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BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus p

ANU GUPTA

BITS Pilani

Pilani Campus

**Sampling and Interpolation
**

Discrete system processing

Need of sampling

BITS Pilani, Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act, 1956

Pilani Campus .Discrete time processing A continuous-time signal can be processed by processing its samples through a discrete-time system. Reconstruction of Signal BITS Pilani.

•We can therefore suppress the signal spectrum beyond B Hz with little effect on the signal shape and energy energy. •The bandwidth B is called the essential bandwidth of the signal. Pilani Campus . •We may select B to be that band which contains 95% of the signal BITS Pilani. and the energy contributed by the components beyond B Hz g g is negligible.Essential Bandwidth of a Signal •Most of the signal g energy gy is contained within a certain band of B Hz.

Given signal f(t) = e-au(t ) Determine the freq. q band such that the energy gy contributed by the spectral components of all the frequencies below W is 95% of the total signal energy E. BITS Pilani.Example au(t). Pilani Campus .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Discrete system processing Discrete system BITS Pilani. 1956 .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Digital system processing sampling ADC Digital g system y DAC BITS Pilani.

Discretization of signal BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Impulse Train Sampling F(t)x δ(t) BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .SAMPLING BITS Pilani.

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Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Fourier transform of f(t) BITS Pilani. 1956 .

Frequency Domain View of Sampling BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .

Recover F (w) from F(w). BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus . This recovery y is p possible if there is no overlap p between successive cycles of F(w).

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BITS Pilani. In other words. words the minimum sampling frequency is Fs = 2B Hz. Pilani Campus .Nyquist theorem A real signal whose spectrum is bandlimited to B Hz [F(w) = 0 for Iwl > 2πB] can be reconstructed exactly (without any error) from its samples taken uniformly at a rate Fs > 2B samples per second.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 . Oversampling BITS Pilani.Under sampling.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Under-sampling Ts > 0.1 0 1 sec. sec Ws < 20π BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.1 1 sec.Oversampling Ts < 0 0. 1956 . sec Ws > 20π BITS Pilani.

Example1 Find the sampling rate BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Pilani Campus .Example2 Find sampling rate BITS Pilani.

Example3 Find sampling rate BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Example4 Sketch the spectrum of x(t) BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .BITS Pilani.

5 Ideal Sampling Given signal x(t) with band width B hz. Pilani Campus .EXAMPLE. Find Nyquist Rate f for x(t)+ (t)+ x(t-1). (t 1) x2(t) BITS Pilani.

Example6 Find nyquist interval BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

). (b) multiplication. . where x1( (t) ) and x2( (t) ) are band limited such that of x1( X1(jw)) = 0. Pilani Campus . for |w| | | > 2000π. X2(j Determine Nyquist sampling frequencies and Nyquist interval Ts in each case.Example 7 Ques----The signal y(t) is (a) convolution. (c) addition (t) ) and x2( (t). |w| > 1000π and (jw)) )) = 0. BITS Pilani.

B and h(t) •Convolution of two sinusoids of the same frequency yield a sinusoid at the same frequency.e.. for some C and D BITS Pilani.Convolution property •For any convolution function h(t). dependent on A. frequency content) in the frequency domain.e. and conversely any frequency that a is s weak ea in e either t e input pu s signal g a will be weak ea in the e ou output pu s signal. then the output of the convolution is a sinusoid with the same wavelength i. g a f(t) * h(t) = C cos(2t) + D sin(2t). if the input f(t) is a sinusoid with wavelength f (t) = A cos(2t) + B sin(2t). •By "multiplying" the spectra we mean that any frequency that is strong in both signals will be very strong in the convolved signal. the output is sinusoid of low frequency •Convolving two waveforms in the time domain means that you are multiplying their spectra (i. A B. Pilani Campus . For different frequencies.

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Pilani Campus . x ( t ) = cos 15t Find the value of sampling interval Ts such that x [ n ] = x(nTs) is a BITS Pilani.Example 8 Consider the sinusoidal signal periodic sequence.

Example 9 How many minimum number of samples are required to exactly describe the signal? BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Signal Reconstruction: Interpolation Using Sinc Functions .

there are a number of other ways to reconstruct the signal by using different types of interpolators and reconstruction filters. at least in real time. Ideal filter is unfeasible.ideal way A signal g J(t) J( ) bandlimited to B Hz can be reconstructed ( (interpolated) p ) exactly from its samples. filters BITS Pilani.Interpolation. However. Pilani Campus . This reconstruction is accomplished by passing the sampled signal through an ideal lowpass filter of bandwidth B Hz.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Ideal interpolation BITS Pilani. 1956 .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Reconstruction of signal back Linear interpolator 1 BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. BITS Pilani. 1956 .kT).Ideal Low pass filter characteristic f(kT) h(t .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Linear interpolation BITS Pilani.

kT). being g an impulse. Pilani Campus . •The kth sample of the input f(t) is the impulse f(kT) δ(t kT). g generates a sinc pulse of height equal to the strength of the sample •Addition Additi of f the th sinc i pulses l generated t d by b all ll the th samples l results in f(t). ) •the filter output of this impulse is f(kT) h(t .Linear interpolation Each sample p in f(t). BITS Pilani. ( ). p .

1956 .Filter Output Envelop detector BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.First order hold/ Linear Interpolation BITS Pilani.

Envelop detector .

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Pilani Campus .Linear interpolator 2 first order hold The linear interpolator. interpolator whose impulse response is a triangle pulse results lt i in an i interpolation t l ti i in which hi h successive i sample l t tops are connected by straight line segments BITS Pilani.

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Other possibilitiesfirst order hold BITS Pilani.

Pilani Campus .Ideal filter is not feasible---other alternatives Zero-Order Hold filter BITS Pilani.

Time domain view BITS Pilani. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

impulse produces at the output a gate pulse of height equal to the strength of the sample. When this impulse passes through the filter. it produces at the output a gate pulse of height f(kT). Each sample in input being an impulse. Pilani Campus .Zero order hold The kth sample in input is an impulse of strength f(kT) located at (t – kT) and can be expressed as f(kT) δ(t .kT). centered at t = kT BITS Pilani.

zero- order hold filter, is as good as ideal low-pass filter

**Practical difficulties in signal reconstruction
**

We need to keep p Fs > 2B, else we require q unrealizable ideal filter with steep roll off Even if Fs > 2B, exact interpolation is not possible because filter gain ≠ 0 in stop band as required to suppress modulated terms

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Difficulty2

aliasing

All real life signals are time limited This means, infinite bandwidth

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.BITS Pilani.

Difficulties—Aliasing

We need band limited signals. But all real signals are time limited but band non-limited and hence have infinite band width. Spectral overlap, spectral folding (aliasing)

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Aliasing

In this process of aliasing, aliasing ---we losing all the components of frequencies above Fs/2 Hz, but these very components reappear (aliased) as lower frequency components. --tail inversion destroys the integrity of the lower frequency components

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Disadvantages of Aliasing

2 x loss

•Loss of spectra p beyond y F= Fs/2 •Tail inversion---Aliasing A component of frequency fs + fx shows up as a

component of lower frequency fs - fx in the reconstructed signal. This causes corruption of spectra below fs. Hence, Hence

recovery of signal is difficult

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

1956 .Effect of aliasing in photography Without anti aliasing g filter With anti aliasing filter BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

and 5 appear at lower frequencies < fs/2 BITS Pilani. 3. 4. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .signals 2.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. The frequencies of the input signals will change to: fOUT(1) = ¦41 kHz − 0 x 100 kHz¦ = 41 kHz fOUT(2) = ¦82 kHz − 1 x 100 kHz¦ = 18 kHz fOUT(3) = ¦219 kHz − 2 x 100 kHz¦ = 19 kHz fOUT(4) = ¦294 kHz kH − 3 x 100 kHz¦ kH ¦ = 6 kHz kH fOUT(5) = ¦347 kHz − 4 x 100 kHz¦ = 53 kHz BITS Pilani. suppose the sampling frequency (fS) in Figure a of the system is equal to 100 kHz and the input frequency is: fIN(1) = 41 kHz fIN(2) = 82 kHz fIN(3) = 219 kHz fIN(4) = 294 kHz fIN(5) = 347 kHz The sampled output in Figure b contain accurate amplitude information for all of these input signals. four of the signals will fold-back into the frequency range of dc to fS/2 or dc to 50 kHz at the output of the A to D converter. 1956 . However.effect of aliasing in ADC operation For example.

Minimizing aliasing problem Keep aliased comp comp. 1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. magnitude small Rect Filter transfer function to extract main lobe aliased component aliased component magnitude << Signal component passed through filter BITS Pilani.

at fc is to be at least 30 dB below the response at fc f 60 60 .e.What is the minimum value of fs if the response to the aliased 60 component at the edge of the passband i.

Pilani Campus .e. e band limiting) This filter is called Anti-aliasing Filter BITS Pilani.Remove Aliasing REMEDY– filter out spectra beyond F= REMEDY F Fs/2. (i (i. Fs/2 then no tail inversion This should be done before sampling by using a low pass filter with cut off frequency Fs/2 Fs/2.

Anti aliasing filter BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Use of anti-aliasing filter Band limiting anti aliasing filter Impulse train sampling BITS Pilani.

for example in music players. systems for example in sound digitization systems. Pilani Campus . where again perfect stop-band rejection would be required to guarantee zero aliasing. The theoretical impossibility of realizing perfect filters is not much of an impediment in practice. In the later case.Anti-aliasing filter An anti-aliasing filter is a filter used before a signal sampler. though practical considerations do lead to system design choices such as oversampling to make it easier to realize "good enough" anti-aliasing filters. similar filters are used as reconstruction filters at the output of such systems. to restrict the bandwidth of a signal Anti-aliasing filters are commonly used at the input of digital signal processing systems. the filter is to prevent aliasing in the conversion of samples back to a continuous signal. BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Ideal/ practical anti aliasing filter BITS Pilani. 1956 .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Aliasing removal impossible BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Effect of aliasing as viewed in time domain Aliasing effect: two sinusoidal signals of different frequencies interpolate the samples. BITS Pilani. 1956 .

•However. BITS Pilani. this choice may prove too conservative for some applications. particularly in video footage of cars whose wheels appear to be slowing down when the car is in fact accelerating. .Example of Aliasing •The effect of aliasing g can sometimes be observed on television. Pilani Campus . •In practice. a generally safe rule of thumb is to choose the sampling frequency to be five to ten times higher than the bandwidth of the signal.

1956 .Proof– B W of time limited signal is not finite BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Pilani Campus .Proof– B W of time nonlimited signal is finite D it yourself Do lf BITS Pilani.

Proof---A time nonlimited signal can be band non-limited Do it yourself BITS Pilani. Pilani Campus .

5 wo . Also draw spectra for ws= 1.5 wo BITS Pilani. theorem Draw frequency spectrum of sampled signal .Example---sampling Assume signal x(t)= coswot is sampled at the rate of ws= 1. 0. wo. 2wo. Pilani Campus .5 wo violating the sampling theorem.

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1956 . BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Effect of aliasing as viewed in time domain Aliasing effect: two sinusoidal signals of different frequencies interpolate the samples.

BITS Pilani.Example The signals below are sampled with sampling period Ts. Pilani Campus . Determine the bounds on Ts that guarantee there will be no aliasing.

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BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Difficulty in sampling with impulse train Ideal impulse train is non existent Close approximation---pulse train .

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Pulse train sampling BITS Pilani.

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LPF .

Pilani Campus .amplitude modulation (PAM) pulse-width modulation (PWM) pulse position modulation (PPM) pulse code modulation (POM) BITS Pilani.Applications of the pulse train sampling pulse.

1956 . Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.Applications of the pulse train sampling BITS Pilani.

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.PAM— Time division multiplexing BITS Pilani. 1956 .

BITS Pilani Pilani Campus Spectral sampling .

Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act. 1956 .Spectral sampling –dual of time sampling BITS Pilani.

1956 .Spectral Interpolation BITS Pilani. Deemed to be University under Section 3 of UGC Act.

Difference in Discrete system processing Digital system processing .

Discrete system processing Discrete system .

Digital g system y processing p g ADC Digital g system y DAC .

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