6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Power Conversion Circuits and Diodes

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

1

Power Conversion Circuits (PCC)
PCC
110V 60Hz

+ – 5V DC

solar cells, battery

3V DC

PCC

+ – 5V DC

DC-to-DC UP converter Power efficiency of converter important, so use lots of devices: MOSFET switches, clock circuits, inductors, capacitors, op amps, diodes

R

Reading: Chapter 16 and 4.4 of A & L.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
2

First, let’s look at the diode
iD

+ vD –

v ⎛ VD ⎞ ⎜ e T − 1⎟ iD = I S ⎜ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ I S = 10 −12 A

VT = 0.025V
Boltzmann’s constant temperature in Kelvins charge of an electron

kT VT = q
iD

iD

− IS

vD
mV

vD
V

Can use this exponential model with analysis methods learned earlier analytical graphical incremental
(Our fake expodweeb was modeled after this device!)

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

3

Another analysis method: piecewise–linear analysis
P–L diode models:
iD
iD ≥ 0

“short” or on

vD = 0

vD < 0

“open” or off

iD = 0

0

vD

Ideal diode model

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

4

Another analysis method: piecewise–linear analysis
“Practical” diode model ideal with offset
iD
Short segment Open segment

+–

0.6V

vD = 0

iD = 0

0.6V

vD

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

5

Another analysis method: piecewise–linear analysis

Piecewise–linear analysis method
Replace nonlinear characteristic with linear segments. Perform linear analysis within each segment.

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

6

Example
(We will build up towards an AC-to-DC converter)

Consider +
vI + –

0.6V +–

R

vO

vI

is a sine wave

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

7

Example
0 .6 V +–

+

Equivalent circuit

vI + –

R

vO

“Short segment”: iD = (vI − 0.6 ) / R
vI ≥ 0.6

+–
0.6V

+

+ vI –

R

vO = vI − 0.6

– “Open segment”:
iD = 0

+–
0.6V

+

vI < 0.6

+ vI –

R

vO = 0


6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
8

Example
vI

vO 0.6 t

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

9

Now consider — a half-wave rectifier
0.6V

+–
vI + –
C

+
R
vO

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

10

A half-wave rectifier

vI

diode on

diode off

vO C current pulses charging capacitor

t

Demo

MIT’s supply shows “snipping” at the peaks (because current drawn at the peaks)
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
11

DC-to-DC UP Converter
i

se Do not u resistive s! el em en t

+
VI + DC –
switch

vS

C vO

load

S

vS
closed

S

open

S

T

t Tp

The circuit has 3 states: I. II. III. S is on, diode is off i increases linearly S turns off, diode turns on C charges up, vO increases S is off, diode turns off C holds vO (discharges into load)
Lecture 24
12

6.002 Fall 2000

More detailed analysis I. Assume i(0) = 0, vO(0) > 0
S on at t = 0, diode off
L
VI + – i i

vO C

VI T i (T ) = L

VI slope = L T t

di VI = L dt
i is a ramp

1 ΔE = energy stored at t = T : Li( T )2 2
VI T 2 ΔE = 2L
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
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2

II. S turns off at t = T
L
i

diode turns on (ignore diode voltage drop)
vO S

VI + –

C

VI T L

i

State III starts here

0 T T′

1 ωO = LC

TP

t

Diode turns off at T′ when i tries to go negative.

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

14

II. S turns off at t = T, diode turns on
Let’s look at the voltage profile

VI T L

i

0 T T′

1 ωO = LC

TP

t

Capacitor voltage ignore diode drop

vO

III.
ΔvO

vO (T ) 1 LC

ωO =

0 T T′

TP

t

Diode turns off at T′ when I tries to go negative.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
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II. S turns off at t = T, diode turns on
Let’s look at the voltage profile

VI T L

i

0 T T′

1 ωO = LC

TP

t

Capacitor voltage ignore diode drop

vO

III.
ΔvO

vO (T ) 1 LC

ωO =

0 T T′

TP

t

Diode turns off at T′ when I tries to go negative.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24
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III. S is off, diode turns off
Eg, no load

+
VI + –

S

C vO


C holds vO after T′ i is zero Capacitor voltage

vO

0

T′

TP

t

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

17

III. S is off, diode turns off
Eg, no load

+
VI + – S C vO


C holds vO after T′ i is zero until S turns ON at TP, and cycle repeats I II III I II III … Thus, vO increases each cycle, if there is no load.

vO vO (n)

TP 2TP 3TP
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24

t
18

What is vO after n cycles

vO(n) ?

Use energy argument … (KVL tedious!) Each cycle deposits ∆E in capacitor. 1 ΔE = L i( t = T )2 2 2 1 VI T 2 ΔE = 2 1 ⎛ VI T ⎞ 2 L = L⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ L ⎠ After n cycles, energy on capacitor

nVI T 2 nΔE = 2L 1 This energy must equal CvO ( n )2 2
so, or

2

1 nVI T 2 2 CvO ( n ) = 2 2L
nVI T 2 vO ( n ) = LC
vO ( n ) = VI T ωO n
2

2

1 ωO = LC

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24

19

How to maintain vO at a given value?
+
VI

+ –

vO

load

pwm

vO
control change T compare + vref –

T

Tp
recall

VI T 2 ΔE = 2L

2

Another example of negative feedback:
if if

(v (v

O O

− vref ) ↓

− vref ) ↑

then T ↓ then T ↑
20

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 24