unison choir of female voices enters over a drone. considers its aid why do we need it? contributions and challenges. by Lucas Cranach the Elder by courtesy of the Trustees. occasionally cascading down to regain contact with its point of origin only to scale the heights exuberance. at first. in which she encapsulateswithin a mere 12 lines the divine trajectoryfrom the Old Testament fathers to John the Baptistto Christ. the melody's phrygiansecond degree (i. the line gains confidence and surges upwards through rapid successions of open fifths and fourths until it rises a full octave and a sixth above its lowest pitch. again with ever-greater Nothing in standardstudies of medieval music preparesone for the shock of hearing Hildegard von Bingen's 'De Patriarchiset prophetis' for the first time. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . But then the line begins to ascend . is feminrist McClary Reproduced Roll.e. 364 The Musical Times June 1994 This content downloaded from 146. subdued . MODEL 1: CHARITY. limantem praecurrens lapidem. Yet Hildegard's 'Of Patriarchs and prophets'clearly presentsa musical analogueto her equally astonishingpoem. with a line that coils around the drone in close intervals. iterperspicuae est. There. but in ever-larger intervals that vault over the ceiling imposed by the phrygian degree.
if we asked.withwhomthecropof miracles [Oyou. the Countess of Dia. Hildegardwrote not only her lyrics. was planted on the burning path. As a musician.the standardtreatises of her Movement in the early 1970s.33 on Wed. including the coveted Claude Jacquet de la Guerre. the earliest liturgical drama designed to be sung throughout ern art-music tradition.. Barbara Strozzi. GermaineTailleferre.the period that also gave us goal-oriented tonality and the calculus. in himwhois yoursummit!]1 Rejoice To find a similar effect. ROLE MODEL 2: A YOUNG WOMAN STANDING AT A VIRGINAL. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . her trained specialists. Cecile Chaminade. iconography. we were told that there had not been any knowledge of female anatomy and midwifery that far surpasses in at least none worthremembering. This work has brought to light an everthroughout. no Reproduced by courtesy of the Trustees. Gaudete in terris multi quemnonviderunt ardenter vocaverunt.she could receive a liberal education and Caccini.94. be comparable only to that of Abelard. the longmatriarch and of St Paul's injunction that women remain women's music inaccessible forgotten appear prophet music. But in the works of an obscure 12th-centuryRhineland abbess? Moreover. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel. London women appearedin the curriculum. It never even occurredto some of us to wonder why there were no women in the histories of music startlingly modern accounts of many ailments and also reveal we studied. Francesca exempted from the duties of childbearing . Sing.. the allegorical eventually granted her official clearance of in in to speak and write about whatever she perbut also the earth it to other and Wisdom. gaudete in illo. Her remarkably prolific output and circulated once again by priests such as to reveals the extent to which she exercised music thus fields. Yet as breathtaking as Milton's opening gambit is. Yet even nuns were constrainedby however. ').demolishing contemplative the abyss. some courageous musicologists day. by Johannes Vermeer When I began graduatetrainingin musicology 26 years ago. rise within the hierarchy of her monastic to make threatens analysis order. The idiosyncratic theological writings (which pope ordered a thorough investigation of not only glory in female figures such as the criticism feminist-oriented Hildegard's mystical experiences and Blessed Virgin and Sophia. The National Gallery. she composed an extensive collection of male as well as female scholars the arduous task including highly individualistic responsories and sequences.happy .whom many did not see on earth. As a member of noble family. Musicologists were not the first to silent in the church: their sphere of influclaim to ence medieval to all but the most lay highly Hildegard: stopped at the convent walls. Elizabethhad opportunities denied most women. Heav'nly Muse.in lucidforeshadowing andfieryvoice heralding the whetstone.to the triumphantcertaintyof the Christianmystic. The story of Hildegard's career is quite literally miraculous:the growing numberof remarkablemusicians who had fallen into varyof Ruth Crawford Lili result not only of aristocraticprivilege.. we expect that kind of dynamic energy in culturalartefactsfrom the 17th century. symbol opens people the fecundity of nature) are being adopted ceived.Ethel Smyth.rejoicein himwho is yoursummit!Rejoicein him. and also the began of recoveringthe women who had participated the westOrdo virtutem. As her fame spread through executed under her supervision add the interdisciplinary study Europe.not to mention empathy . Unlike literary historian Peter Dronke judges her poetry to most of her sister nuns. the vivid illuminations that licence. but also the searing music that takes us from what she presents as the clairvoyantfaith of the patriarchs. But with the rise of the Women's accuracy . she engaged in correspondences new with theologians such as Bernard de dimensions to medieval unexpected and her Clairvaux and political leaders such as medical studies of offer cultural history.Amy Beach. quiipsum in capitevestro. we would have to project forward five centuries to the beginning of Milton's Paradise lost ('Of Man's FirstDisobedience. where At a time when academic Leonarda. divine interventions. Boulanger.thoughthey called for him ardently. June 1994 The Musical Times 365 This content downloaded from 146. Hildegard was subject to visions. Gaudete andnotof crimes roots.155.andyou..2 At the head of this illustrious group. stands Hildegard. adding Matthew Fox. however.in capitevestro. but also of papal and even ing degrees obscurity: Seeger.throughthe audaciousanticipationsof the prophets. Isabella option of life in a convent. Hildegard Clara Wieck Schumann.
other kinds of music have attractedthe attention of feminist-based musicologists as well. Moreover. opera. a virtuosowomen's ensemblecredFerrara ited with having inspired a whole range of Renaissance avantof Barbara or the cantatapublications Strozzi. And despite miracles and papal decrees. Carolyn Abbate views Salome as a figure of female empowerment. they offer in exchange a view of music as a central participant in history and culture. for instance) sometimes choose to write music with imagery that deliberately engages with cultural concerns such as elegender. so feminist-based musicology has broughtnew perspectives to the study of the standardrepertory.7 But it has been more difficult to broach these topics within the prestigious realm of western art music. eminist-orientedmusicology necessarily poses these sometimes unpleasant questions. A few scholarshave perceived these new lines of inquiryas hostile . How could this woman . illuminations. feminism's overriding concern for making connections between culture and life does subject favourite works to political debate. thus adding music to the interdisciplinary study of cultural history. few women have received such direct ordination. If opera is the genre most explicitly involved with gendered issues. it would have justified its existence. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .a woman at the court of Louis XIV whose Italianatesuites sound like sudden infusions of technicolor into the staid world of Frenchdance.but only professionallyin musicslightly so) that permittedher to participate for for there are also reasons each. If this new branch of musicology had accomplished nothing more than bringing the music of Hildegard. but with the increasing market demand for music by female composers it has become possible to find many first-rate performancesof compositions by women. sons thathinge not so much on the qualityof the work as on cultural biases thathave excludedwomen fromconsideration. of course. 9 The principal issue is not to decide on one verdict or another. but Bizet's characteralso turns out to have been embraced as an icon of sexual freedom by lesbian singers and listeners at the turn of the century.their stories remaineduntold. yet many of us remembera time when the principal themes of sonata movements were still called 'masculine' and 366 The 6Musical Times June 1994 This content downloaded from 146. even Hildegardherself was soon forgotten.free from the contaminationof everyday life. traditional musicologists have tended to downplay or even deny the 'content' of music in favour of formal description. given the emphasis on autonomy in western music aesthetics since early romanticism. Her music. But if such questions refuse to honour the canon's claims to radical autonomy or 'pure' musicality. For instance.5 Guerre. but ratherto make this extraordinary the commercial recording industry hesitated to collaborecently. and it has tended to trace a genealogy of deeds by men. memoirs. The genre most obviously engaged with gender is. theological writings.94.3 Recall that in Hildegard'sday women wishing to write requiredexpress permissionfrom the pope.4 Venetianwhose expressiverange rankswith that of her best-known or the harpsichord suites of ElizabethJacquetde la contemporaries.for reasons easy to explain. but the music of the standardcanon itself.feelings and the body. Yet the insights of feminist-orientedcriticism are far from monolithic: conclusions vary widely depending on the opera in question and the critic.8 Likewise. medical handbooks.6 For each of these women there were special conditions (less dramaticthan Hildegard's divine intervention. and letters were copied and carefully preservedin her convent. Later periods saw the spectacular appearance at the court of of the concertodi donne. Yet women composers (Hildegard. especially the representation of such mundane matters as gender or the body. Thus while Lawrence Kramerexamines Strauss's Salome as one of a cluster of fin-desiecle artefactsthat articulatefears of women's sexuality. Yet the goal is not to instill music available. Instrumentalmusic of the 18th and 19th centuries would seem to be impervious to inquiries concerning gender. plays. For the addition of women (or any other formerlymarginalisedgroup) to a canon immediately calls attentionto the fact of the canon's constructedness. but ratherto develop a greater sense of how music participatesin central cultural debates and to gain a better understandingof the impact of music on the lives of those engaged with it. If music no longer appearsto exist in a separatesphere.a practice that bears traces of many aspects of social experience. suffice it to say that the historicalrecord has been composed almost exclusively by men.FriedrichBarbarossa. Is their music alone in foregroundingrepresentational ments? Or might music in general be understood as a cultural practice . for advocates of this repertoryhave long held that it transcends representation. Until guilt. These new forms of scholarship even address the opera fan. feminist-oriented criticism opens it to people in other fields.its dependence on changing social values. Carmen may be interpreted as a femme fatale.a 17th-century gardes.155. but at the same time it takes music out of the seminar room and invites music-lovers of all varieties to participate in the kinds of discussions that will generate the culturalmeanings of the future. subsequent neglect .an extraordinary figure by any standard . Yet feminist-oriented musicologists have begun to assess the many ways in which social constructionsof gender have organised these musical practices as well: not just the music by women. Strozzi or Jacquet de la Guerreto a listening public. it becomes a site where we learn about and internalise our culture's ideals concerninga vast arrayof vital concerns includinggender. Not too surprisingly. including gender ideologies? If we look at societies outside those of Europe and North America the answer is an unequivocal 'yes': ethnomusicologists routinely acknowledge and analyse the ways in which the musical practices of most cultures simultaneously reflect and reinforce gendered divisions of labour and codes of behaviour. where they may be studied today. respondingto what he regardedas God's commands.10 Admittedly.33 on Wed. and many recent studies of opera focus on the politics of gender representation. At a time when academic analysis threatensto make music appear inaccessible to all but the most highly trained specialists. for they often seek to validate the (formerly unmentionable) practice of listening for pleasure.have vanishedfrom culturalmemory? Withoutdwelling too long on ancient iniquities.dealing seriously with newly discovered repertories often entails having to reconsider standard criteria for assigning value.reamaking. rate in this recovery project. But just as feminist scholarship in other disciplines has gone beyond locating women in history to raise more fundamentalquestions.
pf (1926) far from obvious..instrumental as well as the many operas featuring the femme fatale ." ettuctive ii i 1% attractive Fanfar^e music.wo*Hensel 8 -. not all composers of the time found gendered polarities useful to their compositional strategies.. like the contemporaneous novel. all graceful..l Fanny-'. i-il. :# 12. Nor is genderitself the only focus: musicologists working from feminist perspectives may also addressmusical constructionsof pleasure or are suI "All performers ' Melinda Paulsen perb! ' i sings The beautifully..'1 Some have arguedthat such terms are but remnantsof a now-discreditedattemptat describingmusic in words. 01408 .. : ::::: :::.45.2203 GRE 518. horn for is writing . frequently has his opening theme stampits identity at the beginning of the second key area as well.:..1 4497 :.2203 Fax. Yet here too.7 (1887) String Quintetin E. as in opera. 518. y' 44d.presented these polarities as antagonistic. :.n l IPD A 5Ic ' DD PNIT Q TRO-CD 01403/2 CDs ChamberMusic Vol. sighing. some pieces .... recom: ....155. :. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . P" 'i SNEW." TRO-CD 01405 ChamberMusic and Songs Vol.. which are famous for their opening hammerstrokes. 'feminine' ones passive and lyrical.: i..111 Four Songs (1907) ThreeSongs (1913) Double Concertoin A vn.such characterisations and their attendant narrative schemata have long organised much of western culture.::. Moreover...::.g..but contend that the 'music itself' remains innocent.with the 'feminine' side made increasinglymonstrous... their music-dictionarydefinitions. they had alreadybeen flourishingquite intelligibly for decades.13 Over the course of the 1800s. the codes traditionally associated with 'masculinity' and 'femininity' both got appropriatedunto the male subject.453.A ". Mozart's instrumentalmusic can be heard as contributingto the projectof producingthe ideal self.. 12 As romantic ideologies increasingly emphasised the split between the aggressive public self and private subjectivity.Y AlbanyMusic INC. .:::::::::::::j:::::'::::: ::: .I and II 1.I Mendelssohn:. Even more than in opera.453t22Tii . Distributors. But again. For much of the 18th-century repertory. V "Genuinely q 5 i n i --our century. CD ViolinSonata in A minorop.. the actual meanings of such structures are :TDC:. Haydn.. while the other qualifies as an encounter along the way.. appoggiatura-laden second themes.453. 98 Wolf MusicDistributors. -: _ 01407 Nadia Boulanger "The artistice TRO-CD iTRuiineGiiiiiiiermaine i5:l: ii: G '..TRO-CD experiences!" '. these same sources inform us that the theme identified as 'masculine' turns out to determine the key and thus the form of the movement. as tensions and anxieties over gender erupted. In other words.. rockets and Mannheim steamrollers. op. TheMusical ' - 01404 ii TRO-COD il . Phou. TRO-CD 01406 Germaine . in gendered Although no one wrote explicitly aboutthese structures terms until 19th-centurytheorist...l (1883) 2. for instance. contrasted with sensitive. Yet these words. CD Cello Sonata in A minorop. The Harvard dictionary of music or Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart) often offer rationales for these labels: 'masculine' themes are active and assertive. mended toanyone Ii sympathetic tomusic of I.they concede thatthe vocabularymay be unfortunate. 7k w... the introductionof these kind of questions into the realm of instrumental genres opens up the repertoryto culturaldebate and the exchange of a wide range of readings.his contrastsdo not necessarily signal a man/womandichotomy:more frequently his lyrical passages seem to open on to some inner quality of sensitivity that was an especially valued component of males at his moment in history.":i^:' -..wholeheartedly . there is no single explanation:critics who agree that gendered coding appears in such pieces often differ radically in theirinterpretations of what they signify.:::' .220510-u June 1994 The Musical Times 367 This content downloaded from 146...a quite motiv interpretation.5 (1887) String Quartetin E minor(1902112) sensational ". i1 Phone: 518...33 on Wed...gendercoded contrastsseem to exist largely for the sake of eventualreconciliation: movements typically conclude by resolving differences in a kind of marriage. And althoughMozart often trafficksin active/passive contrasts. "i especially ofthat instruX lovers ment should grab i disc!" _i this Fanfare '"''' " Grazyna Bacewicz 'r. AB Marx. . hn... ': : :. Yorki i 12205 Alban Road. and the structuresthey articulate sound oddly familiar: as feminist critics of film and literaturehave demonstrated. Reference books (e.94. such constructions already appearin their paradigmaticform in the 18th-centurysymphonies of Johann Stamitz. 'feminine'. creating movements that trace the development of a multi-faceted but ultimately unified self. J ' B:'$ .. . despite the availability of such schemata. Moreover.. Indeed. The definition of 'genius' in the 19th century celebratedprecisely this laminationof 'masculine' strengthand rationalitywith 'feminine' depth of feeling.. Albany : Phone:518.N:ew INC. exciting .
For not even the greatest symphony can determine how it will be assessed or the kind of impact it will have on the world: its postcompositional life and (in some crucial sense) its meanings depend on the kinds of responses circulated about it in publicity blurbs. music studies have privileged the formal aspects of music. Far from proceeding from a position of cultural nihilism. newspaper reviews.'4 or the degree to which critics (including Schumann. feminist-based musicology tends to incorporate questions and even repertoriesusually absent from more standardscholarship. etc. however. place and aesthetic priorities . For instance. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .) pay women and to the conditions within which these women hed the genre that later gave rise to Delta blues. these new inquiries seek to reveal and even celebrate the power of music as it influences our most inwardperceptionsof ourselves. The mere fact of taking gender as a startingpoint opens all these repertories to the same questions and causes artificial categories such as 'high art' and 'popular culture' to seem less tenable. the narrativedimensions of instrumentalmusic. Bessie attention both to the particularsongs composed by i. and images of exoticism or arcadianserenity. Similarly. musicology is finding that ireatposed by such approachesis rathershort-lived. As we explore this public yet little-researchedterrain. but in to reveal the ways in which they too (no less than.155.19 And I regularly apply ame method of addressingboth social contexts and composichoices to works by Bach or Brahms . Suzanne Cusick's study of 17th-centuryopera composer FrancescaCaccini presents her as inextricably bound up with the court society of its time.33 on Wed. Bessie i or Francesca Caccini) articulatein their music some of the fundamental ideals of their historicalmoments. by Jan Vermeer by courtesy of the Trustees. we are begin- Yet the various repertoriesstudied also retain their specificity of time.20 in other disciplines that have learned to accommodate femiiewpoints in the last twenty years.94. London desire. urbanrhythm les and rock 'n' roll. in which women's contributionsprove more difficult to ignore.elements that often disappearwith the universalising agendas of autonomous criticism.ning to uncover. and thus reception histories (studies of critical responses.'5 dered considerations have influenced many of the major turning points in musical style. Thus scholars such as Daphne Duval Harrisonor Hazel blues who the y study queens of the 1920s (Ma Rainey. since researchersfrequently find it useful to compare beliefs about music across cultures.not so as to reduce somehow to the same level as these other musicians. The National Gallery. Hanslick. Feminist-orientedcritics strive to bridge the gap between austere structural descriptionsand affective an private responses by positing interpersonalterrainin which music operates as a cultural practice. require data concerning ranges of perceptions. For too long. say. uch inquiries. though she also argues that Caccini manipulatedthe convenof music-theatresubstantiallyin keeping with the tastes of her e patron and her own preferences.'6 Because such work emerges from the intersections of many disciplines. however. past and present) have become extremely important. 17 Reproduced ROLE MODEL 3: A YOUNG WOMAN SEATED AT A VIRGINAL. references to world musics abound. books devoted to feminist essays often include studies of contemporary popular music. the ways in which 19th-century audiences were encouraged to exalt [German]instrumental music above the 'effeminate' Italian and French genres that still involved words. George Grove and others) were obsessed about the relative virility of various or the extent to which gencomposers. programmeguides and textbooks.18 Similarly. that the lening of perspectives offered by these methods more than 368 The Musical Times June 1994 This content downloaded from 146. for instance.
See Jeffrey Kallberg. 1994). 16. 1988). liner notes to recording by Sequentia. gender.94. 1989). 'The blasphemy of talking politics during Bach year' in Richard Leppert and Susan McClary.19 (1993). Wayne Koestenbaum: The queen's throat: opera. 8. 1988). and Mitchell Morris: 'Reading as an opera queen'. 7. feminist-oriented musicologists are pointing forward to a summit in which women may participate as actively as men in the entire spectrum of musical activities. trans. ed. 11. pp. 1988).90-115.: Musicology and difference. ed. PrudentiaBarth. Tsou. Anne K.: Women and music in cross-cultural perspective (Urbana. 1992). ed. see Jane Bowers and Judith Tick. Suzanne Cusick: 'Of women.for adding longforgotten matriarchs to our roster of canonic patriarchs that feminist-based musicology now seeks to tell new histories. ed.65-78: and McClary 'Constructions of subjectivity in Schubert's music' in Philip Brett.155. 12 Jun 2013 17:55:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . And that is indeed cause for rejoicing. Ellen Dubois and Vicki Ruiz.: Women and music. even more glorious in her estimation. for instance. Karen Pendle. pp. See.33 on Wed. forthcoming). 'Sapphonics'. no. no. See. To be sure. Mellor: Romanticism and feminism (Bloomington. For a thoughtful investigation of these issues. edd.2 (1990).: Musicology and difference:gender and sexuality in music scholarship.: Womenmaking music: the western art tradition. Carolyn Abbate: 'Opera. If the purpose of history is not simply 'to set the record straight'. pp. Recall that Hildegard did not dwell on ancient glories in her 'Of Patriarchs and prophets'.: Queering the pitch: the new gay and lesbian musicology. For an extraordinary analysis of Hildegard's musical imagery. performance and reception (Cambridge. pp.: Reclaiming Cecilia. the following collections: Pendle.: Women making music. ed. see Ellen Koskoff. 1993). As a result.225-58.: Women and music: a history (Bloomington. From the Symphonia harmoniae caelestum revelationum ('Symphony of the harmony of heavenly revelations'). and 'Narrative agendas in "absolute" music: identity and difference in Brahms's Third Symphony' in Ruth Solie. See Julie Anne Sadie: 'Musiciennes of the Ancien Regime' in Bowers and Tick. Elizabeth Wood and Gary C. edd. edd. muses. no.326-44. 1994). and Jean-Jacques Nattiez: Wagner androgyne. dissertation. pp. pp. 4. see Bruce Holsinger: 'The flesh of the voice: embodiment and the homoerotics of devotion in the music of Hildegard von Bingen' in Signs no. second edition (New York. has also produced dozens of prominent women composers. See Ellen Rosand: 'The voice of Barbara Strozzi' in Bowers and Tick. M. See Christine Battersby.: Rediscovering the muses: women's musical traditions (Boston.39 (1992): pp. translation by Peter Dronke. for instance.: Queering the pitch.: International encyclopedia of women composers. Thomas. of course.: Musicology and difference: gender and sexuality in music scholarship (Berkeley and Los Angeles. for instance. ed. pp. 1993). 1800-1850 (PhD. Schubert: music. Susan C. See also Gillian Gaar:She's a rebel: the history of women in rock & roll (Seattle.238-49. 1986). women musicians in sixteenth-century Italy' in Bowers and Tick. et it is not only for the sake of the past . David Gramit.64-66.92-125. pp. in Solie. See Sanna Pedersen: Enlightened and romantic German music criticism. See a discussion of these issues in Susan McClary: Feminine endings: music. 1993). and cultural vala Victorian 'Constructing ues'. ed. James R. or musicians? Professional June 1994 The Mvusical Times 369 This content downloaded from 146. ed. Notes 1. For instance.184-200.27-66. 18. edd. and sexuality (Minneapolis. trans. 3. ImmaculataRitscher and Joseph Schmidt-G6rg (Salzburg. edd. But even more regrettable is the fact that the absence of women from concert programming and curricula has sent a strong signal to many talented young women that they need not apply for the position of 'composer'. and Brett et al. Betsy Wing (Minneapolis. pp. Aaron Cohen. 17. ed. And. 1987).13-63. Thomas. Catherine Clement: Opera. 19. in 19th-Century Music. however. (New York and London. and the mystery of desire (New York and London. For a few of the landmark studies in the history of women in music. Kimberly Marshall.: Musicology and difference: gender and sexuality in music scholarship (Berkeley and Los Angeles. the envoicing of women' in Ruth Solie. 5.281-304. 1992). pp. Gender and genius: toward a feminist aesthetics (London. Cook and Judy S. see Marcia J. Hazel Carby: ' "Itjus be's dat way sometime": the sexual politics of women's blues' in Unequal sisters: a multicultural reader in United States women's history. music. See McClary: 'Narratives of bourgeois subjectivity in Mozart's "Prague" Symphony' in Understanding narrative.102-33. Briscoe: Historical anthology of music by women (Bloomington. 1993). but rather traced a trajectory towards future events. the erasure of women such as Hildegard from our cultural memories has long deprived us of the richness of their music. in Ruth Solie. no. Stewart Spencer (Princeton. 1987). 20. 1150-1950 (Urbana and Chicago. See Susan McClary: Georges Bizet: Carmen (Cambridge. ed. pp. pp. 15. male and female alike. 1994). For more on empowering readings of standard opera by lesbian literary figures.or. and power: a model from seicento Florence'.: Music and society: the politics of composition. See Anthony Newcomb: 'Courtesans. 1987).269-94. edd.: Reclaiming Cecilia: feminist perspectives on gender and music (Urbana and Chicago. ed. edd Peter Rabinowitz and James Phelan (Columbus.: Women making music.46 (1993). 14. edd.compensates for their destabilising effects. pp.: Queering the pitch: the new gay and lesbian musicology (New York and London. 10. pp. 1991). pp. Ruth Solie.191-223.17 (1993). 9. edd. By telling stories that resemble the one sketched so vividly in 'Of Patriarchs and prophets'. but also to provide narratives of the past that enable both present moment and future.: Women making music.168-90. pp. 1993). the music by women brought to light by feminist-oriented musicologists has already begun to enhance the cultural experiences of us all. 1990). especially chapter I. 12. then feminist musicology has contributed far more than the addition of some unknown figures to a timeless canon. Cook and Tsou. 6. or the undoing of women. 13. biography. Elizabeth Wood and Gary C. edd. The same generation responsible for bringing feminist methods to musicology. 2. University of Pennsylvania. Score in Hildegard von Bingen: Lieder. See. ed. 1969). 'The harmony of the tea table: gender and ideology in the piano nocturne' in Representations. countless numbers of potential artists have over the centuries from venturing into been discouraged professional music-making. Citron: Gender and the musical canon (Cambridge. 1991). Symphoniae.. 1987). Lawrence Kramer: 'Culture and musical hermeneutics: the Salome complex' in Cambridge Opera Journal. For instance.205-33. in Philip Brett. see Suzanne Cusick: 'Gendering modern music: thoughts on the Monteverdi-Artusi controversy' in Journal of the American Musicological Society. Musicology and difference. 1993). Daphne Duval Harrison: Black pearls: blues queens of the 1920s (New Brunswick and London. homosexuality. Elizabeth Wood.1-25. ed.