Timeline of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Start of Jewish migration
There had been a continuous Jewish presence in the Holy Land since Biblical times, as well as smaller waves of immigration throughout history. In the mid nineteenth century Jewish communities and families, mostly from Eastern Europe, fleeing increasing antisemitism and pogroms in Europe, begin to immigrate in increasing numbers to Palestine, then a province of the Ottoman Empire, the historic Land of Israel. (See Hovevei Zion, Bilu.) Jews were an absolute majority in the 1880's. 1882-1903 . 1915 Hussein-McMahon Correspondence promises Arab state in return for revolt against the Turks. The region of Palestine was not explicitly mentioned. Disputes between Arabs and the British over whether Palestine was meant to be included in these documents would fuel the conflict over nationalism.

British control
November 2, 1917 Balfour Declaration 1917: British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour sends a letter to Lord Rothschild, President of the Zionist Federation, declaring his government would "view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people". 1919-1923 In the third Aliyah, roughly 40,000 Jews arrive in Palestine, mostly from Eastern Europe. January 18 1919 Faisal-Weizmann Agreement between Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization). "We Arabs," said Faisal,

"especially the educated among us, look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement... We will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home." March 1, 1920 Jewish settlements in the Upper Galilee were attacked by Arab forces. Joseph Trumpeldor was among 8 who died defending Tel Hai. April-June, 1920 Jerusalem pogrom of 1920 April 4-April 7. The violent 3-day riot against the Jews in Jerusalem's Old City prompts the establishment of Haganah on June 15, 1920. May 1-7, 1921 Jaffa riots. May 8, 1921 British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel pardons Palestinian Jews and Arabs involved in the 1920 disturbances, including Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. March 1922 Under Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill, Britain splits the mandate of Palestine into the territories of Palestine (west of the Jordan river) and Transjordan. In return for leading the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire, the Hashemites are given rule over Transjordan to form an Arab state under British supremacy. Jewish settlement is restricted to the remaining Palestine.[1]. June 3, 1922 The Churchill White Paper, 1922 clarifies the British position regarding Palestine. July 24, 1922 The League of Nations grants Britain a mandate to administer Palestine. British express interest in Zionism, and describe their main intent of developing a Jewish national home. 1924-1929 In the fourth Aliyah, roughly 82,000 Jews fleeing from anti-Semitism in Hungary and Poland, arrive in Palestine. 1929-1939

In the fifth Aliyah, due in part to the rise of Nazism in Germany, approximately 250,000 Jews arrived in Palestine during this period. However, restrictions imposed on Jewish immigration by the British authorities in response to events such as the Great Uprising curbed Jewish immigration in the later 1930s. Summer 1929 The 1929 Palestine riots erupt due to a dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall. 133 Jews killed and 339 wounded (mostly by Arabs); 116 Arabs killed and 232 wounded (mostly by British-commanded police and soldiers). August 23, 1929 In the 1929 Hebron massacre 67 Jews are killed, all but 8 of them foreign students from the local yeshiva. The local residents are saved by Muslim families and neighbours. Nonetheless, the British evacuate the Jewish communities in the Arab enclaves of Hebron and Gaza "to prevent another massacre", ending the ancient Jewish presence in the cities. Both communities would resume after the 1967 War. 1930-1935 The Black Hand Islamist group led by Shaykh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam uses violence against Jewish civilians and the British. October 20, 1930 In reaction to the disturbances of 1929, the Passfield White Paper and the Hope Simpson Royal Commission recommend limiting Jewish immigration. May 7, 1936 — March 1939 The Arab leadership, led by Amin al-Husayni, declares a general strike which rapidly deteriorates into a violent rebellion, known as the Arab revolt, that lasts for three years. The mainstream Jewish defense organization, the Haganah, maintains a policy of restraint, but the smaller Irgun (also called Etzel) group adopts a policy of retaliation and revenge. Roughly 5000 Arabs and 400 Jews are killed. July 1937 The Peel Commission proposes a partition plan (map), rejected by the Arab leadership as it included a Jewish state. The Jewish opinion was divided as Jewish immigration was limited to only 12,000, and the Twentieth Zionist Congress ultimately rejected the proposal as well. 1938-1949

Lehi (group) (also known as the Stern Gang), as well as other militant Zionist groups, attack British and Arab targets and civilians in Palestine. 1944-1948 the Irgun and then Haganah join in on anti-British attacks. 26 July 1938 Revisionist Zionists detonate a bomb in an Arab Melon market in Haifa, killing 53 Arabs, one Jew and wounding at least 46 more Arabs.[2] [edit] April — August 1938 The Woodhead Commission reverses the Peel Commission's findings, considers two alternative partition plans, known as Plan B (map) and Plan C (map), and reports in November that partition was impracticable. ([4]) [edit] October 2, 1938 In the 1938 Tiberias massacre, Arabs murder 20 Jews in the city of Tiberias. February — March 17, 1939 The St. James Conference ends without making any progress as the Arab delegation refuses to recognize or meet with its Jewish counterpart. May 17, 1939 The White Paper of 1939 calls for the creation of a unified Palestinian state. Even though the White Paper states its commitment to the Balfour Declaration, it imposed very substantial limits to both Jewish immigration (restricting it to only 75,000 over the next 5 years), and their ability to purchase land. Between 1939-1948, the Haganah smuggles over 100,000 Jews from Europe to Palestine to provide refuge from the Holocaust.[citation needed] June 1940 On 19 June twenty Arabs were killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at a marketplace in Haifa. June 29, 13 Arabs were killed in multiple shootings during one-hour period. May 1, 1946 The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry proposes admission of 100,000 Jewish refugees into the Mandate. July 22, 1946

King David Hotel Bombing. Irgun members detonate bombs in the basement of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, where the British had brought a large amount of documents confiscated from the Jewish Agency. The attack kills 91 people and injures 45 more, mostly civilians. The hotel was a center of British administration at the time, although Arabs and Jews were also victims. The Jewish National Council condemns the attack. February 18, 1947 Great Britain announces intention to hand the Mandate to the United Nations.

UN Resolution
November 29, 1947 With a two-thirds majority international vote, the UN General Assembly passes a Partition Plan dividing the British Mandate of Palestine into two states. The Jewish leadership accepts the plan, but the Arab leadership rejects it. December 30, 1947 Haifa Oil Refinery massacre. Irgun militants hurl two bombs into a crowd of Arab workers from a passing vehicle, killing 6 workers and wounding 42, damaging the relative peace between the two groups in Haifa. Skirmishes continue in Haifa and around the region. November 30, 1947 Following the announcement of the Partition Plan, Palestinian Arabs react violently and fighting broke out leading to the "first phase" of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, also known as the "civil war". December 2-5, 1947 1947 Jerusalem riots. The Arab Higher Committee declared a strike and public protest of the vote. Arabs marching to Zion Square on December 2 were stopped by the British, and the Arabs instead turned towards the commercial center of the City, burning many buildings and shops. Violence continued for two more days, with Arab mobs attacking a number of Jewish neighborhoods. 70 Jews and 50 Arabs are killed.

Creation of Israel
May 14, 1948 Israel declares Independence from British rule, before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight.

After Establishment

Winter and Spring, 1948 "Battle of the Roads". The Arab League sponsored Arab Liberation Army, composed of Palestinian Arabs and Arabs from other Middle Eastern countries, attacked Jewish communities in Palestine, and Jewish traffic on major roads. The Arab forces mainly concentrated on major roadways in an attempt to cut off Jewish communities from each other. Arab forces at that time had engaged in sporadic and unorganized ambushes since the riots of December 1947, and began to make organized attempts to cut off the highway linking Tel Aviv with Jerusalem, the city's only supply route. The Arab Army controlled several strategic vantage points overlooking the sole highway linking Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, enabling them to fire at convoys going to the city, and cutting off supply lines between the two cities. By late March 1948, the vital road that connected Tel Aviv to western Jerusalem, where about 16% of all Jews in the Palestinian region lived, was cut off and under siege. February 2, 1948 1948 Ben Yehuda Street Bombing. Arabs arrange three car bombs killing 52 Jews, injuring 123, all civilians. April 6-12, 1948 Operation Nachshon. The Haganah decided to launch a major military counteroffensive to break the siege of Jerusalem. On April 6 the Haganah and its strike force, the Palmach, in an offensive to secure strategic points, took al-Qastal, an important roadside town 2 kilometers west of Deir Yassin. But intense fighting lasted for days more as control of that key village remained contested. April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin massacre. IZL-Lehi forces attack Deir Yassin, as part of Operation Nachshon, killing between 100 and 254 Palestinian villagers, mainly women, old people and children. April 13, 1948 Hadassah medical convoy massacre. Claimed as retribution for the Deir Yassin massacre, Arab mobs attack a large convoy, mostly of unarmed Jewish doctors set off carrying patients, equipment, and supplies, travel from Jerusalem to the besieged hospital which treated the majority of Jewish residents in Jerusalem. 77 Jews are killed. Road attacks continue and convoys were unable to reach the hospital for a week. May 15, 1948 Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army, and local Arabs attack the new Jewish state with the intent of destroying it. The resulting 1948 Arab-Israeli War lasts for 13 months. By the end of the war, about 700,000 Palestinian Arabs become refugees.[3][4][5][6] A very comparable number of Jewish refugees from Arab lands flee to Israel.[7]

June 1948 Violent confrontation between the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) under the command of David Ben-Gurion, and the paramilitary Jewish group Irgun known as The Altalena Affair results in the dismantlement of the Irgun, Lehi, and all Israeli paramilitary organizations operating outside the IDF. February-July 1949 Israel concludes Armistice Agreements with neighbouring countries. The territory of the British Mandate of Palestine is divided between the State of Israel, the Kingdom of the Jordan (changed from Transjordan) and Egypt. Israel continues to provide for Jewish refugees from different countries. Arab refugees in neighboring states are left unrelieved. 1948-1956 Infiltration by fedayeen from Egypt across Israeli border resulting in many minor skirmishes, raids and counter-raids, resulting in hundreds of casualties on both sides, including many civilians. 1951 The State of Israel is confronted by a wave of Palestinian infiltrations. In 1951, 137 Israelis, mostly civilians, are killed by such infiltrators. 1952 162 Israelis, mostly civilians, are killed by Palestinian infiltrators. 1953 160 Israelis, mostly civilians, are killed by Palestinian infiltrators. 1953 Qibya massacre. Responding to earlier Palestinian infiltrations, Ariel Sharon in command of Unit 101 carries out a raid in the village of Qibya. Over 60 Arabs are killed, two thirds of which were women and children.

Suez Crisis
October 29, 1956 Israel invades Egypt's Sinai Peninsula with covert assent from France and Britain. The European nations had economic and trading interests in the Suez Canal, while Israel wanted to reopen the canal for Israeli shipping and end Egyptian-supported guerrilla incursions and attacks.

Kafr Qasim massacre. 48-49 Arab civilians are killed by Israel Border Police as they return to their village from work. Egypt expels its Jewish population and confiscates their property. March 1957 Israel withdraws its forces from the Sinai Peninsula, ending the Suez Crisis.

Creation of the PLO
February 3, 1964 The Palestine Liberation Organization is founded in Cairo by the Arab League with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader. Even though Ahmad Shuqeiri is the official leader, the organization is more or less controlled by the Egyptian government. The PLO states their goal as the destruction of the State of Israel through armed struggle, and replacing it with an "independent Palestinian state" between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea.

Six-Day War
June 1967 The Six-Day War. Israel launches a pre-emptive strike against the Egyptian Air Force on suspicion that Egypt and Syria are planning to invade. There had been an Egyptian naval blockade and military buildup in the Sinai Peninsula as well as Syrian support for Fedayeen incursions into Israel. Israel defeats the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and their supporters and captures the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egypt, East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. Jewish settlements form and reform in the territories. After the annexation, Jews and Christians were permitted to enter the Old City and its holy sites, which they (except for some Christians under limited conditions) were forbidden from under Jordanian rule. September 1, 1967 The Khartoum Resolution issued at the Arab Summit with eight Arab countries adopts the "three nos": 1. No peace with Israel, 2. No recognition of Israel, 3. No negotiations with Israel.

Post Six-Day War
1968-1970 Egypt wages the War of Attrition against Israel. February 2, 1969

Yasser Arafat, head of the Fatah party, is appointed chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, replacing Ahmad Shukeiri, after Fatah becomes the dominant force in the PLO. May 8, 1970 Avivim school bus massacre. Palestinian militants originating in Lebanon, attack a school bus, killing 12 (mostly children) and wounding another 19. September, 1970 After Black September in Jordan, the PLO was driven out to Lebanon. May 8, 1972 Sabena airplane hijacked and liberated in Lod Airport 4 commercial jets were taken to Jordan and blown up. May 30, 1972 Lod Airport Massacre. On behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Japanese Red Army members enter the waiting area of Lod Airport in Tel Aviv and fire indiscriminately at airport staff and visitors. 24 people killed, and 78 injured. September 5, 1972 Munich Massacre of Israeli Olympic team by Palestinian militant group, Black September. April 9, 1973 Israeli commando raid against PLO targets in Beirut, the Lebanon (Operation Spring of Youth)

Yom Kippur War
October 1973 The Yom Kippur War. Syria and Egypt surprise-attack Israeli forces in the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula on the holiest day of the Hebrew calendar. Jordan, Iraq, and other Arab nations join in and/or support the Arab war effort.

Post Yom Kippur War
April 11, 1974

Kiryat Shmona massacre, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command cross the border into Israel from Lebanon. They enter an apartment building and kill all eighteen residents, half of which are children. May 15, 1974 Ma'alot massacre. Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine attack a van killing two Israeli Arab women, enter an apartment and kill a family, take over a local school and hold at least 90 students and teachers hostage. 26 Israelis killed, 60 wounded. October 26-29, 1974 The Arab League recognizes the PLO as sole representative of the Palestinians. On November 13, Yassir Arafat addresses the UN General Assembly. March 4, 1975 Savoy Operation. Eight Palestinian terrorists in two teams landed by boat in Tel Aviv. Shooting and throwing grenades, they capture the Savoy Hotel and take the guests as hostages. Five hostages were freed and eight were killed. Three Israeli soldiers were also killed. July 4, 1975 A "refrigerator bomb" in Jerusalem kills 15 Israelis and wounds 77. July 4, 1976 Operation Entebbe. Air France Flight 139, originating in Tel Aviv, Israel took off from Athens, Greece, heading for Paris, France, is hijacked by four terrorists (two from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine \u2014 External Operations and two from the radical German militant group "Revolutionäre Zellen"). Israel performs a rescue mission to free the 248 passengers and 12 crew members held hostage at the Entebbe Airport in Uganda. The rescue is only partially successful, with one Israeli fatality. Nevertheless, it is the first successful rescue mission over 2000 miles. May 1977 Menachem Begin of Likud is elected Prime Minister, ending nearly 30 years of rule by the left wing Mapai/Alignment. March, 1978 Coastal Road Massacre. Fatah Palestinians kill an American photographer, hijack a loaded bus and kill 36 more Israelis and wound 76.

Operation Litani. Israel, in alliance with the mostly Christian South Lebanon Army, launches a limited-scope invasion of Lebanon and attempts to push Palestinian militant groups away from the Israel border. The 7-day offensive results in about 285,000 refugees created and between 300 and 1200 Lebanese and Palestinian militants and civilians killed. September 17, 1978 Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat sign the Camp David Accord, with Israel agreeing to withdraw from the Sinai Peninsula in exchange for peace and a framework for future negotiation over the West Bank and Gaza Strip. March 26, 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Egypt becomes the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. April 22, 1979 Samir Kuntar from the Palestine Liberation Front kills 4 Israelis including a four year-old girl in the Israeli town of Nahariya. July 17, 1981 Israel bombs PLO headquarters, which had been located in a civilian area of Beirut and caused more than 300 civilian deaths. This led the United States to broker a shaky cease-fire between Israel and the PLO.

1982 Lebanon War
June 6, 1982 Israel launches Operation Peace for Galilee into southern Lebanon. Israel claims the invasion was in order to remove PLO forces after several violations of a cease-fire, most notably an assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, by the Abu Nidal Organization. Israel is allied with the Lebanese Christian army against the PLO, Syria, and Muslim Lebanese. As a result of the war, the PLO leadership is driven from Lebanon and relocates to Tunis. [edit] September 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacre. Lebanese Phalangists massacre between 700-3500 Palestinians in the refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila, almost all civilians. While no Israeli soldiers were present in the fighting, Israeli Defense Minister, Ariel Sharon, was found to be indirectly responsible by negligence for the massacre by the Kahan Commission, and was asked to resign his position. The commission's conclusions are controversial and remain a subject of debate.[8] August 1983

The Israeli Army withdraws from most of Lebanon, maintaining a self-proclaimed "Security Zone" in the south. April 9, 1985 Sana'a Mouhadlyof the Syrian Social Nationalist Party detonates herself in an explosive-laden vehicle in Lebanon, killing two Israeli soldiers and injuring two more, becoming the first reported female suicide bomber. October 1, 1985 After three Israeli civilians were killed on their yacht off the coast of Cyprus by Force 17 PLO, the Israeli Air Force carries out Operation Wooden Leg and strikes the PLO base in Tunis, killing 60 PLO members. October 7, 1985 The Palestine Liberation Front hijacks the Achille Lauro, redirecting the cruise ship to Syria and holding its passengers and crew hostage, demanding the release of 50 Palestinians in Israeli prisons. One man was murdered; Leon Klinghoffer, a Jewish American, was celebrating his 36th wedding anniversary with his wife upon the Achille Lauro. At the age of 69 he was shot in the forehead and chest while sitting in his wheelchair. December 27, 1985 Intending to hijack El Al jets and blow them up over Tel Aviv, Fatah - Revolutionary Council gunmen open fire with rifles and grenades at the international airports in Rome and Vienna, killing 18 civilians and wounding 138. 6 of the 7 terrorists were either killed or captured.

First Intifada
[edit] December 8, 1987 First Intifada begins. Violence, riots, general strikes, and civil disobedience campaigns by Palestinians spread across the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Israeli forces respond with tear gas, plastic bullets, and live ammunition. After the outbreak of the First Intifada, Shaikh Ahmed Yassin creates Hamas from the Gaza wing of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Until this point the Muslim Brotherhood in Gaza had enjoyed the support of the Israeli authorities and had refrained from violent attacks, however, Hamas quickly began attacks on Israeli military targets, and subsequently, Israeli civilians. November 15, 1988 An independent State of Palestine was proclaimed by the Palestinian National Council meeting in Algiers, by a vote of 253 to 46.

July 16, 1989 First Palestinian suicide attack inside Israel's borders: Tel Aviv Jerusalem bus 405 massacre. October 30, 1991 Madrid Conference. June 1992 Yitzhak Rabin of the Labour Party elected Prime Minister.

Peace Process
Israeli-Palestinian conflict (Part of the Arab-Israeli conflict) August 20, 1993 Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin sign the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government in Oslo. This event is also seen by many people as the definitive end to the First Intifada[9] (although some argue it had effectively ended by 1991-1992). By 1993, the violence of the Intifada had claimed the lives of 1162 Palestinians and 160 Israelis. The IDF criticized these numbers from not distinguishing combatants and non-combatants. February 25, 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs attack, Baruch Goldstein opens fire on a group of Palestinian Muslims worshipping at a Mosque, killing 29 and injuring 125. He is subsequently overpowered and beaten to death by survivors. April 6, 1994 Hamas carries out their second suicide bombing, in Afula, Israel, killing 8 people. The first suicide bombing was on April 1, 1993 near Bet El killing 2 people. May 18, 1994 Israeli forces withdraw from Jericho and Gaza City in compliance with the Oslo accords. July, 1994 Arafat returns from exile to head Palestinian National Authority. October 19, 1994 22 Israelis are killed after a suicide attack on a bus in Tel Aviv. This was the first major suicide bombing in Tel Aviv. October 26, 1994 Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty

[edit] December 10, 1994 Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. January 22, 1995 A double suicide bombing by the Palestinian Islamic Jihad leaves 21 killed in one of the biggest attacks which further divides the Israeli public over the peace process. September 28, 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, also known as Oslo II, signed in Washington, DC. November 4, 1995 Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated in Tel Aviv by Jewish extremist Yigal Amir. Shimon Peres assumes the position of acting Prime Minister. February 25 - March 4, 1996 A series of suicide attacks in Jerusalem (Jerusalem bus 18 suicide bombings and in the French Hill), Tel Aviv and Ashkelon leave more than 60 Israeli dead. These events are said to have had a major impact on the Israeli elections in May. May 1996 Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud is elected Prime Minister. January 15-17, 1997 Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron was signed. July 30, 1997 16 Israelis are killed in a double suicide attack in the major market of Jerusalem. This was the worst killing during Netanyahu's time which is regarded as a relatively quiet period, attributed by Netanyahu to his tit-for-tat policy and his objection to the Palestinian revolving door policy. A nearby attack on September 4, 1997 killed four Israelis and led to Chicago's Persian heritage crisis. October 23, 1998 Benjamin Netanyahu and Yasser Arafat sign the Wye River Memorandum at a summit in Maryland hosted by Bill Clinton. May 17, 1999 Ehud Barak of the Labour Party is elected Prime Minister under the One Israel banner. May 24, 2000

The Israeli Army withdraws from southern Lebanon, in compliance with U.N. Resolution 425. Syria and Lebanon insist that the withdrawal is incomplete, claiming the Shebaa Farms as Lebanese and still under occupation. The UN certifies full Israeli withdrawal. July 2000 The Camp David Summit between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat aimed at reaching a "final status" agreement collapses after Yasser Arafat would not accept a proposal drafted by American and Israeli negotiators. Second Intifada begins September 28, 2000 Right wing Israeli Opposition Leader Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount which is administered by a Waqf (Under Israeli law, each religious group is granted administration of their holy sites). The day after the visit, violent confrontations erupt between Muslims and Israeli Police. Arafat names the second intifada the Al-Aqsa Intifada after Sharon's visit, for the Al-Aqsa Mosque contained within the Temple Mount (holy also to Jews and Christians). This event is considered by some to be one of the possible catalysts of the second intifada, however, it is commonly accepted in most circles that there had been numerous underlying causes. September 29, 2000 Violent confrontations erupt between Muslims and Israeli Police outside a mosque. October 1-9, 2000 October 2000 events in Israel. Solidarity demonstrations held by Palestinian citizens of Israel escalate into clashes with Israeli police and Israeli Jewish citizens. 13 Palestinian civilians (12 with Israeli citizenship) are shot and killed by Israeli police and one Jewish civilian is killed by an Arab citizen. November 22, 2000 Two Israeli women killed and 60 civilians were wounded in a car bomb attack in Hadera. October 12, 2000 The lynching in Ramallah. December 10, 2000 Prime Minister Ehud Barak resigns. January 21-27, 2001 Taba Summit. Peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority aimed to reach the "final status" of negotiations. Ehud Barak temporarily withdraws from negotiations during the Israeli elections, subsequently Ariel Sharon refused to continue negotiating in the face of the newly erupted violence. February 6, 2001

Ariel Sharon of Likud is elected Prime Minister and refuses to continue negotiations with Yasser Arafat at the Taba Summit. June 1, 2001 Dolphinarium massacre. A Hamas suicide bomber exploded himself at the entrance of a club. 21 Israelis killed, over 100 injured, all youth. Five months prior to the bombing, there was a failed terrorist attempt at the same spot. August 9, 2001 Sbarro restaurant massacre. A suicide bomber wearing an explosive belt weighing 5 to 10 kilograms, containing explosives, nails, nuts and bolts, detonated his bomb. In the blast 15 people (including 7 children) were killed, and 130 wounded. Both Hamas and the Islamic Jihad initially claimed responsibility. August 27, 2001 Abu Ali Mustafa, the General Secretary of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, is assassinated by an Israeli missile shot by an Apache helicopter through his office window in Ramallah.[citation needed] October 17, 2001 Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi is assassinated in Jerusalem by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. March 13, 2002 The U.S. pushes through the passage of U.N. Resolution 1397 by the Security Council, demanding an "immediate cessation of all acts of violence" and "affirming a vision of a region where two states, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized borders". March 14, 2002 Israeli forces continue the raid on Ramallah and other West Bank towns. A helicopter attack near Tulkarm kills Mutasen Hammad and two bystanders. A bomb in Gaza City destroys an Israeli tank which was escorting settlers, killing 3 soldiers and wounding 2. A taxi in Tulkarm explodes, killing 4 Palestinians. Palestinians execute two accused collaborators in Bethlehem, planning to hang one of the corpses near the Church of the Nativity until Palestinian police stop them. March 27, 2002 Passover massacre. The Park Hotel in Netanya held a big Passover dinner for its 250 guests. A Palestinian suicide bomber enters the hotel's dining room and detonates an explosive device. Thirty people are killed and about 140 injured, all civilians. Hamas claims responsibility. March 28, 2002 The Beirut Summit approves the Saudi peace proposal. March 29, 2002

Israeli forces begin Operation Defensive Shield, Israel's largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. March 30, 2002 A suicide bomber explodes in a Tel Aviv café at around 9:30 PM local time, wounding 32 people. President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell (USA) call on Yasir Arafat to condemn the wave of suicide bombings in Arabic, to his own people. Israeli spokespeople make similar demands. Arafat goes on television and swears in Arabic that he will "die a martyr, a martyr, a martyr". Members of Arafat's personal Al-Aqsa brigade state that they will refuse any form of cease-fire, and that they will continue suicide bombings of civilians in Israel. March 31, 2002 Matza restaurant massacre. A Palestinian Hamas bomber blows himself up in an Arab-owned restaurant in Haifa, killing 15 (including 2 whole families) and injuring over 40 people. Israeli troops exchange gunfire with guards of Yasir Arafat in Ramallah. In the past 18 months, according to the Associated Press, 1262 people have been killed on the Palestinian side and on 401 on the Israeli side; in March, 259 Palestinians and 130 Israelis were killed. The stats do not distinguish between combatants and non-combatants. April 2, 2002 Israeli troops occupy Bethlehem. Dozens of armed Palestinian gunmen, many of whom Israel has identified as terrorists, occupy the Church of the Nativity and hold the church and its clergy. April 12, 2002 The Battle of Jenin, as part of Operation Defensive Shield, Israeli forces enter a Palestinian refugee camp in Jenin where about a quarter of suicide bombings since 2000 had been launched from. The battle cost the lives of 23 Israeli soldiers and 52 Palestinians, of which 30 were militants and 22 were civilians. This particular event sparked a great deal of controversy. May 9, 2002 Muhammad al-Madani, governor of Bethlehem, leaves the Church of the Nativity. Israel calls up additional reserve forces and moves tanks into position for an expected incursion into the Gaza Strip in retaliation for the most recent suicide bombing. May 18, 2002 Israeli Shin Bet officials announce they have arrested six Israelis for conspiring to bomb Palestinian schools in April, including Noam Federman, a leader of the Kach movement of the late Rabbi Meir Kahane, and Menashe Levinger, son of Rabbi Moshe Levinger. Membership to the Kach group is illegal in Israel and punishable by law. June 2002 Israel begins construction of the West Bank Fence. Palestinian terror attacks on Israelis subsequently drop by 90%.[10] June 18, 2002

Patt junction massacre. A Hamas Palestinian Islamic law student explodes himself with a belt filled with metal balls for shrapnel. 19 Israelis killed, and over 74 wounded. June 24, 2002 US President George W. Bush proposes a Palestinian state under new leadership. [edit] July 23, 2002 An Israeli warplane fires a missile at an apartment in Gaza City, killing the top of their most wanted list, Salah Shehadeh, top commander of Hamas' military wing, the Izzadine el-Qassam. The apartment building is flattened and 14 civilians are killed (nine children).[5] July 31, 2002 A Hamas member leaves a bag containing a bomb in the cafeteria of Hebrew University of Jerusalem, killing 9 Jewish students (four Israeli, five foreign), and injuring 85 others (different nationalities, some Arab). Palestinians rally in Gaza waving Hamas flags to celebrate the attack. On August 17, Israeli Security Forces expose a terrorist cell of Hamas operatives in East Jerusalem that had been responsible for the attack. The members had been planning another attack until arrested by Israel.[6][7][8] November 21, 2002 Jerusalem bus 20 massacre. Hamas Palestinian suicide bomber explodes himself on a crowded bus, killing 11 people, and wounding over 50. April 30, 2003 The Quartet on the Middle East announces the Road map for peace. August 19, 2003 Jerusalem bus 2 massacre. A Hamas Palestinian disguised as a Haredi Jew detonates himself with a bomb spiked with ball-bearings on a bus crowded with children. 23 Israelis killed, over 130 wounded, all civilians. October 4, 2003 Maxim restaurant suicide bombing. A 28-year-old Palestinian female suicide bomber, Hanadi Jaradat, explodes herself inside the Maxim restaurant in Haifa. 21 Israelis, Jews and Arabs were killed, and 51 others were wounded. The restaurant is co-owned by Jewish and Christian Arab Israelis, and was a symbol of co-existence. February 25, 2005 Young Israelis arrive for a surprise birthday party at the Stage Club in Tel Aviv. A teenage suicide bomber detonates himself at the entrance to the club. 5 Israelis killed, and about 50 wounded. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.[11] [edit] July 9, 2004 The International Court of Justice rules in a non-binding advisory opinion that the West Bank wall is illegal under international law,[12] the United Nations has also condemned the construction of the wall as "an unlawful act of annexation". The United States and Australia defend the security fence saying the wall is a counter-terrorism protective measure and that the onus is on the Palestinian Authority to fight terrorism. The U.S., Canada, Israel and

some 30 other democratic states objected to the ICJ consideration of the UN General Assembly request, finding the request loaded and prejudicial, and expressing concern of the ICJ's credibility.[13][14][15] July 12, 2005 2000-2006 The death toll both military and civilians of the entire conflict in 2000-2006 is estimated to be 4,046 Palestinians and 1,017 Israelis.[16] Note that these numbers do not differentiate between combatants and civilians. At least 223 Palestinians were also killed by fellow Palestinians. Recent developments June 24, 2002 US President George W. Bush calls for an independent Palestinian state living in peace with Israel. In a major speech, Bush states that Palestinian leaders must take steps to produce democratic reforms, and fiscal accountability, in order to improve the negotiations with Israel. He also states that as Palestinians show control over terrorism, Israel must end operations in the West Bank, and in areas which it entered under Operation Defensive Shield. [17] August 14, 2002 Marwan Barghouti, captured April 15, was indicted by a civilian Israeli court for murdering civilians and membership in a terrorist organisation. March 16, 2003 Rachel Corrie, an American member of the International Solidarity Movement is crushed by an IDF bulldozer, becoming the first ISM member to die in the conflict. Members of the group who witnessed her death allege murder, while Israel calls it a "regrettable accident". March 19, 2003 Mahmoud Abbas appointed Prime Minister. March 24, 2003 Hilltop 26, an illegal Israeli settlement near the city of Hebron, is peacefully dismantled by the IDF. [edit] April 30, 2003 The details of the Road map for peace are released. May 27, 2003 Ariel Sharon states that the "occupation" of Palestinian territories "can't continue endlessly." June 2, 2003

A two-day summit is held in Egypt. Arab leaders announce their support for the road map and promised to work on cutting off funding to terrorist groups. June 29, 2003 Hamas, Islamic Jihad and Fatah agree to a three-month cease-fire. August 19, 2003 Islamic Jihad and Hamas claim joint responsibility for a suicide bombing that kills twenty Israelis. Mahmoud Abbas pledges a crackdown on militants. September 6, 2003 Mahmoud Abbas resigns from the post of Prime Minister. October 16, 2004 Israel officially ended a 17-day military operation, named Operation Days of Penitence, in the northern Gaza Strip. The operation was launched in response to a Qassam rocket that killed two children in Sderot. About 108-133 Palestinians were killed during the operation, of whom one third were civilians. November 11, 2004 Yasser Arafat dies at the age of 75 in a hospital near Paris, after undergoing urgent medical treatment (since October 29, 2004). February 25, 2005 On Friday evening, young Israelis arrive for a birthday party at the Stage Club in Tel Aviv. A teenage suicide bomber detonates himself at the entrance to the club. 5 Israelis killed, and about 50 wounded. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility.[11] August 7, 2005 An individual IDF deserter and member of the banned Kach group in Israel, Eden Natan-Zada, opens fire on a crowded bus in the Arab town of Shfaram, killing 4 Palestinians and wounding twenty-two. When he runs out of bullets, the bus is stormed by Arab bystanders and Zaada is beaten to death. PM Ariel Sharon and several Israeli leaders condemn the attack and offer condolences to the families. August 17, 2005 A Asher Weissgan shoots and kills 4 Palestinians in the West Bank as a protest against the disengagement plan.[18] [edit] September 12, 2005 Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. Israel removes all Jewish settlements, many Bedouin communities, and military equipment from the Gaza Strip. Although there is no permanent Israeli presence or jurisdiction in Gaza anymore, Israel retains control of certain elements (such as airspace, borders and ports), leading to an ongoing dispute as to whether or not Gaza is "occupied" or not. Since the disengagement, Palestinian militant groups have used the territory as a staging ground from which to launch rocket attacks and build underground tunnels into Israel.

October 14, 2005 Lebanese Prime Minister Fuad Saniora announces Lebanon will be the last Arab country to have any peace with Israel. January 25, 2006 Hamas wins by landslide the majority of seats after the Palestinian legislative election, 2006. Israel, the United States, European Union, and several European and Western countries cut off their aid to the Palestinians; as they view the Islamist political party who rejects Israel's right to exist as a terrorist organization. June 9, 2006 Following the Gaza beach blast, in which seven members of one family and one other Palestinian were killed on a Gaza beach, the armed wing of Hamas calls off its 16-month-old truce. Israel claims it was shelling 250m away from the family's location; Palestinians claimed that the explosion was Israeli responsibility.[19] [20] Reports have concluded Israel had not been responsible for the blast.[21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] An Israeli internal investigation report claims the blast was most likely caused by an unexploded Israeli munition buried in the sand and not by shelling. June 13, 2006 Israel kills 11 Palestinians in a missile strike on a van carrying Palestinian militants and rockets driving through a densely civilian populated area in Gaza.[27] Nine among those killed are civilian bystanders. July 5, 2006 First Qassam rocket of increased strength is fired into the school yard in the Southern Israeli coastal city of Ashkelon. This has been the first instance of an increased distance Qassam rockets can reach and the first time a significantly large city has been attacked. No one was injured in this attack.[28] July 26, 2006 Israel launches a counter-offensive to deprive cover to militants firing rockets into Israel from Gaza. 23 Palestinians killed, at least 16 are identified militants, 76 wounded. June 25, 2006 After crossing the border from the Gaza Strip into Israel, Palestinian militants attack an Israeli army post. The militants kidnapped Gilad Shalit, killed two IDF soldiers and wounded four others. Israel launches Operation Summer Rains. July 12, 2006 Hezbollah infiltrates Israel in a cross-border raid, kidnaps two soldiers and kills three others. Israel attempts to rescue the kidnapped, and five more soldiers are killed. Israel's military responds, and the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict begins. August 14, 2006 2006 Fox journalists kidnapping. Palestinian militants kidnap Fox journalists Olaf Wiig and Steve Centanni, demanding the U.S. to release all Muslims in prison. The two are eventually released on August 27, after stating they have converted to Islam.

[edit] September 2006 Violence and rivalry erupts between Fatah and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. Mahmoud Abbas tries to prevent civil war.[29][30] President Mahmoud Abbas and his moderate party advocate a Palestinian state alongside Israel, while Prime Minister Ismail Haniya and his Islamist party reject Israel's right to exist.[31] September 26, 2006 A UN study declares the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip "intolerable", with 75% of the population dependent on food aid,[32] and an estimated 80% of the population living below the poverty line.[33] The Palestinian economy had largely relied on Western aid and revenues, which has been frozen since Hamas's victory. The situation can also be attributed to Israeli closures, for which Israel and the EU cite security concerns, specifically smuggling, possible weapons transfers and uninhibited return of exiled extremist leaders and terrorists; as well as an extremely high birth rate.[34][35][36][37] October 11-14, 2006 In the midst of an increase of rocket attacks against Israel, the Israeli Air Force fires into the Gaza Strip over a threeday period. 21 Palestinians are killed (17 Hamas militants, 1 al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades militant, and 3 civilians). The two dozen wounded include gunmen and passersby.[38][39][40] Israel says the offensive is designed to track down the kidnapped soldier and to stop militants firing rockets into Israel. Spokesman Abu Ubaida for Hamas's military wing issued a statement vowing "we will bombard and strike everywhere" in response to the attacks. Make-shift rockets are immediately shot into Israel. [edit] October 17, 2006 In separate gunbattles in Nablus, Israeli troops kill 2 al-Aqsa Martyrs's Brigades militants, 2 rock-throwers, and 1 Islamic Jihad militant. Israeli forces discover 13 tunnels apparently used to smuggle weapons into Gaza in the last 3 months. [41] October 20, 2006 Brokered by Egyptian mediators, Fatah reaches a deal to end fighting between the Hamas and Fatah factions, both groups agreeing to refrain from acts that raise tensions and committing themselves to dialogue to resolve differences. Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas brushes off comments by President Mahmoud Abbas, head of Fatah, who indicated he could dismiss the Hamas-led cabinet. Abbas unsuccessfully urges Hamas to accept international calls to renounce violence and recognize Israel's right to exist. Palestinian gunmen (presumably of the Fatah faction) open fire at the convoy of Prime Minister Haniyeh as it passed through a refugee camp in central Gaza.[42] October 27, 2006 3 Palestinians in the West Bank are killed by Israeli troops. The relatives were not present but say at least one of the two men in Al Faraa may have been throwing rocks at army jeeps. Israeli soldiers say the two had approached them with a handgun and an axe. The gunman was killed, while the man with the axe was wounded in the leg and taken to an Israeli hospital. In Yamoun, a man was shot and killed on the roof of his home. Relatives say he had gone on the roof to watch the army raid and two other brothers were also wounded. The Israeli army says troops hit at least two armed Palestinians. Islamic Jihad later admitted the man killed on his rooftop was a member of the militant group who died in a gunbattle with Israelis.[43] November 8, 2006

Beit Hanoun November 2006 incident. Amidst ongoing rocket fire, Israel shells Beit Hanoun, killing 19 Palestinian civlians (seven children, four women) during the Gaza operations. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert apologises, saying the incident had been an accidental "technical failure" by the Israeli military. January 19, 2007 Israel transfers $100 million in tax revenues to cover humanitarian needs to the office of the Palestinian Authority president, Mahmoud Abbas, as part of a plan to bolster him and keep money out of the hands of the Hamas government.[44] [edit] May 4, 2007 The United States sets a timetable for easing Palestinian travel and bolstering Israeli security. Israel including steps like removing specific checkpoints in the West Bank and deploying better-trained Palestinian forces to try to halt the firing of rockets into Israel from Gaza and the smuggling of weapons, explosives and people into Gaza from Egypt. Israel is wary over certain proposals so long as Palestinian militants continue to fire rockets at Israel.[9] The Hamasled Palestinian government rejected the initiative, in part because it favored Mahmoud Abbas.[10] May 14, 2008 Tony Blair announces new plan for peace and for Palestinian rights, based heavily on the ideas of the Peace Valley plan.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
^ Archive Editions ^ Palestine Post, 26 July 1938. http://jic.tau.ac.il/Archive/skins/PalestineP/navigator.asp?AW=1169534055109 ^ The Palestinian Refugees ^ Arab Refugees from Israel ^ Palestinian Refugees, invited to leave in 1948 ^ Timeline for Israel ^ Arab-Israeli conflict - Basic facts ^ Sabra and Shatila massacres - Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust!

^ http://scs.student.virginia.edu/~irouva/conferences/vics/guides/ArabLeague.pdf#search=%22timeline%20of%20first%20intifada%20e nd%20site%3A%3A.edu%22 10. ^ Townhall.com::Israel's fence, with all its implications, is an absolute necessity::By Jack Kemp

11. ^ a b Suicide bombing at Tel Aviv Stage Club 12. ^ ICJ advisory opinion summary/ Separation barrier - Summary - Press release (9 July 2004) 13. ^ [1][dead link] 14. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/icjruling.pdf 15. ^ House Denounces UN Misuse Of International Court On Security Fence 16. ^ "Intifada statistics", B'Tselem (2006-07-29). 17. ^ George Bush Speech on Israel-Palestinian Settlement June 2002 18. ^ After Gaza, fear rises of West Bank violence - The Boston Globe 19. ^ Hamas breaks truce with rockets, BBC Online, June 10, 2006 20. ^ CHRONOLOGY-Key events in the Gaza Strip, Reuters, July 4, 2006 21. ^ Gaza Beach Libel 22. ^ IDF not responsible for Gaza blast | Jerusalem Post 23. ^ Gaza beach blast: Possible scenarios - Israel News, Ynetnews 24. ^ Der Krieg der Bilder, Süddeutsche Zeitung, June 16, 2006

25. ^ German paper doubts Gaza beach reports - Israel News, Ynetnews 26. ^ Human Rights Watch switches stories 27. ^ Israeli missile kills 11 Palestinians in Gaza - Turkish Daily News Jun 14, 2006 28. ^ PA Rocket Slams Into the Heart of Ashkelon - Defense/Middle East - Israel News - Arutz Sheva 29. ^ In Gaza, the Rule by the Gun Draws Many Competitors 30. ^ Amid civil war fears, Hamas and Fatah stockpile arms 31. ^ [2][dead link] 32. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | UN says Gaza crisis 'intolerable' 33. ^ BBC NEWS | Middle East | Palestinian despair as donors meet 34. ^ Defense Update News Commentary: 01/01/2005 - 01/31/2005 35. ^ Microsoft Word - RC CRT 2005-Entire S Version-4 27.doc 36. ^ Defending Israel's Positions in Rafah 37. ^ S/PV.4972 of 19 May 2004 38. ^ "Security: Six Palestinians killed in fighting with Israel - Hamas claims will take revenge". Israelinsider (2006-10-12). Retrieved on 39. ^ Death toll reaches eight in Israeli raid on Gaza Strip 40. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20061014/ts_nm/mideast_dc] 41. ^ [3][dead link] 42. ^ "Gunmen fire on Palestinian PM's convoy in Gaza", CBC News (2006-10-20). 43. ^ "Israeli troops kill 3 Palestinians", AP via Gulfnews (2006-10-27). 44. ^ "Israel releases withheld tax funds to Abbas's office", International Herald Tribune (January 19, 2007). 45. ^ Israel may ease grip in Tony Blair deal to revive West Bank, The Times May 14, 2008


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. For other uses, see Zion (disambiguation). See also: History of Zionism, Timeline of Zionism, and World Zionist Organization

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Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the reestablishment of a homeland for the Jewish People in Palestine (Hebrew: Eretz Yisra'el, "the Land of Israel"), and continues primarily as support for the modern state of Israel.[1] Zionism is partly based upon strong historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel, where the concept of Jewish nationhood first evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and the late Second Temple era (i.e. up to 70 CE).[2][3] The modern movement was mainly secular in its origins, beginning largely as a response by European Jewry to antisemitism across Europe.[4] It is a branch of the broader phenomenon of modern nationalism.[5] At first one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to the position of Jews in Europe, Zionism grew rapidly, and after the Holocaust became the dominant Jewish political movement. The political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in the late 19th century.[6] The movement seeks to encourage Jewish migration to the Promised Land and was eventually successful in establishing Israel in 1948, as the homeland for the Jewish people. Its proponents regard its aim as self-determination for the Jewish people.[7] About 40% of the world's Jews now live in Israel.[8]

• •

1 Terminology 2 Organization

• • • •

• • •

3 Types of Zionism o 3.1 Labor Zionism o 3.2 Liberal Zionism o 3.3 Nationalist Zionism o 3.4 Religious Zionism 4 Particularities of Zionist beliefs 5 History 6 Opposition, critics and evolution of Zionism 7 Non-Jewish Zionism o 7.1 Marcus Garvey and Black Zionism o 7.2 Christian Zionism o 7.3 Muslims supporting Zionism 8 See also o 8.1 Types of Zionism o 8.2 Zionist institutions and organizations o 8.3 History of Zionism and Israel o 8.4 Other 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links

[edit] Terminology
The word "Zionism" itself is derived from the word Zion (Hebrew: ‫ ,ציון‬Tzi-yon). This name originally referred to Mount Zion, a mountain near Jerusalem, and to the Fortress of Zion on it. Later, under King David, the term "Zion" became a synecdoche referring to the entire city of Jerusalem and the Land of Israel. In many Biblical verses, the Israelites were called the people, sons or daughters of Zion. "Zionism" was coined as a term for Jewish nationalism by Austrian Jewish publisher Nathan Birnbaum, founder of the first nationalist Jewish students' movement Kadimah, in his journal Selbstemanzipation (Self Emancipation) in 1890. (Birnbaum eventually turned against political Zionism and became the first secretary-general of the anti-Zionist Haredi movement Agudat Israel.)[9] Certain individuals and groups have used the term "Zionism" as a pejorative to justify attacks on Jews. According to historians Walter Laqueur, Howard Sachar and Jack Fischel among others, the label "Zionist" is in some cases also used as a euphemism for Jews in general by apologists for antisemitism.[10] Zionism can be distinguished from Territorialism, a Jewish nationalist movement calling for a Jewish homeland not necessarily in Palestine. During the early history of Zionism, a number of proposals were made for settling Jews outside of Europe, but ultimately all of these were rejected

or failed. The debate over these proposals helped to define the nature and focus of the Zionist movement.

[edit] Organization
Members and delegates at the 1939 Zionist congress, by country (Zionism was banned in Russia)[11] Country Members Delegates Poland 299,165 109 USA 263,741 114 Palestine 167,562 134 Romania 60,013 28 United Kingdom 23,513 15 South Africa 22,343 14 Canada 15,220 8 The Zionist movement is structured as a representative democracy. Congresses are held every four years (they were held every two years before the second World War) and delegates to the congress are elected by the membership. Members are required to pay dues known as a "shekel," At the congress, delegates elected a 30-man executive council, which in turn elects the movement's leader. The movement was democratic from its inception and women had the right to vote (before they won the right in Great Britain). Until 1917 the WZO pursued a strategy of building a homeland through persistent small-scale immigration and the founding of such bodies as the Jewish National Fund (1901 - a charity which bought land for Jewish settlement) and the Anglo-Palestine Bank (1903 - provided loans for Jewish businesses and farmers). The 28th Zionist Congress, meeting in Jerusalem 1968, adopted the five points of the "Jerusalem Program" as the aims of Zionism today. They are:[12] 1. The unity of the Jewish People and the centrality of Israel in Jewish life; 2. The ingathering of the Jewish People in its historic homeland, Eretz Israel, through Aliyah from all countries; 3. The strengthening of the State of Israel which is based on the prophetic vision of justice and peace: 4. The preservation of the identity of the Jewish People through the fostering of Jewish and Hebrew education and of Jewish spiritual and cultural values; 5. The protection of Jewish rights everywhere. Since the creation of Israel the role of the movement itself has become far less important, however the ideology remains a critical part of Israeli and Jewish political thinking.

[edit] Types of Zionism

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Over the years a variety of schools of thought have evolved with different schools dominating at different times. In addition Zionists come from a wide variety of ethnic groups and at different times Jews of Russian, Polish, American or Moroccan backgrounds have exercised strong influence on the movement's agenda.

[edit] Labor Zionism
Main article: Labor Zionism See also: Kibbutz Movement and Kibbutz Labor Zionism originated in Russia. Socialist Zionists believed that centuries of being oppressed in anti-Semitic societies had reduced Jews to a meek, vulnerable, despairing existence which invited further anti-Semitism. They argued that Jews could escape their situation by becoming farmers, workers, and soldiers in a country of their own. Most socialist Zionists rejected religion as perpetuating a "Diaspora mentality" among the Jewish people and established rural communes in Israel called "Kibbutzim". Socialist and Labor Zionists are usually atheists or opposed to religion. Consequently, the movement has often had an antagonistic relationship with Orthodox Judaism. Labor Zionism became the dominant force in the political and economic life of the Yishuv during the British Mandate of Palestine and was the dominant ideology of the political establishment in Israel until the 1977 election when the Labor Party was defeated. The Labor Party continues the tradition (although it has weakened) and has in recent years taken to advocating creation of a Palestinian State in the West-Bank and Gaza.

[edit] Liberal Zionism
Main article: General Zionists General Zionism (or Liberal Zionism) was initially the dominant trend within the Zionist movement from the First Zionist Congress in 1897 until after the First World War. General Zionists identified with the liberal European middle class (or bourgeois) to which many Zionist leaders such as Herzl and Chaim Weizmann aspired. Liberal Zionism, although not associated with any single party in modern Israel, remains a strong trend in Israeli politics advocating free market principles, democracy and adherence to human rights.

[edit] Nationalist Zionism
Main article: Revisionist Zionism

Originating from the Revisionist Zionists led by Jabotinsky who, before independence, advocated the formation of a Jewish Army in Palestine that would force the Arab population to accept mass Jewish migration and promote British interests in the region. Revisionist Zionism evolved into the Likud Party in Israel, which has dominated most governments since 1977. It advocates Israel maintaining control of the West-Bank and East Jerusalem and takes a hard-line approach in the Israeli-Arab conflict.

[edit] Religious Zionism
Main article: Religious Zionism

Wikisource has original text related to this article: Zionism an Affirmation of Judaism In the 1920s and 1930s Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook (the first Chief Rabbi of Palestine) and his son Rabbi Zevi Judah Kook saw great religious and traditional value in many of Zionism's ideals, while rejecting its anti-religious undertones. They sought to forge a branch of Orthodox Judaism which would properly embrace Zionism's positive ideals and serve as a bridge between Orthodox and secular Jews. While other Zionist groups have tended to moderate their nationalism over time, the gains from the Six Day War have led religious Zionism to play a significant role in Israeli political life. Now associated with the National Religious Party and Gush Emunim, religious Zionists have been at the forefront of Jewish settlement in the West Bank and efforts to assert Jewish control over the Old City of Jerusalem. Religious Zionism is largely Modern Orthodox but increasingly includes (more traditional) Ultra-Orthodox Jews. Although the Sephardi party Shas is not directly associated with the Zionist movement, the party generally pursues an Ultra-Orthodox Zionist agenda.

[edit] Particularities of Zionist beliefs
Main article: The "Negation of the Diaspora" in Zionism According to Eliezer Schweid the rejection of life in the Diaspora is a central assumption in all currents of Zionism.[13] Underlying this attitude was the feeling that the Diaspora restricted the full growth of Jewish national life. Main article: Revival of the Hebrew language See also: Yiddish and Ladino Zionists preferred to speak Hebrew, a semitic language that developed under conditions of freedom in ancient Judah, modernizing and adapting it for everyday use. Zionists sometimes

refused to speak Yiddish, a language they considered affected by Christian persecution. Once they moved to Israel, many Zionists refused to speak their (diasporic) mother tongues and gave themselves new, Hebrew names. Main article: anti-semitism Zionism is dedicated to fighting anti-semitism. Some Zionists believe that anti-semitism will never disappear (and that Jews must conduct themselves with this in mind[14]) while others perceive Zionism as a vehicle with which to end anti-semitism.

[edit] History
Main articles: History of Zionism and History of Israel Since the first century CE most Jews have lived in exile, although there has been a constant presence of Jews in the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel). According to Judaism, Eretz Israel, or Zion, is a land promised to the Jews by God according to the Bible. Following the 2nd century Bar Kokhba revolt, Jews were expelled from Palestine by the Romans to form the Jewish diaspora. In the nineteenth century a current in Judaism supporting a return grew in popularity. Even before 1897, which is generally seen as the year in which practical Zionism started, Jews immigrated to Palestine, the pre-Zionist Aliyah.[15] Population of Palestine by religions[16] year Muslims Jews Christians Others Jewish immigration to Palestine 1922 486,177 83,790 71,464 7,617 started in earnest in 1882. Most immigrants came from Russia, 1931 493,147 174,606 88,907 10,101 escaping the frequent pogroms and 1941 906,551 474,102 125,413 12,881 state-led persecution. They founded 1946 1,076,783 608,225 145,063 15,488 a number of agricultural settlements with financial support from Jewish philanthropists in Western Europe. Further Aliyahs followed the Russian Revolution and Nazi persecution. In the 1890s Theodor Herzl infused Zionism with a new ideology and practical urgency, leading to the first congress at Basel in 1897, which brought the World Zionist Organization (WZO) into being.[17] Herzl's aim was to initiate necessary preparatory steps for the attainment a Jewish state. Herzl’s attempts to reach a political agreement with the Ottoman rulers of Palestine were unsuccessful and other governmental support was sought. The WZO supported small scale settlement in Palestine and focused on strengthening Jewish feeling and consciousness and building a world-wide federation. The Russian Empire, with its long record of state organized genocide and ethnic cleansing ("pogroms") was widely regarded as the historic enemy of the Jewish people. As much of its leadership were German speakers, the Zionist movement's headquarters were located in Berlin. At the start of the First World War most Jews (and Zionists) supported Germany in its war with Russia.

Lobbying by a Russian Jewish immigrant, Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the USA to support Germany culminated in the Balfour Declaration of 1917 by the British government. This endorsed the creation of a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. In addition a Zionist military corps led by Jabotinsky were recruited to fight on behalf of Britain in Palestine. In 1922, the League of nations adopted the declaration in the Mandate it gave to Britain: The Mandatory (…) will secure the establishment of the Jewish national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the development of self-governing institutions, and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion.[18] Weizmann's role in obtaining the Balfour Declaration led to his election as the movement's leader. He remained in that role until 1948. The British Mandate resulted in increased Jewish migration to Palestine and massive Jewish land purchases from feudal landlords, which created landlessness and fueled unrest (often led by the same landlords who sold the land). There were riots in 1920, 1921 and 1929, sometimes accompanied by massacres of Jews. Massacred Jews were sometimes from local non-Zionist orthodox communities. Britain supported Jewish immigration in principle, but in reaction to Arab violence imposed restrictions on Jewish immigration. In 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany and, in 1935, the Nuremberg Laws, made German Jews (and later Austrian and Czech Jews) stateless refugees. Similar rules were applied by Nazi allies in Europe. The subsequent growth in Jewish migration and impact of Nazi propaganda aimed at the Arab world led to the 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. The British established the Peel Commission to investigate the situation. The commission (which did not consider the situation of Jews in Europe) called for a two-state solution and compulsory transfer of populations. This solution was subsequently rejected by the British and instead the White Paper of 1939 implemented. This planned to end Jewish immigration by 1944 and to allow no more then 75,000 further Jewish migrants. The British maintained this policy until the end of the Mandate. Growth of the Jewish community in Palestine and devastation of European Jewish life sidelined the World Zionist Organization. The Jewish Agency for Palestine under the leadership of David Ben-Gurion increasingly dictated policy with support from American Zionists who provided funding and influence in Washington. After WWII and the Holocaust the Jewish community in Palestine were universally supported by Jews, especially Holocaust survivors. The British were attacked in Palestine by Zionist groups because of their restrictions on Jewish immigration and eventually forced to refer the issue to the newly created United Nations. In 1947, the UNSCOP recommended the partition of western Palestine into a Jewish state, an Arab state and a UN-controlled territory (Corpus separatum) around Jerusalem.[19] This partition plan was adopted on November 29th, 1947 with UN GA Resolution 181, 33 votes in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. The vote led to celebrations in the streets of Jewish cities.[20]

The Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected the UN decision, demanding a single state and removal of Jewish migrants. On 14 May 1948, at the end of the British mandate, the Jewish Agency, led by Ben-Gurion, declared the creation of the State of Israel, and the same day the armies of seven Arab countries invaded Israel. The conflict led to an exodus of about 711,000 Arab Palestinians[21] and the exodus of 850,000 Jews from the Arab world, mostly to Israel. Since the creation of the State of Israel, the WZO has functioned mainly as an organization dedicated to assisting and encouraging Jews to migrate to Israel. It has provided political support for Israel in other countries but plays little role in internal Israeli politics. The movement's major success since 1948 has been in providing logistical support for migrating Jews and, most importantly, in assisting Soviet Jews in their struggle with the authorities over the right to leave the USSR and to practice their religion in freedom.

[edit] Opposition, critics and evolution of Zionism
Main articles: Anti-Zionism, Non-Zionism, Post-Zionism, Neo-Zionism, and New Antisemitism See also: Stalin's antisemitism and Karl_Marx#Marx_and_antisemitism In the twenties the growing secularization of the Zionist movement led to opposition from some Orthodox Jewish groups. The movement was also opposed by some Marxists, by Islamic and Arab nationalist organizations, by some assimilated Jews and by British Imperialists who feared it would undermine Britain's relations with its many Moslem subjects. Since the creation of the state of Israel, anti-Zionism has increasingly become associated with anti-Semitism and this has led to claims that there is a New Anti-Semitism associated with antiZionism. In Israel the Canaanite movement led by poet Yonatan Ratosh in the 1930s and 1940s argued that "Israeli" should be a new pan-ethnic nationality. During the last quarter of 20th century, the decline of classic nationalism in Israel lead to the rise of two antagonistic movements: neo-Zionism and post-Zionism. Both mark the Israeli version of a worldwide phenomenon: the ascendancy of globalization and with it the emergence of a market society and liberal culture, on one hand, and a local backlash on the other.[22] The traits of both neo-Zionism and post-Zionism are not entirely foreign to "classical" Zionism but they differ by accentuating antagonist and diametrically opposed poles already present in Zionism. "Neo Zionism accentuates the messianic and particularistic dimensions of Zionist nationalism, while post-Zionism accentuates its normalising and universalistic dimensions".[23]

[edit] Non-Jewish Zionism

Political support for the Jewish return to the Land of Israel predates the formal organization of Jewish Zionism as a political movement. In the nineteenth century, advocates of the Restoration of the Jews to the Holy Land were called Restorationists. The return of the Jews to the Holy Land was widely supported by such eminent figures as Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, John Adams, the second President of the United States, General Smuts of South Africa, President Masaryk of Czechoslovakia, Benedetto Croce, Italian philosopher and historian, Henry Dunant, founder of the Red Cross and author of the Geneva Conventions, Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian scientist and humanitarian. The French government through Minister M. Cambon formally committed itself to “the renaissance of the Jewish nationality in that Land from which the people of Israel were exiled so many centuries ago". In China, Wang, Minister of Foreign Affairs, declared that "the Nationalist government is in full sympathy with the Jewish people in their desire to establish a country for themselves."[24]

[edit] Marcus Garvey and Black Zionism
Zionist success in winning British support for formation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine helped inspire the African-American Nationalist Marcus Garvey to form a movement dedicated to returning Americans of African origin to Africa. During a speech in Harlem in 1920 Garvey stated that other races were engaged in seeing their cause through—the Jews through their Zionist movement and the Irish through their Irish movement—and I decided that, cost what it might, I would make this a favorable time to see the Negro's interest through.[25] Garvey established a shipping company, the Black Star Line, to ship Black Americans to Africa, but for various reasons failed in his endeavour. His ideas helped inspire the Rastafarian movement in Jamaica, the Black Jews[26] and The African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem who initially moved to Liberia before settling in Israel. W. E. B. Du Bois was an ardent supporter of Zionism, and the NAACP endorsed the creation of Israel in 1948. Paul Robeson, Bayard Rustin, and Martin Luther King, Jr. also supported Zionism.[27]

[edit] Christian Zionism
Main article: Christian Zionism Evangelical Christians have a long history of supporting Zionism. Famous evangelical supporters of Israel include British Prime Ministers David Lloyd George and Arthur Balfour, President Woodrow Wilson and Orde Wingate whose activities in support of Zionism, led the British Army to ban him from ever serving in Palestine. According to Charles Merkley of Carleton University, Christian Zionism strengthened significantly after the 1967 Six-Day War, and many dispensationalist Christians, especially in the United States, now strongly support Zionism.

Christian Arabs publicly supporting Israel include US author Nonie Darwish, creator of the Arabs for Israel web site, and former Muslim Magdi Allam, author of Viva Israele,[28] both born in Egypt. Brigitte Gabriel, a Lebanese-born Christian US journalist and founder of the American Congress For Truth, urges Americans to "fearlessly speak out in defense of America, Israel and Western civilization".[29]

[edit] Muslims supporting Zionism
Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi, the leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder of the Islam-Israel Fellowship, and Canadian Imam Khaleel Mohammed find support for Zionism in the Qur'an.[30][31] Other Muslims who have supported Zionism include Pakistani journalist Tashbih Sayyed[32] and Bangladeshi journalist Salah Choudhury. Choudhury has been imprisoned since 2003 and is facing a death sentence.[33] On occasion, some Muslims yet non-Arabs such as some Kurds and Berbers have also voiced support for Zionism.[34][35]

[edit] See also
Religion portal

[edit] Types of Zionism
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Christian Zionism Cultural Zionism General Zionists Labor Zionism Reform Zionism Religious Zionism Revisionist Zionism Muslim Zionism

[edit] Zionist institutions and organizations
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Histadrut The Jewish Agency for Israel Jewish National Fund Vaad Leumi World Zionist Organization

[edit] History of Zionism and Israel
• •

History of Zionism History of Israel

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History of Palestine Israeli-Palestinian conflict List of Zionist figures Timeline of Zionism

[edit] Other
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Anti-Zionism Jewish Autonomism Jewish Emancipation Christian Zionism in the United Kingdom

[edit] Footnotes
1. ^ "An international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national or

religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel." ("Zionism," Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary). See also "Zionism", Encyclopedia Britannica, which describes it as a "Jewish nationalist movement that has had as its goal the creation and support of a Jewish national state in Palestine, the ancient homeland of the Jews," and The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, which defines it as "A Jewish movement that arose in the late 19th century in response to growing anti-Semitism and sought to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Modern Zionism is concerned with the support and development of the state of Israel." 2. ^ "...from Zion, where King David fashioned the first Jewish nation" (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard To Rule Jerusalem, p. 27). 3. ^ "By the late Second Temple times, when widely held Messianic beliefs were so politically powerful in their implications and repercussions, and when the significance of political authority, territorial sovereignty, and religious belief for the fate of the Jews as a people was so widely and vehemently contested, it seems clear that Jewish nationhood was a social and cultural reality". (Roshwald, Aviel. "Jewish Identity and the Paradox of Nationalism", in Berkowitz, Michael (ed.). Nationalism, Zionism and Ethnic Mobilization of the Jews in 1900 and Beyond, p. 15). 4. ^ Largely a response to anti-Semitism: o "A Jewish movement that arose in the late 19th century in response to growing anti-Semitism and sought to re-establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine." ("Zionism", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition). o "The Political Zionists conceived of Zionism as the Jewish response to antiSemitism. They believed that Jews must have an independent state as soon as possible, in order to have a place of refuge for endangered Jewish communities." (Wylen, Stephen M. Settings of Silver: An Introduction to Judaism, Second Edition, Paulist Press, 2000, p. 392). o "Zionism, the national movement to return Jews to their homeland in Israel, was founded as a response to anti-Semitism in Western Europe and to violent

persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe." (Calaprice, Alice. The Einstein Almanac, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004, p. xvi). o "The major response to anti-semitism was the emergence of Zionism under the leadership of Theodor Herzl in the late nineteenth century." (Matustik, Martin J. and Westphal, Merold. Kierkegaard in Post/Modernity, Indiana University Press, 1995, p. 178). o "Zionism was founded as a response to anti-Semitism, principally in Russia, but took off when the worst nightmare of the Jews transpired in Western Europe under Nazism." (Hollis, Rosemary. The Israeli-Palestinian road block: can Europeans make a difference?PDF (57.9 KiB), International Affairs 80, 2 (2004), p. 198) 5. ^ A.R. Taylor, 'Vision and intent in Zionist Thought', in 'The transformation of Palestine', ed. by I. Abu-Lughod, 1971, ISBN 0-8101-0345-1, p. 10 6. ^ Walter Laqueur (2003) The History of Zionism Tauris Parke Paperbacks, ISBN 1860649327 p 40 7. ^ A national liberation movement: o "Zionism is a modern national liberation movement whose roots go far back to Biblical times." (Rockaway, Robert. Zionism: The National Liberation Movement of The Jewish People, World Zionist Organization, January 21, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006). o "The aim of Zionism was principally the liberation and self-determination of the Jewish people...", Shlomo Avineri. (Zionism as a Movement of National Liberation, Hagshama department of the World Zionist Organization, December 12, 2003, accessed August 17, 2006). o "Political Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, emerged in the 19th century within the context of the liberal nationalism then sweeping through Europe." (Neuberger, Binyamin. Zionism - an Introduction, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, August 20, 2001, accessed August 17, 2006). o "The vicious diatribes on Zionism voiced here by Arab delegates may give this Assembly the wrong impression that while the rest of the world supported the Jewish national liberation movement the Arab world was always hostile to Zionism." (Chaim Herzog, Statement in the General Assembly by Ambassador Herzog on the item "Elimination of all forms of racial discrimination", 10 November 1975., Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 11, 1975, accessed August 17, 2006). o Zionism: one of the earliest examples of a national liberation movement, written submission by the World Union for Progressive Judaism to the U.N. Commission on Human Rights, Sixtieth session, Item 5 and 9 of the provisional agenda, January 27, 2004, accessed August 17, 2006. o "Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people and the state of Israel is its political expression." (Avi Shlaim, A debate : Is Zionism today the real enemy of the Jews?, International Herald Tribune, February 4, 2005, accessed August 17, 2006. o "But Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people." (Philips, Melanie. Zionism today is the real enemy of the Jews’: opposed by Melanie Phillips, www.melaniephilips.com, accessed August 17, 2006.

"Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, brought about the establishment of the State of Israel, and views a Jewish, Zionist, democratic and secure State of Israel to be the expression of the common responsibility of the Jewish people for its continuity and future." (What is Zionism (The Jerusalem Program), Hadassah, accessed August 17, 2006. o "Zionism is the national liberation movement of the Jewish people." (Harris, Rob. Ireland's Zionist slurs like Iran, says Israel, Jewish Telegraph, December 16, 2005, accessed August 17, 2006. 8. ^ [1] Nissan Ratzlav-Katz, Percentage of World Jewry Living in Israel Steadily Increasing, Arutz Sheva, November 26, 2008 9. ^ De Lange, Nicholas, An Introduction to Judaism, Cambridge University Press (2000), p. 30. ISBN 0-521-46624-5. 10. ^ Misuse of the term "Zionism": o "... behind the cover of "anti-Zionism" lurks a variety of motives that ought to be called by their true name. When, in the 1950s under Stalin, the Jews of the Soviet Union came under severe attack and scores were executed, it was under the banner of anti-Zionism rather than anti-Semitism, which had been given a bad name by Adolf Hitler. When in later years the policy of Israeli governments was attacked as racist or colonialist in various parts of the world, the basis of the criticism was quite often the belief that Israel had no right to exist in the first place, not opposition to specific policies of the Israeli government. Traditional anti-Semitism has gone out of fashion in the West except on the extreme right. But something we might call post-anti-Semitism has taken its place. It is less violent in its aims, but still very real. By and large it has not been too difficult to differentiate between genuine and bogus anti-Zionism. The test is twofold. It is almost always clear whether the attacks are directed against a specific policy carried out by an Israeli government (for instance, as an occupying power) or against the existence of Israel. Secondly, there is the test of selectivity. If from all the evils besetting the world, the misdeeds, real or imaginary, of Zionism are singled out and given constant and relentless publicity, it can be taken for granted that the true motive is not anti-Zionism but something different and more sweeping." (Laqueur, Walter: Dying for Jerusalem: The Past, Present and Future of the Holiest City (Sourcebooks, Inc., 2006) ISBN 1-4022-0632-1. p. 55) o "In late July 1967, Moscow launched an unprecedented propaganda campaign against Zionism as a "world threat." Defeat was attributed not to tiny Israel alone, but to an "all-powerful international force." ... In its flagrant vulgarity, the new propaganda assault soon achieved Nazi-era characteristics. The Soviet public was saturated with racist canards. Extracts from Trofim Kichko's notorious 1963 volume, Judaism Without Embellishment, were extensively republished in the Soviet media. Yuri Ivanov's Beware: Zionism, a book essentially replicated The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, was given nationwide coverage." (Howard Sachar: A History of the Jews in the Modern World (Knopf, NY. 2005) p.722 o See also Rootless cosmopolitan, Doctors' Plot, Zionology, Polish 1968 political crisis 11. ^ Source: A survey of Palestine, prepared in 1946 for the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Volume II page 907 HMSO 1946.

12. ^ http://www.hagshama.org.il/en/resources/view.asp?id=497&subject=43 13. ^ E. Schweid, ‘Rejection of the Diaspora in Zionist Thought’, in ‘’Essential Papers

onZionsm, ed. By Reinharz & Shapira, 1996, ISBN 0-8147-7449-0, p.133 14. ^ For an example of this view see The New Anti-Zionism and the Old Antisemitism: Transformations By: Raphael Jospe at http://www.hagshama.org.il/en/resources/view.asp?id=2095 accessed 16/11/2008 15. ^ C.D. Smith, 2001, 'Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict', 4th ed., ISBN 0-312-208286, p. 1-12, 33-38 16. ^ Anonymous (1947-09-03). "REPORT TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, VOLUME 1". UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PALESTINE. Retrieved on 2008-0630. 17. ^ Zionism & The British In Palestine, by Sethi,Arjun (University of Maryland) January 2007, accessed May 20, 2007. 18. ^ League of Nations Palestine Mandate, July 24, 1922, sateofisrael.com/mandate 19. ^ UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON PALESTINE; REPORT TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY, A/364, 3 September 1947 20. ^ Three minutes, 2000 years, Video from the Jewish Agency for Israel, via YouTube 21. ^ GENERAL PROGRESS REPORT AND SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONCILIATION COMMISSION FOR PALESTINE, Covering the period from 11 December 1949 to 23 October 1950, GA A/1367/Rev.1 23 October 1950 22. ^ Uri Ram, The Future of the Past in Israel - A Sociology of Knowledge Approach, in Benny Morris, Making Israel, p.224. 23. ^ Steve Chan, Anita Shapira, Derek Jonathan, Israeli Historical Revisionism: from left to right, Routledge, 2002, p.58. 24. ^ Palestine: The Original Sin , Meir Abelson [2] 25. ^ Negro World 6 March 1920, cited in http://www.international.ucla.edu/africa/mgpp/lifeintr.asp (accessed 29/11/2007). 26. ^ BlackJews.org - A Project of the International Board of Rabbis 27. ^ Why Don’t Jews Like the Christians Who Like Them by James Q. Wilson, City Journal Winter 2008 28. ^ ISBN 9788804567776 29. ^ anonymous (unknown). "Mission/Vision". American Congress for Truth. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. 30. ^ Glazov, Jamie. "The Anti-Terror, Pro-Israel Sheikh" FrontPage Magazine, September 12, 2005. "I find in the Qur'an that God granted the Land of Israel to the Children of Israel and ordered them to settle therein (Qur'an 5:21) and that before the Last Day He will bring the Children of Israel to retake possession of their Land, gathering them from different countries and nations (Qur'an 17:104). Consequently, as a Muslim who abides by the Qur'an, I believe that opposing the existence of the State of Israel means opposing a Divine decree." 31. ^ Cobb, Chris (February 6, 2007). "The scathing scholar", The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved on 26 March 2008. "despite what Muslims are taught, Islam's holy book, the Koran, supports the right of Israel to exist and for Jews to live there." 32. ^ Neuwirth, Rachel. "Tashbih Sayyed ― A Fearless Muslim Zionist", The American Thinker, June 24, 2007.

33. ^ Freund, Michael (2008-08-08). "Pro-Israel editor goes on trial in Bangladesh".

Jerusalem Post. Retrieved on 2008-08-25.
34. ^ "Islam, Islam, Laïcité, and Amazigh Activism in France and North Africa" (2004

paper), Paul A. Silverstein, Department of Anthropology, Reed College

[edit] References

Taylor, A.R., 1971, 'Vision and intent in Zionist Thought', in 'The transformation of Palestine', ed. by I. Abu-Lughod, ISBN 0-8101-0345-1, Northwestern university press, Evanston, USA David Hazony, Yoram Hazony, and Michael B. Oren, eds., "New Essays on Zionism," Shalem Press, 2007.

[edit] External links
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http://www.hagshama.org.il/en/ WZO website Works related to Zionism at Wikisource Jewish State.com Zionism, News, Links Exodus1947.com PBS Documentary Film focusing on the secret American involvement in Aliyah Bet, narrated by Morley Safer




Jews and Judaism

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zionism" Categories: Nationalism | National liberation movements | Zionism | Jews and Judaism-related controversies | Religion and politics | Jewish history | History of Israel Hidden category: Articles needing additional references from May 2007
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