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# LESSON 4 - Analysing refraction of waves

Refraction of waves Refraction of a wave occurs when the wave moves from one medium to another which causes to travel at different speed. The refraction occur when a water wave moves from deeper water to shallower water, a light wave moves from air to water , and a sound moves from air to carbon dioxide gas. When the refraction of a wave happened , the frequency, f does not change but the wavelength ,, the speed , v and the direction of propagation of the wave change. Refraction of water waves The refraction of water waves occur when the water waves move into different depth of water. Medium v f Shallow decrease decrease constant water Deep increase increase constant water If the waves meet the boundary between deep and shallow water at an angle , then the direction of the waves changes. The plane wavefronts will change to the curved wavefronts if the waves move into the curved boundary. To investigate the refraction of water waves a perspex plat is placed on the bottom of a ripple tank to make a shallow region of the water on the perspex plat. The following figure shows two examples pattern of the refraction of the water waves. (d) (a)

(b)

(c)

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## (e) Arrangement of the apparatus:

(f)

The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. The depth of water on a perspex is measured by using a metre rule = d The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves which propagate onto the perspex plate . The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope. The waves are sketched on the screen. The distance between 11 successive bright bands is measured by the metre rule = x The wavelength is calculated i.e. = x 10 The experiment is repeated 5 by increasing the number of perspex plate to change the depth the water. Tabulate the data: d Analysis the data: Plot the graph against d

The experiment to investigate the relationship between the depth of water and the wavelength of a water wave. Hypothesis: The depth of water increases as the wavelength of water waves increases. Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the depth of water and the wavelength of water waves. Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: depth of water Responding variable: wavelength Fixed variable: frequency List of apparatus and materials: Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply white paper , protractor ,plane reflector , perspex plate , metre rule and mechanical stroboscope.

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## Refraction of water wave of the sea water

When a light wave travels from optically denser medium to optically less dense medium , the ray is bent away from the normal. After entering the less dense medium the speed of light increases.

When the water waves propagated from the sea to the beach , the water waves follow the shape of the beach. It is because the water waves propagate from the deep water to the shallow water. The speed and wavelength decrease as the waves approach the beach and hence the water wave is refracted towards the normal. The water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape. It is because the depth of water varies slowly across the area of the bay and the energy of the water wave spreads to a wider area compared to the region near the cape. The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay is comparatively still. Refraction of light waves Refraction of light waves is a phenomenon where the direction and speed of light are changed ( change in velocity) when it crosses the boundary between two materials of different optical densities When a light waves travels from optically less dense medium to optically denser medium , the ray is bent towards the normal. After entering the denser medium the speed of light decreases.

Experiment to investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. Hypothesis: The angle of refraction increases as the angle of incidence increases. Aim of the experiment : To investigate the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction. Variables in the experiment: Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence Responding variable: Angle of refraction Fixed variable: Refractive index List of apparatus and materials: Glass block, ray box, white paper , protractor, power supply . Arrangement of the apparatus:

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The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. The glass block is placed on a white paper. The outline of the sides of the glass block are traced on the white paper and labeled as ABCD. The glass block is removed. The normal ON is drawn. By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured = i The glass block is replaced again on its outline on the paper. A ray of light from the ray box is directed along incidence line. The ray emerging from the side CD is drawn as line PQ. The glass block is removed again. The point O and P is joined and is drawn as line OP. The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of incidence. Tabulate the data: i r Analysis the data: Plot the graph r against i

It is because a balloon of carbon dioxide( denser than air) acts like a convex lens ,focusing the sound wave. Effects of refraction of a sound wave at night

Distant sounds often appear louder and clearer at night. At night the air near the ground is often cooler than the air higher up, because it is close to the cold ground. The sound waves travel faster through the warmer , less dense layers of air , and this refracts the sound wave back toward the ground.

Refraction of sound waves Refraction of sound waves occurs when the sound passes through layers of air at different densities or temperatures. Sound waves can be refracted by a balloon filled with carbon dioxide.

When the stopwatch is started , the listener can detects at a point only beyond the balloon where the sound wave is strongest.

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TUTORIAL 4
1 Which figure shows water waves travelling on the surface of the water in a ripple tank? 3 The figure shows a water waves in a ripple tank with a sloping base.

## Which of the following physical quantity increases? A B C 4 speed amplitude frequency

The figure shows a plane water waves pass from deep water into shallow water.

When water waves pass from deep water into shallow water, how do the speed, wavelength and frequency change? A B C D Speed Increases Decreases Increases Decreases Wavelength Decreases Increases Increases Decreases Frequency No change Decreases No change No change

Which of the following is true? A B C D The direction of the wave propagation unchanged The frequency of the waves unchanged The wavelength of the waves increases The speed of the waves increases

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## The figure shows water waves travel from region P to region Q.

The figure shows a stone is thrown by a boy in a pond with a sloping base.

## Which of the following is true?

Which of the following figure shows the pattern of water waves after the stone is thrown?

A B C D 6

The density of water in P greater than in Q The depth of water in P greater than in Q The speed of water waves in Q greater than in P The amplitude of water waves in Q greater than in P

The figure shows a plane wave are made in a ripple tank with a sloping base to make the depth of water at X and Y is different.

Which of the following shows the pattern of the wave when it reaches at P?

## Which of the following phenomenon involved? A C reflection diffraction B D refraction interference

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A set straight water ripples in a ripple tank travels over a thick, triangular perspex sheet. Which figure shows the wave pattern?

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When the water waves propagated from the sea to the beach , the water waves follow the shape of the beach. The phenomenon involved is A C reflection diffraction B D refraction interference

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A ray of light passes from water to air. Which labeled arrow shows the direction of the ray in air?

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The figure shows water waves pass from deep water into shallow water. The distance PQ = 5 cm , RS = 3 cm and the speed of the water waves in deep water is 4 cm s-1 .

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An observer cannot see the coin in an empty glass as shown in Figure(a). However , he can see the coin when the glass is filled with water as shown in Figure(b).

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Figure (a)

Figure (b)

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## The observer can see the coin in Figure (b) due to

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A B C D 14

the total internal reflection of light the refraction of light the reflection of light the diffraction of light

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## The figure shows a phenomenon shows by sound waves.

A light ray travels from medium P to medium Q. Which of the following diagrams correctly shows the path of the light ? [ Medium P denser medium and Medium Q less dense ]

## What is phenomenon involved? A C 18 Diffraction Refraction B D Interference Reflection

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The sound of a moving train at a distant is clearer at night than that in the day time. This is due to the effects of the ________________ of sound waves. A C Reflection Interference B D Refraction Diffraction

Which one of the following is true regarding the refraction of the sound waves? A B C D When watching a hockey game , we often hear the stick hitting the ball after w actually see the hit Clicking sound is heard clearly when two rocks is clicked together under water A pilot wears noise- canceling earphones to reduce the noise effects. At night sound can be heard over considerably longer distances

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Which of the following figure shows the refraction of the sound waves at night?

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The figure shows successive wavefronts of waves travelling on the surface of water a ripple tank. A perspex plat is placed on the bottom of a ripple tank .

Figure 2 shows a water waves propagated from the sea to the beach.

Figure 1

Figure 2

(a) Based on Figure 1 and Figure 2 (i) state the change in wavelength of the water waves from A to B. .. (a) By drawing a straight line on the figure above mark the boundary of the perspex plat. (b) (i) Determine the wavelength of the waves before travels over the perspex plat. Calculate the frequency of the waves before travels over the perspex plat when the velocity is 40 cms-1. .. (ii) compare the depth of water between A and B. ... .. (iii) name a physical quantity is unchanged . .. (b) Relate your answer in (a)(i) and (a)(ii) to deduce a wave phenomenon. (c) Name the phenomenon in (b) ..

(ii)

(iii) Determine the velocity of the waves travels over the perspex plat. (c) Explain why the water waves propagated from the sea to the beach , the water waves follow the shape of the beach. 20 Figure 1 shows a water waves in a ripple tank travels over a perspex plat.
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(e) The water waves with a wavelength of 1.5 m travels with velocity 2.0 ms-1 from the

sea to the beach. The velocity of the waves when reach near the beach is 1.2 ms-1 . Calculate , (i) the frequency of the waves

## ] (ii) the wavelength of the waves near the beach

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The figure below shows water waves propagated from the sea towards the shore.

Observed the wave pattern and the sea-bed. Based on the observations: (a) State one suitable inference that can be made. (b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an investigation. (c) With the use of apparatus such as ripple tank and other apparatus, describe an experimental framework to test your hypothesis. In your description, state clearly the following: (i) Aim of the experiment (ii) Variables in the experiment (iii) List of apparatus and materials (iv) Arrangement of the apparatus (v) The procedure of the experiment which include the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable (vi) Way you would tabulate the data (vii) Way you would analysis the data

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