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30 SEP 2013

Contents

1. OBJECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. THEORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Discrete Time Fourier Transform 2.2 Discrete Fourier Transform . . . . 2.3 Circular Convolution . . . . . . . 3.PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . 6.BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 11 . 11

1.OBJECTIVE

1. To sample the given sinusoidal signal and to plot the frequency spectrum of it and also the magnitude spectrum for dierent values of N 2. To obtain the DFT of the sampled signal using the given formula for three dierent values of N and compare it. 3. To obtain the respective 5 point DFT of the given two discrete signals and multiply them to observe the property of circular convolution.

2.THEORY

2.1 DISCRETE TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM

[1] Discrete Time Fourier Transform (DTFT) is dened as the frequency domain representation of the discrete time signal. It can be considered to be obtanined by discretizing the continuous time Fourier transform in time. If x(n) is the discrete time signal whose DTFT is X (ej ), then DTFT can be given as

X (ej ) =

n=

x(n)ejn

(1)

Since ejn is periodic in with period 2 , X (ej ) is also periodic in with period 2 and it is continous in . Given the DTFT of a signal X (ej ), the signal x(n) can be obtained using the inverse DTFT formula given as x(n) = 1 2

2

X (ej )ejn d

0

(2)

[2] Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a signal is obtanied by sampling its DTFT at a proper sampling rate. It is dened only for discrete time signals of nite length. If there are N points in the discrete time signal x(n), then we sample N points in one period 2 of the DTFT of the signal. This then gives the N point DFT of the signal X (K ) . So here we sample the frequency axis

N 1

X (K ) =

n=0

x(n)e

2jkn N

(3)

DFT is a form of the signal suitable for computation. There exists various computationally ecient algorithms like Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithms for computing the DFT of a signal. Given the DFT of a signal, X (K ), we can get back the signal x(n) by taking the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) of the signal. It is given as 1 x(n) = N

N 1

X (K )e

K =0

2jnk N

(4)

[2] Supposing two sequences x1 (n) of length N1 and x2 (n) of length N2 and also suppose N1 > N2 . Now linear convolution of the two sequences will yield a new sequence having length N1 + N2 1. On the other hand to obtain the N (where N > N1 , N2 ) point circular convolution of the two sequences, we zero pad both x1 (n) and x2 (n) to a length of N and then take the product of the corresponding N point DFTs of the padded sequences. IDFT of the this will give the circular convolution of the two sequences. Circular convolution yc (m) of two sequences x1 (n) and x2 (n) given above can be given as

N 1

yc (m) =

n=0

(5)

where x((m n))N represents the circular shift of the ipped sequence x(n) by an amount m in the anticlockwise direction. yc (n) can also be obtained as yc (n) = IDF T (X1 (k )X2 (K )) (6) where X1 (K ) and X2 (K ) are the N point DFTs of x1 (n) and x2 (n)

3.PROCEDURE

1. The given sinusoidal signal x(t)=3sin(2F t) is sampled at the given sampling rate and its magnitude spectrum is plotted. 2. The magnitude spectrum is now again sampled for three dierent values of N and its corresponding plot is observed 3. Using the given formula, the DFT of the given sampled signal is obtained and compared to the previous obtained plots 4. Two discrete nite length sequences are given and their respective 5 point DFT are found by padding required number of zeros for corresponding signals and the two DFTs of the signals are multiplied and its plot is observed.

4.FIGURES

10

In question 1, srt the spectrum of xa = 3sin(2F t) is obtained using the DTFT of the signal. It is found that sampling the DTFT of the signal is equivalent to obtianing the DFT of the signal for the same number of points. In this case the sample of DTFT for N=5, 50 and 100 match with the DFT of the signal obtained for N=5, 50 and 100. In question 2 , circular convolution of the two signals x1=[1 2 3] and x2=[2 3] is obtained. It is shown that N point DFT of the circular convolution of the two signals x1 and x2 is same as the product of the N point DFTs of x1 and x2.

6.BIBLIOGRAPHY

1 J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, Fourth Edition, Pearson, 2007. 2 Signal Processing and Linear Systems,B.P.Lathi.

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