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# Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113

Alireza Mohyeddin
Office: 5-245
Phone: 6304 5201
Email: a.mohyeddin@ecu.edu.au
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Semester 2 2013
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Semester 2 2013
Bending/Flexural Stress
LECTURE 6
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Semester 2 2013
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Lecture Objectives
Understand basics of flexural stresses
Understand the basics of beam design
Determine flexural stress in doubly symmetric beams with
Determine maximum stresses in beams due to stress
concentrations
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
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Semester 2 2013
Shear force and bending moments at a
given cross section of the beam are in
fact the resultants of shear stresses and
bending stresses at that section.
BENDING IN A STRAIGHT MEMBER
displacement
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
The deflection diagram of the
longitudinal axis that passes through the
centroid of each cross-sectional area of
the beam is called the elastic curve,
which is characterized by the
displacement and slope along the curve.
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Pure Bending: Flexure of a beam under a constant bending
moment; in contrast we have nonuniformbending.
Examples of pure bending:
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
Pure versus nonuniformbending:
So the difference between uniform and nonuniformbending is that in the
case of uniform bending there is no shear stress, and hence we dont have
shear deflections.
Central region in pure
bending
End regions in nonuniform
bending
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Pure Bending
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Consider a straight prismatic beamwith an axis of symmetry, y, under
pure bending. With the direction of the couple (moment) Mshown,
acting in the same plane of y, the length of the upper fibres of the beam
tend to decrease, whereas the length of the fibres of the beam at the
bottom increase. Somewhere in between, called neutral axis the
length doesnt change; therefore, that is where the strain is zero.
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Remember: y is a plane of symmetry,
and hence one of the principal axes.
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
Curvature:
Centre of curvature: draw a line normal to the tangent to the deflected
shape (deflection curve), O
Radius of curvature: the distance m
1
O is the radius of curvature at m
1
:
Curvature : the reciprocal of the radius of curvature:
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
For small deflections, ie when deflections are very small compared to the
length of the beam (for instance the deflection of a beam in a building or an
automobile), ds can be assumed to be equal to dx and hence:
*We assume beam is in pure bending and hence cross sectional planes remain plane; but results are applicable to when
shear forces are present as well (ie nonuniformbending). Also it can be shown that for pure bending curvature is constant.
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Curvature*:
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
Longitudinal/normal strain in beams:
We can now find L
1
, the length of ef
after bending as:
The stains in a beam under pure bending varies linearly with distance
from the neutral axis regardless of the shape of stress-strain curve.

dx
d =
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
y
y
dx
dx dx
y
dx
dx
dx L
L
L
x

= =

=

=
) (
1
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
Longitudinal/normal stress in beams:
Therefore, a longitudinal element in a beam in pure bending is in the state of
uniaxial stress. This stress increases linearly from zero at the location of neutral
axis (surface) to a maximum occurring at points farthest from the neutral axis.
Material behaves in a linear-elastic manner so that Hookes Law
Applies; i.e. = E.
Sign convention similar to what
we used for normal strains (i.e
elongation is positive).
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
max x
c
y
=
where c is the distance between the neutral
axis and the farthest fibres of the beam.
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
( )
I
My
I
Mc
dA y
c
M
dA
c
y
y dA y ydF M
A
A A
=
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
= = =

max
2
max
max
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Longitudinal/normal stress in beams:
Pure Bending
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Semester 2 2013
Because there is no resultant axial
force acting on the cross section:
dA dF
x
=
Hence, the neutral axis (z) passes through the
centroid and is one of the principal axes.
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Pure Bending
Location of neutral axis:
EXAMPLE 1
The cross-sectional area of the simply supported beam in shown below.
Determine the absolute maximum bending stress in the beam and draw
the stress distribution over the cross section at this location.
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 1
The maximum internal moment in the beam, 22.5 kN.m, occurs at the
centre.
By reasons of symmetry, the neutral axis passes through the centroidC
at the mid-height of the beam.
Solutions
( )
( )( ) ( )( )( ) | | ( )( ) | |
( )
( )( )
( )
(Ans) MPa 7 . 12
10 3 . 301
17 . 0 10 5 . 22
;
m 10 3 . 301
3 . 0 02 . 0 16 . 0 02 . 0 25 . 0 02 . 0 25 . 0 2
6
3
4 6
3
12
1
2 3
12
1
2
= = =
=
+ + =
+ =

D
D
D
I
My

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 1
A three-dimensional view of the stress distribution is shown below.
At point B:
Solutions
( )( )
( )
MPa 2 . 11
10 3 . 301
15 . 0 10 5 . 22
;
6
3
= = =

B
B
B
I
My

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
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Semester 2 2013
I
Mc
=
max
If c
1
=c
2
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Design of Beams
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Section modulus:
S is called section modulus and is used for design purposes.
The advantage of using S is that it combines two section
properties, I and c. This quantity can be found in handbooks
and design books for different sections. However, it can be
calculated based on the dimensions of the section. As for
design, by knowing the maximum moment (coming from the
BMD of the beam) a well as the allowable stress (based on the
material that we are using), we can then determine the
dimensions of the beam, or in other words design the beam:
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Design of Beams
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Semester 2 2013
Compare a square section (b = h) with
a circular section of the same area:
(/4)d
2
= h
2
h = (/2) d
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Design of Beams
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Semester 2 2013
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Design of Beams
If we place half of the area (of a rectangular cross section) at top
and the other half at the bottom:
Compare with what we have
for the rectangular shape:
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Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Design of Beams
Some of cross sections used for members in bending:
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Semester 2 2013
Doubly SYMMETRIC beams with inclined loads:
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
y
y
z
z
I
z M
I
y M
+ =
= +
=
+
External loads pass through the centroid of the cross section
The section is double symmetric
Principle of
superposition:
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
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Semester 2 2013
y z
z y
y
y
z
z
y
y
z
z
I M
I M
z
y
I
z M
I
y M
I
z M
I
y M
=
=
= + = 0
Location of neutral axis
Neutral axis passes through C and is somewhere between the vectors
depicting M
y
and M
z
.
For the points on the neutral axis, is zero,
hence:
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Doubly SYMMETRIC beams with inclined loads:
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Semester 2 2013
Location of neutral axis
tan tan
y
Z
y z
z y
I
I
I M
I M
z
y
= = =
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
Doubly SYMMETRIC beams with inclined loads:
This means that for most cases the neutral axis is the two angles and are
not equal, and hence the neutral axis is not perpendicular to the plane of load.
EXAMPLE 2
The rectangular cross section shown below is subjected to a bending moment of
12 kN.m. Determine the normal stress developed at each corner of the section,
and specify the orientation of the neutral axis.
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 2
The moment is resolved into its y and z components, where
The moments of inertia about the y and z axes are
Solutions
( )
( ) m kN 20 . 7 12
5
3
m kN 60 . 9 12
5
4
= =
= =
z
y
M
M
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
4 3
3
4 3
3
m 10 067 . 1 4 . 0 2 . 0
12
1
m 10 2667 . 0 2 . 0 4 . 0
12
1

= =
= =
z
y
I
I
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
EXAMPLE 2
For bending stress,
Solutions
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
(Ans) MPa 95 . 4
10 2667 . 0
1 . 0 10 6 . 9
10 067 . 1
2 . 0 10 2 . 7
(Ans) MPa 25 . 2
10 2667 . 0
1 . 0 10 6 . 9
10 067 . 1
2 . 0 10 2 . 7
(Ans) MPa 95 . 4
10 2667 . 0
1 . 0 10 6 . 9
10 067 . 1
2 . 0 10 2 . 7
(Ans) MPa 25 . 2
10 2667 . 0
1 . 0 10 6 . 9
10 067 . 1
2 . 0 10 2 . 7
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
=

+

=
=

=
=

+ =
=

+ =
+ =

E
D
C
B
y
z
z
z
I
z M
I
y M

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 2
Solutions
( )
( )
(Ans) 4 . 79 )
3
4
(
10 2667 . 0
10 067 . 1
tan
tan tan
3
3
= =
=

y
z
I
I
specify the angle that the axis makes
with the z or maximum principal axis.
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
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Semester 2 2013
Stress concentration (pure bending):
Mechanics of Solids ENS3190/5113
I
Mc
K =
max

## Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

EXAMPLE 3
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
The transition in the cross-sectional area of the steel bar is achieved using
shoulder fillets. If the bar is subjected to a bending moment of 5 kNm,
determine the maximum normal stress developed in the steel. The yield stress
is
Y
= 500 MPa
EXAMPLE 3
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
From the geometry of the bar,
Thus K is 1.45 and we have
This result indicates that the steel remains elastic since the stress
is below the yield stress (500 MPa).
Solutions
5 . 1
80
120
2 . 0
80
16
= = = =
h
w
h
r
( )
( )( )
( )( )
MPa 340
08 . 0 02 . 0
12
1
04 . 0 5
45 . 1
3
max
=
(

= =
I
Mc
K