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# CIRCUITS AND

6.002 ELECTRONICS

and Diodes

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 1

Power Conversion Circuits (PCC)

+
PCC – 5V DC
110V
60Hz

solar cells, 3V +
battery DC
PCC – 5V DC

DC-to-DC UP converter

## Power efficiency of converter important,

so use lots of devices:
MOSFET switches, clock circuits,
inductors, capacitors, op amps, diodes

R
Reading: Chapter 16 and 4.4 of A & L.
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 2
First, let’s look at the diode
iD ⎛ VvD ⎞
iD = I S e − 1 ⎟
⎜ T

+ ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
vD
I S = 10 −12 A

VT = 0.025V

Boltzmann’s constant
kT
VT = temperature in Kelvins
q charge of an electron
iD iD

vD vD
− IS mV V

## Can use this exponential model with

analysis methods learned earlier
 analytical  graphical  incremental
(Our fake expodweeb was modeled after this device!)

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 3

Another analysis method:
piecewise–linear analysis
P–L diode models:

iD
iD ≥ 0 Æ vD = 0
“short”
or
on
vD
vD < 0 Æ iD = 0 0
“open”
or
off

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 4

Another analysis method:
piecewise–linear analysis

## “Practical” diode model +–

ideal with offset
0.6V

iD
Short segment

Open segment vD = 0
vD
iD = 0 0.6V

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 5

Another analysis method:
piecewise–linear analysis

## Piecewise–linear analysis method

 Replace nonlinear characteristic with
linear segments.
 Perform linear analysis within each
segment.

Example

## (We will build up towards an AC-to-DC converter)

Consider 0.6V
+–

+
vI +
– R vO

vI is a sine wave

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 7

Example
0 .6 V
+– Equivalent
+ circuit
vI +
– R vO

“Short segment”:
iD = (vI − 0.6 ) / R
+–
+
0.6V
vI ≥ 0.6 + vI R vO = vI − 0.6

“Open segment”:
iD = 0
+–
+
0.6V
vI < 0.6
+ vI R vO = 0

Example

vI

vO

0.6
t

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 9

Now consider — a half-wave rectifier

0.6V
+–
+
vI + C R vO

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 10

A half-wave rectifier

vO
t

C
current
pulses
charging
Demo capacitor

## MIT’s supply shows

“snipping” at the peaks
(because current drawn
at the peaks)

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 11

se
DC-to-DC UP Converter Do not u
resistive
s!
i el em en t

+
VI +
DC –
switch
S –
vS

S S
closed open
t
T
Tp
The circuit has 3 states:
I. S is on, diode is off
i increases linearly
II. S turns off, diode turns on
C charges up, vO increases
III. S is off, diode turns off
C holds vO (discharges into load)

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 12

More detailed analysis

## I. Assume i(0) = 0, vO(0) > 0

S on at t = 0, diode off
L
vO
i
VI +
– C

i
VI T
i (T ) = VI di
L slope = VI = L
L dt
i is a ramp
t
T
1
ΔE = energy stored at t = T : Li( T )2
2
2
VI T 2
ΔE =
2L

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 13

II. S turns off at t = T
diode turns on (ignore diode voltage drop)
L vO

i
VI +
– S C

VI T
L

0 t
T T′ TP
1
ωO =
LC

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 14

II. S turns off at t = T, diode turns on
Let’s look at the voltage profile

i
VI T
L

0 t
T T′ TP
1
ωO =
LC

vO
ignore
diode
vO (T ) ΔvO
drop
1
ωO =
LC
0 t
T T′ TP

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 15

II. S turns off at t = T, diode turns on
Let’s look at the voltage profile

i
VI T
L

0 t
T T′ TP
1
ωO =
LC

vO
ignore
diode
vO (T ) ΔvO
drop
1
ωO =
LC
0 t
T T′ TP

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 16

III. S is off, diode turns off

+
VI +
– S C vO

C holds vO after T′
i is zero

Capacitor voltage
vO

0 t
T′ TP

## 6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 17

III. S is off, diode turns off

+
VI +
– S C vO

C holds vO after T′
i is zero
until S turns ON at TP, and cycle repeats
I II III I II III …
Thus, vO increases each cycle, if there is no load.

vO
vO (n)

t
TP 2TP 3TP
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 18
What is vO after n cycles Æ vO(n) ?
Use energy argument … (KVL tedious!)
Each cycle deposits ∆E in capacitor.
1
2
ΔE = L i( t = T ) 2

1 VI T 2 2
ΔE = 2
2 L 1 ⎛ VI T ⎞
= L⎜ ⎟
2 ⎝ L ⎠
After n cycles, energy on capacitor
2
nVI T 2
nΔE =
2L
1
This energy must equal CvO ( n )2
2
2 2
1 nV T
so,
2
CvO ( n ) = I
2 2L
2
nVI T 2 1
or vO ( n ) = ωO =
LC LC

vO ( n ) = VI T ωO n
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 24 19
How to maintain vO at a given value?

+

vO
pwm
control
compare
T change T
Tp + vref

2
VI T 2
recall ΔE =
2L

## Another example of negative feedback:

if (v
O − vref ) ↑ then T ↓
if (v
O − vref ) ↓ then T ↑