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It is amazing how, by just reading a very simple four-lined poem one can free oneself from the ropes of reason and plunge into the spirit of an age. And it is especially with Romanticism that imagination and subjectivity take the lead and transport us to a world where the concepts of innocence, experience, emotion, religion, nature, love and time start to be seen under a different light, a romantic shade which reflects the values, beliefs and opinions of one of the most turbulent eras in history. As the French writer Charles Nodier summed up in his artist’s plight in 1820: “Romantic poetry springs from our agony and despair; this is not a fault in our art, but a necessary consequence of the advances made in our progressive society”. Through the development of this paper, I will try to study under a romantic light the works of one of the first representatives of the Romantic Movement in England: William Blake. The words Innocence, Revolution, Irony, and Justice will be of transcendental importance in analysing the creations of this poet, engraver, painter and musician as a product of the 18 th Century England. In order to understand Blake’s work as a reflection of and, at the same time, reaction to his own times, we must first shed some light on the characteristics of the political, social and artistic life of the Romantic England. Only after studying the characteristics of this era of revolution we will be able to unveil the underlying meanings present in most of Blake’s works,
the word “romance” denoted the new vernacular languages derived from Latin. as the German poet Novalis held: 3 . rediscover and re assert itself. Back then. namely the Enlightment of the late 17 th and 18th centuries with its espousal of reason as the key to all understanding. romantic. not only in literature but also in painting and music. subjective experience of reality. with its strong emphasis on civilised good order. The birth of the word “Romanticism” can be traced back to the Middle Ages. This indeed is the spirit of Romanticism: it must constantly re invent. The literary critic Margaret Drabble describes the Romantic essence as: “the emphasis on emotion. such as exaggerated. His brother August implied that romantic literature is in contrast to that of classicism. A roman or romant came to be known as an imaginative work and a “courtly romance”. I will try to trace it from its very origins. gentle. In order to grasp the essence of this era. In France a distinction was made between the terms romanesque (which acquired derogative connotations. bizarre.and we will understand how the poet’s words: “The times require that one should speak out boldly” 1 carry in themselves the essence of Romanticism. He described the romantic as “that which depicts emotional matter in an imaginative form”. sentimental and sad). Romanticism was mostly associated with its radical opposition to classicism. 2 From the beginning of the 18 th Century. The introduction of this term in the literary contexts of those times came with the German philosopher Friedrich Schlegel.”3 The idea that Romanticism stood in opposition to the order and formal symmetry of what was called the Classical. is present in many works of those times. and by doing so it gets in contact with an independent. thus describing one of its most outstanding characteristics. in these latter senses as from the 18th Century. or Neo Classical. and it is with the presence of these characteristics that we can establish the setting in motion of the literary Romantic Movement in Europe. individuality and a certain sense of opposition to what had gone before. It was used in the English form. chimerical) and romantique (which meant tender. Quite early in the 18th C. one can discern an air of sensibility and feeling. particular in relation to the natural order and Nature. imagination.
just at a period when the forces of civilisation. and see it as part of the great endeavour to overcome the split between subject and object.“The world must be romanticised. The form and meaning of the subjective experience often aspired to a spiritual. It is a closely coherent body of though and feeling” 5 The importance of feeling and emotion over reason can be clearly felt in Baudelaire’s words: “Romanticism is precisely situated neither in choice of subject. nor in exact truth. This constant seeking of innocence. tinted the Romantic Movement with a sense of revolutionary change that the artists of that time didn’t hesitate to acquire. myth and organic nature. this subjective and quasi mystical experience took place in natural environments. poets and painters of this era were in favour of radical. Germany and France. symbol. or even revolutionary change. Politically. and its subsequent rejection to all forms of social control. were posing a great danger to the English natural surroundings. Together with this admiration for Nature. quasi mystical significance which was later expressed in the highly symbolic and religious language characteristic of the Romantic Movement. the self and the world. Romantic artists also praised and focused their reflections on the state of innocence in human beings. To romanticize is nothing other than an exponential heightening”4 This constant seeking to dismantle the traditional conventions can be thought of as a consequence of the artist’s frustrations by the limitations of the Enlightment ideals to place reason over emotion. so much so that veneration of Nature was akin to a religious experience. mature society. Romantic artists valued the concept of subjectivity highly. the conscious and the unconscious. “They all (Romantic Poets) see the implication of imagination. posing a real or sometimes perceived threat to established religion and its values. but in a way of feeling”. So its original meaning will again be found. This is the central creed of the great Romantic poets in England. with industrialization and urbanization. so much 4 . valuing the senses of wonder and alienation from the evils of experienced. where the poet or painter could establish an intimate connection with his or her soul. As a result. Generally.
which became a central theme of Romantic art and political philosophy. Western Europe experienced political and social revolutions the like and the speed of which had never previously been experienced. was seen by many as sharply dividing the past from a new type of future. the rise of Napoleon. For the Romantics this early optimism turned to disappointment and disillusion when realising that the results of a revolution which sacrificed its people for the cause of freedom was. the centre of political power. a new conception of reality. Therefore. towards far more democratic notions of politics. for they lived in an 5 . poets became active in political activities that had no poetic precedence. in a way. radicalism and subsequently. This idea of the democratic power held by poets in Romantic times was later developed by Marilyn Gaull in her book English Romanticism and the Human Context: “When Homer sang of national wars. revolution and armed struggle for independence also became popular themes in the arts of this period.so that patriotism. repeating the past and enslaving the minds to a certain kind of thought. It implied a new way of looking at history. In the field of politics the romantics were intensely active in both thought and deed. Overshadowing all other events was the cataclysmic influence of the French Revolution of 1789 which “sharpened the historical sense in a way that no other event had ever done ”6: The impact of the Revolution. nationalism. For some this was a terrifying prospect. By 1821 the Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was able to claim in his A defence of poetry that poets revealed “less their spirit than the spirit of the age” and “are the unacknowledged legislators of the world” 7. disappointment. or Shakespeare dramatised the chronicles of kings. or Chaucer performed at court. politics and poetry shared the same frame of reference: the activities and interests of the aristocracy. From the beginning of the 18th Century onwards. Romantic attitudes closely accompanied revolution. One of the Romanticism's key ideas and most enduring legacies is the assertion of nationalism. for others it was greeted optimistically. the Terror. The focus changed away from the concerns of royalty and the aristocracy as somehow embodying the affairs of state. But during the romantic period.
is a collective activity strongly conditioned by social forces. the arts reflected the tensions. like all arts. The Romantic period was characterised by intense spiritual confusion and seeking. 6 . Blake. the Romantic period saw both economic expansion and hardship through the development of Capitalism.age of democratic revolution.” 10 As a result of its turbulent characteristics. implicitly acknowledged the horror of slavery in his poem “The Little Black Boy”: “…And we are put on earth a little space. a quickening pace of social change. Accompanying these changes was a dramatic expansion of economic markets into continents outside Europe as a consequence of a growth of imperialism and the exploitation of these areas as a source of raw materials for the Industrial Revolution. conflicts and signs of transition which characterised these turbulent times. As Marilyn Butler puts it: “ Though writers are gifted with tongues to articulate the Spirit of the Age. but less dramatic contextual factors were also at work during this period. values. therefore. That we may learn to bear the beams of love. effecting profound and lasting social and economic changes along Western Europe. like language. an expansion on trade and industry. During this period. they are also moulded by the age . Western Europe witnessed a growth in its population. so that the idea conveyed in the phrase “Industrial Revolution” is as important as the political change resulting from it. And these black bodies and this sun-burnt face Is but a cloud. and like a shady grove…” 9 Since culture serves as a mirror of society. Literature. Crucially. The growth of rationalism and empiricism during the Enlightment had doubtless led to a devaluation of religious experience in any immediate sense. We should not forget that authors are. tastes are socially generated. and identified with the people” 8 War and revolution can be especially dramatic examples of historical change. first of all citizens. engaged in political dissent. what needs to be said or what is allowed to say in a particular community at a specific time. for example. and that within any community opinions. The darkest side of this imperialist venture was the slave trade and here Romantics played a significant part in leading opposition to slavery.
Romantic literature was frequently intimately confessional. in the creative process of engraving which he himself applied to each of the poems in this collection. exists and exults in immortal thoughts”12 it is appropriate that he used each of these sister arts to express his artistic vision and in this way. General knowledge is remote knowledge. then would he meet the Lord in the air and then would he be happy. with his wife sitting at his side. his work Songs of Innocence and Experience gathers the three veins of art in itself: music. derives its name from “lyre”. he employed his time.” 11 One of the characteristics of Blake’s work that makes it so interesting and in a way. together with the rhythm and cadence. if he could make a friend and companion of these images of wonder… then would he arise from his grave. intense. As Blake saw art as a whole. encouraging him in all his undertakings. the stringed instrument used by ancient poets in the performance of their odes. and the music to which the verse was to be sung. and composing music. he meditated the song which was to accompany it. he would have probably known that lyric poetry. as well as poetry and music. emphasising the uniqueness of individual experience through the use of the imagination. present in the form of his work. was the offspring too of the same moment. it is in particulars that wisdom consists and happiness too. In this way. engraving plates. The first fruits of this process were the “Songs of Innocence and Experience” 13 7 . As he drew the figure. Since Blake believed that “ Painting. the poetry of powerful emotion and personal introspection so privileged and fostered by the Romantics. is its use of diverse media. writing songs.Romanticism challenged this conventional stability through the restoration of spiritual experience to the centre of human concerns. enabling spiritual insight into ultimate truth: “If the spectator could enter into these images in his imagination. The key word here is imagination. which for writers such as Blake and Coleridge meant the visionary faculty. “In sketching designs. making his creations so especial. with it powerful intention to foster introspection and reflection and painting. poetry.
embedded in official Christianity. Friedrich Schiller: “For. to declare it once and for all. However. The Songs are both for and about children. reflecting Blake’s own feelings and thoughts as regards the treatment of children in the Romantic England. underfed children were unlikely to survive into adulthood. Hold infinity in the palm of your hand And eternity in an hour. in the full meaning of the word. Under these circumstances parents didn’t make too great an emotional investment in their children. and talk about what Blake saw as the liberating imaginative power and truthfulness of the state of innocence: To see a world in a grain of sand And a heaven in a wild flower. served to justify a negative view of childhood: experience was valued above innocence in alleviating the effects of sinfulness. if seen as separate from maturity at all. Man plays only when he is. What is more. Coupled with economic hardship was a high infant mortality rate. Man. 14 The concept of childhood innocence is going to be one of the most important themes across the poems. As we can see from the words of German Philosopher. Traditionally. for the Romantics a new vision of innocence gained ground. was viewed simply as a means to an end: a preparation for adulthood during which corrective measures were often taken with the purpose of installing the proper behaviour in the juvenile minds. in which the sense of wonder in childhood was valued as being similar to the sense of purity and newness essential to imaginative creativity at any age.As Blake understood the song as a social medium having the power to move listeners to thoughtful critical reflection. indeed the two were often linked: overworked. childhood. and is only wholly Man. This work presents two groups of poems divided into the titles of Innocence and Experience. when at play.” 15 8 . the theological doctrine of original sin. he engaged himself in the writing of one of the most critical pieces of poetry produced during the Romantic times: “ Songs of Innocence and Experience: Showing the Two Contrary States of the Human Soul”.
As we read his works. Blake seems to characterise himself. body and spirit. as a piper. In the poem. led and inspired by the winged infant above him. innocence and experience good and evil. human and non human. seeing everything as composed of warring opposites: head and heart. The subtitle of Songs from Innocence and Experience is “Showing the two Contrary States of the Human Soul ”. heaven and hell. life and death. The spirit of Romanticism placed the notion of childhood innocence at its very centre. Thus. 16 In Romantic times dualism had taken the Christian churches into the spiritually sterile preoccupation with sin. And nowhere is this more apparent than in the work of Blake. by describing at the outset innocence and experience as “contrary states of the human soul” Blake seems to be warning us that we are not being invited to choose between them. One of the first examples is the introduction: The illustration on the cover depicts a shepherd with his pipe. The churches seemed to be for Blake the worst enemies of any true religion. the creative poet. as though the split between the hemispheres of the human brain were projecting itself on everything perceived by that brain. one of the first and fullest expressions of a Romantic position on childhood innocence. and that we are not simply going to be offered here the truism that innocent joy is preferable to the sorrows of experience. Several of the apparently carefree poems are deceptive when looked at more closely. we find ourselves engaged in a process of mental fight. defined in obsessively sexual terms. then a singer and finally as a writer: 9 . male and female. the tradition of celebrating the visions of childhood had become diluted. there are many poems from the Innocence section which he cannot keep out of the shadow of experience. In the introduction he wrote that this piece of art was devised “ To liberate adult consciousness through a recovery of the key characteristics of innocence ”. the Blakean Ideal of critical exchange according to which “Opposition is true Friendship” 17 As a result of this impossibility of separating the two opposite sides. The word Contrary has a specific and important meaning in Blake: For two thousand years Western thought had been intensely dualistic.By the time William Blake published his Songs of Innocence.
seeking to capture the fleeting moment of imaginative vision. However. the poet corrupts it through its inability to prevent the shadow of his own experience falling over the scene. There is throughout the poem a pervading sense of optimism.Piping down the valleys wild Piping songs of pleasant glee On a cloud I saw a child And he laughing said to me Pipe a song about a lamb So I piped with merry cheer Piper pipe that song again So I piped. as an antithesis to those of Blake. echo the thoughts and ideas of another exponent of the Romantic thought: the Swiss philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau 18. Blake’s attention to children and his preoccupation with the transition from the world of innocence into the mature world. He developed his thoughts 10 . harmonious resolution of any conflict. In the very act of celebrating childish innocence. In many respects. he wept to hear Drop they pipe thy happy pipe Sing thy songs of happy cheer So I sung the same again While he wept with joy to hear Piper sit thee down and write In a book that all may read So he vanished from my sight And I plucked a hollow reed And I made a rural pen And I stained the water clear And I wrote my happy songs Every child may joy to hear This introductory poem can be read as a sort of manifesto of the role of the Romantic poet: aiming at writing inspired by and intended to refresh the spirit of innocence. These words introduce the idea of sin and corruption. in a way. Rousseau’s ideas can be seen. a subtle reading of these introductory lines may create a sense of doubt in the reader: the rural pen “stained the water clear” perhaps suggesting the corruption of the purity of the original moment.
However. deeper than these abuses seems to be the imposition by 11 . exploitative world becomes more marked when the Songs of Innocence are compared with their counterpart Songs of Experience. and often died there. darkness and prison are the images Blake chooses to describe the state of the soul once fallen into the world of experience. Only a society which has lost its humanity under the veil of reason could have perpetrated the evils of Blake’s times. as shared by Blake and Rousseau and deriving from ideas on the fundamental innocence of humanity. democratic position.through philosophical prose. In his work Du Contract Social (The Social Contract) he proposed to establish a radical political. seeing childhood development as continually replaying the change from nature to civilisation. it is important to bear in mind the balanced. Sleep. when considering the social context of Romanticism. reason uninformed by other human faculties and therefore a form of blindness. Nevertheless. By “single vision” he meant vision which denies the contraries by insisting on the primacy of fact and reason. Ambivalence about the nature of innocence in a context of a harsh. He opens his book with the famous words: “Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains” Essentially. He calls this state “single vision and Newton’s sleep”. reducing everything to the mechanical and material. he was deeply concerned with the exploitation and persecution of children who. he concentrated his efforts on education.19 Above all. in the context of the development of the 18 th century thought. This seemed to Blake to have happened to the very soul of England and Western Society with the so called “Enlightment” of the seventeenth century and the rising of mechanistic science. the two may be seen as complementary figures: Rousseau analysed the ills of contemporary society as stemming from a divorce between civilization and the original. Consequently. As we said before. Rousseau emphasised the importance of careful social planning. essentially civilised nature of such a conception of society. innocent state of nature – a state he saw as fundamentally benign. whereas Blake did so in imaginative verse. were later condemned to slavery in the mills. natural values as a way of holding civilisation. while never losing sight of the fundamental. Rousseau saw the need to exchange something of the freedom of original innocence for a harmonious social contract. generally. while Blake praised intuition above all things.
representatives of experience. is in fact a tribute to decay and death. The song’s accompanying illustration depicts the process of social conditioning whereby this state of affairs is brought about: doctrinal text in hand. during the course of which the speaker or singer’s “natural” sensual impulses become subject to censorship and prohibition. “priests in black gowns”. religious orthodoxy. but the tombstone and open grave toward which the three kneeling figures bend suggests that the pious act. Erecting “tomb-stones where flowers should be” in short. Blake saw the concept of sin as a trap to bind men’s desires. and believed that obedience to a moral code imposed from the outside was against the spirit of life. Nowhere in Songs of Experience is this idea best expressed as in “ The Garden of Love”20. replaces the child’s world of “carefree play” with a world of sorrow and subjugation. This poem tells the story of an unfortunate fall from Innocence into Experience. lead youthful maidens in an apparently pious act of prayer. nurses and caretakers) of the false inauthentic values of a society living in bad faith. far from being life-affirming. according to Blake’s view.society on the young (beginning with parents. 12 .
to recognise the all-pervading symptoms of single vision as such. the stages to free oneself from this “single vision” imposed by the forces mature society that Blake so fervently condemns are: “First. by the damming of their natural channels. which. and the difficulty of coping with the contraries when they are at their most mutually exclusive. What is more. mature. It is the divinity of fully realised humanity. there is a kind of forgetting of the sense of atonement. These lines are not intended to expound systematic thought. but a very different. as the inscription that the door of the chapel reads. According to the literary critic Keith Sagar. symbolises the restriction in people’s free will imposed by religion. However. the child and God. Among the other poems present in this collection.“And Thou shalt not”. have been forced into destructiveness. Second. his need to confront and acknowledge the contrary of the lamb. Blake devotes one poem called “The lamb” 22 from the innocence section to celebrate the perfect innocent figure of the lamb. and undertake the psychic journey out of its dark prison. not fragmented. but to convey Blake’s sense of awe. What is lost when people lose their innocence is not any kind of “prior wisdom”. “mild” and “tender” are equally applied to the lamb. to release the energies. but liberty. to recover innocence. at-one-ment: the sense of being at home in the world. for their original creative purposes. made Blake dive into darker waters and the result was “The Tyger” 23. we find interesting reflections on the nature of life and God’s creations. adult. Adjectives such as “meek”. in a way that would be difficult to be himself again. that moment when there is no clear distinction between waking and dreaming: the poet feels that priests had bound “with briars his joys and desires”.” 21 It is precisely this “fully realised humanity” what Blake seeks to convey in the act of creating such a piece of art as Songs of Innocence and Experience. which is simply how we see when our vision is whole. how we function when all our subtle senses are fully operational. and is in the interrogative mood throughout. And finally to acquire the new vision which becomes available to man when he has thrown off the “mind forg’d manacles”. Third. together with the simplicity and blind confidence of a child in his Christian faith. strong innocence possible only on the far side of experience. liberty to be oneself and fulfil one’s desire. The questions are all variants of the same question: what god do we have to imagine capable of conceiving of a 13 . (…) Fourfold vision is imagination. The poem has eleven question marks.
a chaos. the tiger) in perfect symmetry. sensuous in texture. The tiger’s symmetry is simultaneously fearful and incredibly beautiful. Its light incarnate energy. a sacrilege. In this way. disease. the lamb) and hell (darkness. but the healing of this dualistic split in the human psyche requires nothing less than a marriage of heaven (light. we can see how. The poem entitled “The Sick Rose” presents the reader with a highly symbolic imagery: The rose is an archetypal symbol. incurved. It is a creature of the forests of the night where sunshine never penetrates. grasping the fire. but for “a fluid synthesis of aggression and grace and a full acceptance of the lifeimpulse beyond moral judgement” 22 Having sailed through the turbulent waters of Blake’s poetry. rich in colour. and is spontaneously recognised as doing so even by those who do not know what a symbol is. in a way reflects the state of events in England as seen through the poet’s eyes. but strike us as a violation of them. which means that it has been seized on by all cultures which have known roses as symbolising very much the same range of human experience. forging it. heady in perfume. leaving a void. but also his optimistic endeavour to open the eyes of his readers towards a new kind of social consciousness.tiger. we come to our last poem which. where the more fiery human passions.25 14 . To Blake nothing natural is evil. such as desire. beautiful. the tiger by no means stands for mere hostility. corruption are not only contrary to all the primary meanings of “rose”. The deadly dualism which still causes us to divide the divine creation into the acceptable (cuddly lambs) and the unacceptable (fierce tigers) applies equally to the sphere of morality. for Blake. The two words cancel each other out. yet it burns brightly with a fierce flame. are rejected and degraded as sins. We are all aware of the rose as a queen of flowers. enfolding erotic promise. The last adjective we anticipate is “sick”. and having tasted not only his anger and disillusion towards the society of his own times. clasping the deadly terrors necessary in the actual creation of it? What sort of god would even want to create tigers? Certainly not the loving gentle god of the Christian Tradition. Sickness.
by brainwashing young minds. Conclusion 15 . imposing ideals and norms which do nothing but restrict the freedom of the English people. It is invisible because it deals with ideas and values in a subtle way. and all life includes a death component. In “The Sick Rose” he could come to terms with the opposition and make it one entity: the poem suggests that all beauty is susceptible to destruction. which are being perpetrated by her society. It can be read as a reminder that there is a good and evil side to all things . which is “sick” from the excesses.26 However. we can also read the rose as the traditional symbol of England as a country. we find in this poem the dualism Blake has portrayed throughout Songs from Innocence and Experience. as he considers the plague which is extending throughout Western Europe has a strongly ideological component. as a monarchy.love can be both joyful and painful. Interestingly. Blake’s adjective for the worm is “invisible”. represented as “the invisible worm”.
Blake’s poetry and paintings reflect his subjectivity and his strength in defending what he thought as one of the most important human values: freedom.In a time of profound and widespread social and political upheaval. it is both defensive and aggressive. ethical. He spent his artistic life seeking to create “ a compensating revolution in hearts and minds. usually questioning established views. but perhaps the nearest we can get to a common factor is a sense of creative expression shared by so many romantics across a wide range of genres and styles. creating a style of their own. Blake stands as a consequence of the failure of these events to provide a sense of comfort among society. in social or national crisis and in individual trauma. and to the human mind and soul of his readers he devoted his work. “ For Blake. extremes of feeling verging on the insanity. psychological and political explorations. William 1757-1827. child-like sensibilities. Poetry is one of the branches of art through which these revolutionary artists could vent up their feelings and ideals.Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphia 1939 4to. If Romanticism was born in opposition and sorrow. His words “ I must create a system or be enslaved by another man's” show the deep commitment he had towards art and its effect on society. This is the mood we find across his creations: his works generally show signs of deep emotional impact. together with a sense of individuality often emphasised together with spiritual. an alternative empire of the imagination ”27 Notes 1. A Descriptive Catalogue of an exhibition of the works of William Blake in 1809 .Blake. As the critic Marilyn Butler holds. Blake found the source of inspiration not in the outside world but in the human mind itself. the influence of the Romantics was often considerable. writing is doing. it is as effective as war in the service of national strength ”. qualities such as innocence and wonder. Their involvement could take many forms. 16 .
edu/~ssiyer/minstrels/poems/368.Cunningham. English Romanticism .Stevens.Stevens.Stevens. Kevin. Reading Blake. Op. The Little Black Boy.Gaull. 12. Auguries of Innocence. Downloaded from: http://www. Cit. David. 11. Kevin.rice.ron. Introduction.The Human Context.Blake. Op Cit. (Novalis was the pseudonym of Georg Philipp Friedrich Freiherr von Hardenberg. 16. Rebels and Reactionaries. English literature and its background 1760-1830. Marilyn. England. 3. 2004.Schiller. W W Norton and Company. Oxford University Press. 6.Shelley Byshe Percy. Cambridge. David. Downloaded on 10/02/2008.) 10. a German poet. Downloaded on 10/02/2008.html.cs.com/27/23. William in Hutchings. Downloaded from: Romanticism on the net www. (In Stevens David. David. (Honour. 1991) 7.2.html. 14Blake. Romanticism. Marilyn. 17 . February 25th. Oxford. Marilyn. Op Cit. Op Cit. Allan in Hutchings.Blake. David.Blake. Op Cit. William. 2008 8. 1999. 1981. David. Downloaded on February 25th. 9.umontreal. Op. 4.My ideas in these paragraphs are taken from the Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Friedrich in Stevens. Stevens.Keith Sagar 2002. Hugh in Romanticism. Cambridge University Press. William. Romanticism on the net: www. 1988. William Blake and the music of the songs .ca. Cit.Butler. William in Romanticism.ron.umontreal.. Romantics. Penguin Reference Books.bartleby. 2008 15.Butler. Op Cit. Downloaded from: http://www.ca. New York. author and philosopher of the early German Romanticism) 5. A defense of poetry. 13.
www. David. Where I used to play on the green And the gates of this Chapel were shut And Thou shalt not.ca Downloaded on 18 . Penguin Books. 19.Blake. John.Keith Sagar 2002. Wordsworth. Downloaded from: Romanticism on the net www. The Garden Of Love.Saklofske.umontreal.The ideas in this paragraph are based on Stevens. Gave thee clothing of delight.umontreal. Writ over the door So I turn’d to the Garden of Love That so many sweet flowers bore And I saw it was filled with graves And tomb-stones where flowers should be And Priests in black gowns.17. Little lamb who made thee Dost thou know who made thee Gave thee life and bid thee feed By the stream and o’er the mead. “The Tyger” Downloaded from: Romanticism on the net 10/02/2008. Jean Jacques. He was a philosopher whose political philosophy influenced the French Revolution and the growth of rationalism.ron. William. William. Jonathan and Jessica. wee walking their rounds And binding with briars. 20.Rousseau.ron. 2001. Op Cit. I went to the Garden of Love And saw what I never had seen A chapel was built in the midst. 22. Op Cit. Wordsworth. Conscripting Imagination: The National “Duty” of William Blake’s Art . my joys and desires 21.Blake. The Penguin Book of Romantic Poetry. London.ca Downloaded on 10/02/2008. Reading Blake: “The Clod and the Pebble”. Jonathan and Jessica. “The Sick Rose”. 18. Softest clothing wooly bright. The Lamb.
Jonathan and Jessica. Dare its deadly terrors clasp! When the stars threw down their spears 19 . Could frame thy fearful symmetry? In what distant deeps or skies Burnt the fire of thine eyes? On what wings dare he aspire? What the hand. Could twist the sinews of thy heart? And when they heart began to beat. tyger. Little lamb God bless thee.Gave thee such a tender voice Making all the vales rejoice! Little lamb who made thee Dost thou know who made thee Little lamb I tell thee. In what furnace was thy brain? What the anvil? What dread grasp. In the forests of the night. I a child and thou a lamb We are called by his name Little lamb God bless thee. Wordsworth. dare seize the fire? And what shoulder. 23.Blake. For he calls himself a lamb. burning bright. What dread hand? And what dread feet? What the hammer? What the chain. Tyger. The Tyger. Little lamb I tell thee! He is called by thy name. William. Op Cit. He is meek and he is mild He became a little child. and what art. What immortal hand or eye.
Notes to the Illustrations: Page 1 .org/wiki/ February 10th. David Op Cit.Keith Sagar. “The Sick Rose”.rjgeib. 10th. 2008 Page 10 – Blake. (Claudio Naranjo is a Chilean-born anthropologist and psychiatrist who is noted for his inter-disciplinary work with mind-altering substances as well as the Enneagram of Personality and Gestalt psychotherapy) 25. Jonathan and Jessica. “The Tyger”. David in Stevens. W. The Garden of Love. Wordsworth.Blake. February 10th. William. Reading Blake: “The Clod and the Pebble”. Introduction to Songs of Innocence and Experience.Naranjo.And water’d heaven with their tears: Did he smile his work to see? Did he who made the lamb make thee? Tyger tyger burning bright.Brown. Turner.wikipedia.com/thoughts/garden/garden. 2008 Page 12 – Blake William. 27. Downloaded from: http://en. Op Cit. 2008 Page 2 – The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (1839) J. Downloaded from: http://en. M. 2008 20 . Claudio in Keith Sagar 2002. Downloaded from: www. The Sick Rose. Songs of Innocence and Experience . February. Op Cit.edu/homepage/dbanach/soi.org/wiki/Image:The_Bard.wikipedia.jpg. William. 26.jpg.The Bard by John Martin (a romantic vision of a single Welsh bard escaping a massacre ordered by Edward I of England).jpg February 10th. In the forests of the night: What immortal hand or eye. Dare frame thy fearful symmetry? 24. Downloaded from: www.anselm.
1999.ron.nwe. Marilyn. • Keith Sagar 2002. New York.ca. 1981 • Gaull./ENL2022/BlakeSickRose1. England. Penguin Reference Books. Downloaded on 10/02/2008. 2004 Butler. Romanticism.edu/. Kevin. Oxford. Downloaded from: www. William Blake and the music of the songs. 21 . • • Stevens.ron.The Human Context. English Romanticism .ca. Rebels and Reactionaries. English literature and its background 1760-1830. Songs of Innocence and Experience. Romantics. Downloaded on 10/02/2008. February. Cambridge University Press.ufl.jpg.. Marilyn. Cambridge. David. 1988 • Hutchings. 2008 Bibliography • Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. The Sick Rose. Oxford University Press.umontreal. W W Norton and Company. Innocence and Experience in the Works of William Blake . Romanticism on the net: www. 10th..umontreal.Page 15 – Blake William. Downloaded from: Romanticism on the net www.
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