You are on page 1of 30

EC-226 Electronic measurement and Instrumentation UNIT - IV T Srinivasa Rao Dept.

of ECE Bapatla Engineering College ( Autonomous)

Part 1
DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS Digital Data Acquisition System, Various ways of multiplexing, Computer controlled instrumentation.

Part 2
BIO-MEDICAL MEASUREMENTS Bioelectric signals (ECG,EMG,ERG,EOG) and electrodes. Elementary Principles of Electrocardiograph, Electromyograph, Electroencephalograph.

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Data Acquisition Systems Basics


Data acquisition systems (DAS) interface between the real world of physical parameters, which are analog, and the artificial world of digital computation and control(digital systems are used widely because complex circuits are low cost, accurate, and relatively simple to implement. In addition, there is rapid growth in the use of microcomputers to perform difficult digital control and measurement functions). The devices that perform the interfacing function between analog and digital worlds are known as data converters.( ADC &DAC) Besides the converters, data acquisition and distribution systems may employ one or more of the following circuit functions: Transducers, Amplifiers, Filters, Nonlinear analog functions, Analog multiplexers, Sample-holds.
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Digital Data Acquisition System

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Data Acquisition System Functioning


The input to the system is a physical parameter such as temperature, pressure, flow, acceleration, and position, which are analog quantities is first converted into an electrical signal by means of a transducer; once in electrical form, all further processing is done by electronic circuits. An amplifier boosts the amplitude of the transducer output signal to a useful level for further processing. Transducer outputs may be microvolt or millivolt level signals, which are then amplified to 1 to 10V levels. The amplifier is frequently followed by a low-pass active filter that reduces highfrequency signal components, unwanted electrical interference noise, or electronic noise from the signal. The processed analog signal next goes to an analog multiplexer, which switches sequentially between a number of different analog input channels. Each input is in turn connected to the output of the multiplexer for a specified period of time by the multiplexer switch. During this connection time, a samplehold circuit acquires the signal voltage and then holds its value while an A/D converter converts the value into digital form. The resultant digital word goes to a computer data bus or to the input of a digital circuit
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Data Distribution System

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Data Distribution System Functioning


The data distribution portion of a feedback control system, illustrated in the previous slide is the reverse of the data acquisition system. The computer, based on the inputs of the data acquisition system, must close the loop on a process and control it by means of output control functions. These control outputs are in digital form and must, therefore, be converted into analog form in order to drive the process. The conversion is accomplished by a series of D/A converters. Each D/A converter is coupled to the computer data bus by means of a register, which stores the digital word until the next update. The registers are activated sequentially by a decoder and control circuit, which is under computer control. The D/A converter outputs then drive actuators that directly control the various process parameters such as temperature, pressure, and flow. Thus, the loop is closed on the process and the result is a complete automatic process control system under computer control.
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Various ways of Multiplexing

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Computer Controlled Instrumentation

Physical Variable

Transducer

PC Based Controller

Transducer

Output Contolling Unit

To Process

M O N I T O R
T Srinivasa Rao

K E Y B O A R D

P R I N T E R

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electrocardiograph (ECG)
Electrocardiography (ECG) (Greek: kardia, meaning heart) is a transthoracic (across the thorax or chest) interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded by a device external to the body. The recording produced by this noninvasive procedure is termed an electrocardiogram. An ECG is used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart.

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

ECG Electrodes

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Working
An ECG is a way to measure and diagnose abnormal rhythms of the heart,particularly abnormal rhythms caused by damage to the conductive tissue that carries electrical signals, or abnormal rhythms caused by electrolyte imbalances. The ECG can identify if the heart muscle has been damaged in specific areas, though not all areas of the heart are covered. The ECG cannot reliably measure the pumping ability of the heart, for which ultrasound-based (echocardiography) or nuclear medicine tests are used. It is possible for a human or other animal to be in cardiac arrest, but still have a normal ECG signal (a condition known as pulseless electrical activity). The ECG device detects and amplifies the tiny electrical changes on the skin that are caused when the heart muscle depolarizes during each heartbeat. At rest, each heart muscle cell has a negative charge, called the membrane potential, across its cell membrane. Decreasing this negative charge towards zero, via the influx of the positive cations, Na+ and Ca++, is called depolarization, which activates the mechanisms in the cell that cause it to contract. During each heartbeat, a healthy heart will have an orderly progression of a wave of depolarisation that is triggered by the cells in thesinoatrial node, spreads out through the atrium, passes through the atrioventricular node and then spreads all over the ventricles. This is detected as tiny rises and falls in the voltage between two electrodes placed either side of the heart which is displayed as a wavy line either on a screen or on paper. This display indicates the overall rhythm of the heart and weaknesses in different parts of the heart muscle. Usually, more than two electrodes are used, and they can be combined into a number of pairs (For example: left arm (LA), right arm (RA) and left leg (LL) electrodes form the three pairs LA+RA, LA+LL, and RA+LL). The output from each pair is known as a lead. Each lead looks at the heart from a different angle. Different types of ECGs can be referred to by the number of leads that are recorded, for example 3-lead, 5lead or 12-lead ECGs (sometimes simply "a 12-lead"). A 12-lead ECG is one in which 12 different electrical signals are recorded at approximately the same time and will often be used as a one-off recording of an ECG, traditionally printed out as a paper copy. Three- and 5-lead ECGs tend to be monitored continuously and viewed only on the screen of an appropriate monitoring device, for example during an operation or whilst being transported in an ambulance. There may or may not be any permanent record of a 3- or 5-lead ECG, T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226) depending on the equipment used.

Typical ECG Wave Form Details


P-Wave:
Origin: Due to Atrial Depolarization or contraction Amplitude: 0.25mv Duration: P-R Interval 0.12 to 0.22 sec

QRS Complex (R-Wave):


Origin: Repolarization of Atria and Depolarization of the ventricles Amplitude:1.60mv Duration: 0.07 to 0.1sec

T-Wave:
Origin: Ventricular repolarisation Amplitude: 0.1 to 0.5 mv Duration: 0.05 to 0.15 sec

U-Wave:
Origin: Due to after potentials in the Ventricular muscle. Amplitude: < 0.1 mv Duration: 0.2 sec

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Rhythm Strip

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroencephalograph (EEG)
EEG is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 2040 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG, that is, the type of neural oscillations that can be observed in EEG signals. Brain cells communicate by producing tiny electrical impulses. In an EEG, electrodes are placed on the scalp over multiple areas of the brain to detect and record patterns of electrical activity and check for abnormalities. EEG cannot be used to "read the mind," measure intelligence, or diagnose mental illness. EEG activity can be broken down into 4 distinct frequency bands: Beta activity > 13 Hz Alpha activity 8 Hz-13 Hz Theta activity 4 Hz-7 Hz Delta activity < 4 Hz T Srinivasa Rao
Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electrodes
Metal Disk and Cup Electrodes Disk and Cup electrodes are generally made of high purity tin, silver, gold or even surgical steel, or some combination of these (i.e. gold plated silver). They usually have a diameter that is within 4-10 mm as smaller than 4mm, or larger than 10mm, will not make sufficient mechanical/electrical contact with the scalp. The application site is determined and prepared by sterilizing with alcohol, using an abrasive to remove dead skin. Once the electrode is secure, the cup is filled with a conductive gel which aids conductivity. These electrodes can also be placed on other parts of the body to monitor skin potentials and filter these out, increasing the reliability of the readings.
Needle Electrodes Needle electrodes are sterilized, single-use needles placed under the skin. These electrodes are typically made of surgical grade steel and are inserted into the scalp after thorough disinfection of the insertion site. The advantage of this particular type of electrode is fast application, perhaps being useful in emergency situations or on comatose patients; however the invasive nature of the application and pain caused to the patient means that they are not commonly used. These electrodes also have a risk of infection and unfavorable electrical behavior due to their shape. These electrodes are usually used during intra-operative recordings as well as in association with T Srinivasa electrode Rao intra-cranial recording. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Amplification

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Beta activity is a normal activity present when the eyes are open or closed. It tends to be seen in the channels recorded from the centre or front of the head. Some drugs will increase the amount of beta activity in the EEG.

Alpha activity is also a normal activity when present in waking adults. It is mainly seen in the channels recorded from the back of the head. It is fairly symmetrical and has an amplitude of 40 V to 100 V. It is only seen when the eyes are closed and should disappear or reduce in amplitude when the eyes are open.

Theta activity can be classed as both a normal and abnormal activity depending on the age and state of the patient. In adults it is normal if the patient is drowsy. However it can also indicate brain dysfunction if it is seen in a patient who is alert and awake. In younger patients, theta activity may be the main activity seen in channels recorded from the back and central areas of the head. Rao T Srinivasa Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Delta activity is only normal in an adult patient if they are in a moderate to deep sleep. If it is seen at any other time it would indicate brain dysfunction. Abnormal activity may be seen in all or some channels depending on the underlying brain problem.

Spike and wave activity indicates a seizure disorder and may be seen in the EEG even if the patient is not having an epileptic seizure. Other epileptic conditions may be diagnosed if spikes or sharp waves are seen.

Triphasic waves are sometimes seen if the patient has severe liver or kidney disease that is affecting brain function.
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electromyograph (EMG)
Electromyography, or EMG, involves testing the electrical activity of muscles. Often, EMG testing is performed with another test that measures the conducting function of nerves called nerve conduction study. Because both tests are often performed at the same office visit and by the same personnel, the risks and procedures generally apply to both tests. Muscular movement involves the action of muscles and nerves and needs an electrical current. This electrical current is much weaker than the one in your household wiring. In some medical conditions the electrical activity of the muscles or nerves is not normal. Finding and describing these electrical properties in the muscle or nerve may help doctors diagnose patient condition. EMG may aid with the diagnosis of nerve compression or injury, nerve root injury and with other problems of the muscles or nerves.
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electrodes

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electromyograph (EMG)

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electro-Oculogram (EOG)
Electrooculography (EOG/E.O.G.) is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the retina. The resulting signal is called the electrooculogram. The main applications are in ophthalmological diagnosis and in recording eye movements. Unlike the electroretinogram, the EOG does not represent the response to individual visual stimuli. Eye movement measurements: Usually, pairs of electrodes are placed either above and below the eye or to the left and right of the eye. If the eye is moved from the center position towards one electrode, this electrode "sees" the positive side of the retina and the opposite electrode "sees" the negative side of the retina. Consequently, a potential difference occurs between the electrodes. Assuming that the resting potential is constant, the recorded potential is a measure for the eye position.
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

There are a number of corneal electrodes that are in common use. Some are speculum structures that hold the eye open and have a contact lens with a wire ring that floats on the cornea supported by a small spring. Some versions use carbon, wire or gold foil to record electrical activity. There are also cotton wick electrodes. Each of these electrodes record large voltage responses directly from the cornea or sclera and each have advantages and disadvantages. Burian speculum electrodes are used when possible. Sizes are available down to a size that fits in the eye of most full-term babies
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroretinogram (ERG)
The electroretinogram (ERG) is a recording of electrical potentials (action potentials) that are generated within the retina (typically in response to a flash of light). It is recorded using two electrodes, with one electrode placed on or close to the cornea of the eye whilst the other is placed on the forehead, cheek or earlobe. Electroretinography tests are commonly performed after a subject has spent several minutes in complete darkness, thereby ensuring the light flash is a significant stimulus. Under these conditions the ERG response will be relatively large in amplitude (approximately 500 V to 1mV), approximately 2 seconds in duration (depending on species) and will consist of several distinct components. In brief, the ERG may be separated into 4 waveform components (a, b, c and d waves). One electrode is placed on or close to the cornea of the eye. Several types of corneal electrodes are available for this application, including: Contact lens with a steel or silver wire embedded in the inner surface A piece of gold leaf tucked underneath the lower eye lid T Srinivasa Rao A skin electrode placed on the external surfaceand of Instrumentation the lower eye lid . Electronic Measurements (EC-226)

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

Electroretinogram

Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells (bipolar and amacrine cells), and the ganglion cells
T Srinivasa Rao Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)

T Srinivasa Rao

Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation (EC-226)