You are on page 1of 45

NACA TM 426

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUMS NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS

No. 426

SEAPLANE FLOATS A.ND HULLS
By H. Herrmann

PART I

From "Berichte und Abhandlungen d e r Wissenschaften
Gesellschaft f u r Luftfahrt" December, 1926

Washington August, 1927

12
Italy

84

24
176

12

132 176 180

Russia
America

30

30
66

120
264

135

264

4 6 1

There a r e two methods f o r a government t o develop good se
planes:

I n the first i n s t a n c e , by placing a~ order o r caJ.1

.

n i t u d e of t h e v a r i a t i o n i s shown i n Figs. ed f o r t h e same take-off by changing t h e take-off speed. i n g bo at s The .. Conditions a r e The procedures o u t l i n e d above a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r corn p a r i n g two p a i r s of f l o a t s o r two f l y i n g boats. I n t h i s con- s a r e p l o t t e d as . 3-5. The same r e speed o s both t h e load The off speed simultaneously. which i s u s u s a l l y t h e case. r e f e r t o a p a i r of twin f l o a t s .

8-2.- t h e t o t a l f l o a t capacity. The shape of t h e f l o a t i s shorn i n Fi YJithout changing i t s submerged p o r t i o n . The t o - . a f l y i n g boat may be provided with a cabin h u l l o r w i t h a rnilit'vy h u l l . t h e capacity i s usually As far i t s seaworthiness i s con 1. 1 .2 times t h e displacement at The water r e s i s t a n c e of ttvin-floats of 2 t o n s t o t shown i n Fig.

which changes slowly with i n c r e a s i n g speed. A t low speeds t h e model i s P a r t of water r e s i s t a n c e i s due t o f r i c t i o n subject t o t h e Reynolds l a w . (2) There i s no a c c e l e r a t i o When t h e r e i s a c c e l e r a t i o t h e h u l l always t r a v e l s w i t h a flow d i a g sponding t o a l o V a r i a t i o n of w a t t a n c e i s w i t h i n range o f m e atjur eraent accuracy Owing t o f r i c t i o n .measurement accuracy. water res i s t a n c e measurements of model are t o o high and must be corrected. . Water r e s i s t a n c e depends l a r g e l y on flow under h u l l . (3) Controls a r e i n e f f e c t i v e at (4) .

.

L T Z t m S x 7 L K k vol kg K K=kK D i s p l ac ement Mass Speed Vol m3 L3 Vol=vol h3 M ~ = Km 7 2 h v V B m/s h 7 h v=v T B=b h 72 K Acceleration b h A a m h K A=ah .

t a k e s o f f when t h e p r o p e l l e r thrust exceeds t h e combined water and air r e s i s t a n c e . which depresses t h e bow. This e f f e c t i s counterbalanced by holding t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l . t h e water r e s i s t a n c e of modern boats The seaplane i s approximately t e n times t h e air r e s i s t a n c c . with r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y and e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e waterl i n e . b e f o r e t h e c r i t i c a l speed i s reached. A r e s u l t of t h e e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n of t h e p r o p e l l e r . C e r t a i n bow shapes produce s u c t i o n e f f e c t s . &de t o t h e increased r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y of t h e water flow. The r e s u l t i s t h a t many seaplanes nose dovn while t a k i n g o f f . i s nose-heaviness.t o t a l weight. Consequently.

.

Above is p l o t t e d the p r o p e l l e r t h r u s t . When t h e seaplane a l i g h t s . ) being i t s base and . I n Fig. s u r f ace.2 f t . The mass m u l t i p l i e d by t h e r e t a r d a t i o n i s always equa3 t o t h e comb i n e d water and air r e s i s t a n c e . of Then t h e water u n t i i i t s speed d e c r e a s e s t o t h e c r i t i c a l speed. Very seldom. The take-off time w i l l now be determined.81 m / s (32. t h e water r e s i s t a n c e i s seen i n c r e a s i n g t o a m a x i m u m value and t h e n d e c r e a s i n g again. An isosceles t r i a n g l e i s t h e speed of 9. / s e c . t h e con- The seaplane g l i d e s on t h e . and only when t h e r e a r e w t h u s avoiding t h e i r blows. 9 . t h e h u l l submerges and t h e seaplane soon comes t o r e s t . s i n c e t h e water r e s i s t a n c e can h a r d l y be c a l c u l a t e d by analyticaJ. methods. Graph- i c a l means a r e used. d i t i o n s are reversed. from which t h e air r e s i s t a n c e h a s a l r e a d y been deduced.Normally a seaplane t a k e s off an and waves.

Summary o f Information Obtained .s u b j e c t thus be obtained.

.

t h e water r e s i s t a n c e can be overcome by h u l l s without steps only when t h e y are very l i g h t l y loaded.ed and no s u c t i o n e x e r t e d on t h e r e a r p o r t i o n of t h e hull. If no step i s provided. Consequently. It i s f a r more d i f f i c u l t t o overcorne t h e high- water aornents a c t i n g on a stepless h u l l w i t h ordinary horizon- . o r a v e r y small. a s t r o n g s u c t i o n e f f e c t i s c r e a t e d at t h e s t e r n and t h e r e i s no. decresse o f r e s i s t a n c e aboze t h e c r i t i c a l speed.

e p r o p e l l e r and develops a nose-heavy moment s t a n c e and take-off time b e i n g i n c r e a s e d correspond and I n Fig.g. 16 t h e s t e p i s l o c a t e d far behind t h e c. t h e seaplane nose-heavy: one by w a t .h i s r e s i s t a n c e a c t s at a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from t h e f i n e o ust of th..

g.g. This tendency can ofo r by an If t e n be avoided by a s l i g h t displacement of t h e c. By such l e a p s considerable s t r e s s e s The speed at which they begin can be F o r well-designed seaplanes. owing t o t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s t e p . they do not occur b e f o r e 90$ of t h e take-off speed i s reached. such as sides l i p p i n g . The s e a p l a n e may also just when. tank t e s t s should have been made b e f o r e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e seaplane and not a f t e r t h e crash. a r e e x e r t e d on t h e h u l l . English The English Felixstowe trFurytt (Fig. f l y i n g b o a t s jumped even at 508 of t h e take-off speed. no improvement i s t h u s o b t a i n e a . Technical Memorandum No.C. t h e seaplane f back on t h e water. its means a r e d u c t i o n of t h e e f f i c i e n t p a r t of t h e bot- . 25) w i t h f i v e 250 HP. additional. determined by t a n k t e s t s .A. o r by of t h e c. the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e bottom must be reduced by lowering t h e s t e p o r s h i f t i n g i t forward. moment sometimes forward and sometimes backwad.N. t h e e l e v a t o r i s a l r e a d y f u l l y d e f l e c t e d and a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t . 626 16 be d e f l e c t e d enough f u r t h e r t o i n A h u l l with a t o o e f f i c i e n t bottom i t h e water before t h e take-off speed i s r e l i f t i s not reached at t h a t moment.A. w a s completely destroyed by such l e a p s . In this c a s e . RollsRoyce engines. may t h e n result.

.

waves axe more e a s i l y overcome by p u l l i n g t h e e l e v a t o r c o n t r o l back i n advance. no s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t i s produce a r e subject t o various valuations. t h e f i r s t s t e p . t h e second s t If i t i s too ne mus% be some d i s t a n c e behind t h e f i r s t step. Therefore. t h e r e a r e s t i l l many c o n t r a d i c t o r y opinions regarding t h e r e a r s t e p . Conditions a r e d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a t h i r d s t e i n s u r e a smooth s e p a r a . To produce t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t .

The sharper t h e V.exceeding 10 m e t r i c tons i n weight. more t h e spray. the A sheet of water r i s e s on each s i d e and wets . Consequently. s i n c e t h e i r take-off i s small i n comparison w i t h t h e i r s i z e . preference i s given t o a sharp bottom i n o r d e r t o reduce t h e impact on t h e water. Every V-bottom produces spray. f o r such b o a t s . I n t h i s case. speed I n t h i s c a s e . V- The c o n t r a r y method i s a p p l i e d t o l i g h t f l y i n g b o a t s . a stronger impact on t h e water i s t a k e n i n t o t h e bargain. t h e re- s e r v e power i s l a r g e enough t o overcome high water r e s i s t a n c e . i n order t o i n s u r e ope r a t i o n with a s r m l l excess of power.

as i s done on t h e Linton-Hope h u l l s (Figs. Aeronautical S o c i e t y . P o r t e . . by Colonel J. C. o f f i c e r of t h e B g i t i s h naval a i r s e r v i c e .* *Rennie. 50 and 65). The spray i s reduced by bending t h e upper p a r t down. o r t h e more o r l e s s h o r i z o n t a l bottom s u r f a c e s . '!The Journal of t h e Royal. 40. expensive and considerably slower.A. E n g l a d .A. The b e s t shape of hulls.Some Notes on t h e Design. 42.N. must be g r a d u a l l y r a i s e d t o w a r d t h e f r o n t . D. t h e h u l l and t h e p r o p e l l e r . These experiments were subsequently d e s c r i b e d by Rennie i n an a p o l o g e t i c note. J.C. t h u s reducing t h e depth of immers i o n . who had no engineering t r a i n i n g . p. 426 20 t h e wings. wide ground p l a n and approximately h o r i z o n t a l l a t e r a l and %ottom surfaces t o r i d e t h e water. The second method i s more Regardless of t h e danger in- volved. 123. . Construction and Ope r a t i o n of Flying Boats. " 1923. Technical Meriorandum No. and f l o a t s can be developed by tank t e s t s o r by b u i l d i n g a s u f f i c i e n t number of models. L i t t l e o r no r e d u c t i o n of spray i s produced by l o n g i t u d i n a l beams beneath t h e bottom. 36. t h i s method was worked out during t h e war at Felixstowe. The chines. by f i t t i n g a s t r i p beneath t h e o u t e r edge o f t h e chine. 34. The same r e s u l t s a r e obtained by both methods. The c r o s s s e c t i o n should be hollow and V-shaped w i t h a f l a t . The r e s u l t i n g s a c r i f i c e s of human l i f e could have been avoided by t a n k tests. and by i n c r e a s i n g t h e angle of a t t a c k of t h e h u l l and by g i v i n g a s u i t a b l e shape t o t h e bow.

160. 30 f t .. Thus the of developing hydroplaning e99 iciency. ould be h e l d up during t h e accele . Fore and aft angle between t h e underside of t h e t a i l and p l a n i n g surfac of t h e s h i p was 10 degrees. were more o r 1 l e c t e d u n t i l more powerful engines became a v a i l a b l e . . single step. 4500 l b .rd. The f i r s hull. which was undes thhe c o g . ending at s t b p . power. seaworthiness. such q u e s t i o n s l a n d i n g . .load. s t a b i l i t y . t e s t e d was a modified Curtiss lf&ericatl f l y i n g boat ( F i g 17): weight. . horse l e n g t h of hull. f u l l y loaded. l i g h t . 3100 lb. e t c . p r o j e c t i n g f i n %osw.

.

.

.

t s obtained with t h e ffAmeSica!f h u l l s . Particulars: .

sult. and body s e c t i o n s i n d e t a i l . plan. which l e d t o a decided drop i n air performance. t o t a l weight. and t o be f i t t e d w i t h t h r e e 600 HP. From every p o i n t of view. Fig. 25 shows p r o f i l e . As t h e s e engines d i d not become a v a i l a b l e . It was o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r 24. f i v e Eagle VIII1s had t o be used. It was found t h a t t h e normal load i o u s F-boats. Rolls-Royce Condor engines. Loading t e s t s were continued up t o . t h e boat was t h e best design t u r n e d out at Felixstowe.000 l b .

as t h e sane r e s u l t s would have been o b t a i n e d i n a f e v weeks by . t h e f r o m what might be deduced f r o m tank t e s t s . and t o i n d i c a t e where. It now remains t o show how t h e v a r i o u s f e a t d e s i g n c o n t r i b u t e toward t h e f u l f i l l r r e n t of t h e r e l a i d down above. The experience gained required s e v e r z l months' TFrork. c e s s f u l f l y i n g boat h u l l f o r a given displacement evolved. i f at all.i-ments i s t h a t t h e l i n e s md dimensions ( F i g .

.

It was f i r s t intended t o omit the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e s t e p and only t h e l a t e r a l portions. 32).ll. 4 T i t a n i a and t h e N . Tlie l i n e s of t h e N . 4 Atalanta f l y i n g boat h u l l s are shown i n F i g s . t h e r e s i s t a n c e i s t y p i c a l l y sirnilas t o t h e case e i s no s t e p a t a. Owing t o e x c e s s i v e water r e s i s % a n c e .with i t . When t h e s t e p i s small. It does not decrease s u f f i c i e n t . 29-31. t h e s t e p W a s subsequently extended over t h e whole width and even e l a t e r a l p o r t i o n s were e n l a r g e d ( F i g .* Tank t e s t s were made on- l y a f t e r t h e Titania was a l r e a d y under construction.

.

v/v start .

f 16CO 1400 1200 6 18GO 0 loco 800 600 400 200 0 ..3200 3000 2800 2600 2490 a 2200 c3 2 2000 +> .

7 k 0 .Fig.

.

.

.

Figa.A. 0 .grload o n take-off t i n e at d i f f e r e n t tcke-off Epceds.X.C.13 LO 20 30 $ Overload Ii>flucilce of ov. P A B C 0 1 Fig. 1 3 . 1 2 .A.

.

.

.

Better 1 : have been obtained w i t h 3 . Inclined t o leap b e f o r e reaching taka-off speed.b O t t O i 2 born. a'nzrper V .Lines of t h e F e l i x s t o n e nFuryn.25 . g.iith i n s u f f i c i e x t lift. oving t o very l a r g e and e f f i c i e n t b o t t o n . Trimed aft leaped :. being subsequently crushed.