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I, here by express my deepest gratitude towards ACERC Jaipur and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited for allowing me to gain knowledge and experiencing in this extreme organization. It was indeed a great privilege to work, learn and understand activities of Uran plant. I wish to express my deep gratitude and thanks to Mr. K.N.Parmar, Training In charge, and Uran Plant for permitting me to undertake this training at Uran plant. My whole hearted thanks to my mentor Mr. M.S.Jetawat (CE, Elec.) for their valuable guidance and support throughout the training. They shared their experiences with me and provided me a lot of useful knowledge without which, this training was not possible. At last but not the least, my sincere thanks to all employees of ONGC Uran Plant, members & technicians of Crude Stabilization Unit for their kind cooperation, made my 6 weeks training worth cherishing for very long time.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is a public sector petroleum company involved in widescale exploitation of oil as well as natural gas from the Indian mainland as well as from Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. ONGC is one among the Indian Government’s Navarathna Companies which involves the most profit making nine public sector companies and hence is one of the most profit making companies in India.
In August 1956, the Oil and Natural Gas commission was formed. Raised from mere directorate status to commission, it had enhanced powers. In 1959, these powers were further enhanced by converting the commission into a statutory body by an act of Indian Parliament. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) (incorporated on June 23, 1993) is an Indian Public Sector Petroleum Company. It is a fortune global 500 companies ranked 335 th, and contributes 77% of India’s crude oil production and 81% of India’s natural gas production in India. It was set up as a commission on August 14, 1956. Indian government holds 74.14 % equity stake in this company. ONGC is one of Asia’s largest and most active companies involved in exploration and production of oil .It is involved in exploring for and exploiting hydrocarbons in 26 sedimentary basins of India. It produces 30% of India’s crude oil requirement. It owns and operates more than 11,000 kilometers of pipelines in India. In 2010, it was ranked 18th in the Platts Top 250 Global Energy Company Rankings and is ranked 413st in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 list. It is the largest company in terms of market cap in India.
ONGC Represents India’s Energy Security
ONGC has single-handedly scripted India’s hydrocarbon saga by:
Establishing 7.38 billion tonnes of In-place hydrocarbon reserves with more than 300 discoveries of oil and gas; in fact, 6 out of the 7 producing basins have been discovered by ONGC: out of these In-place hydrocarbons in domestic acreages, Ultimate Reserves are 2.60 Billion Metric tonnes (BMT) of Oil Plus Oil Equivalent Gas (O+OEG).
Cumulatively produced 851 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) of crude and 532 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) of Natural Gas, from 111 fields.
ONGC has bagged 121 of the 235 Blocks (more than 50%) awarded in the 8 rounds of bidding, under the New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) of the Indian Government.
ONGC’s wholly-owned subsidiary ONGC Videsh Ltd. (OVL) is the biggest Indian multinational, with 33 Oil & Gas projects (9 of them producing) in 15 countries, i.e. Vietnam, Sudan, South Sudan, Russia, Iraq, Iran, Myanmar, Libya, Cuba, Colombia, Nigeria, Brazil, Syria, Venezuela and Kazakhstan.
Environmental system 4. Safety system 1. In sum to get this purpose there is overall two plant: a) Co-generation Plant b) Oil and Gas process Plant Co-generation plant can be also sub divided into mainly 3 different process units: Gas Turbine Boilers(heat recovery steam generation) Gas fired boilers Oil and gas process plant can be sub divided into 6 different processing units: Slug catcher unit Condensate fractionation unit Gas sweetening unit Crude separation unit LPG recovery unit Ethane propane recovery unit . ONGC Uran plant basically produces LPG and other value added products and pumps the stabilized oil to different refineries.ONGC as Processing Industry: Any process industry can be solely divided into 4 parts: 1. Utilities 3. Process Plant: This part consist the basic purpose of that process industry for which it has been established. Process plant 2.
Secondary environmental system: This system is not related to health but works for the sake of environmental protection and welfare. as these changes affect the people and works health working or living in the surrounding of the planet. Utilities: Utilities plays very important role in any process industry. Plantation. Environment System: This system monitors the effect of plant on environment by continuous monitoring inside and outside surrounding of plant and always tries to maintain a minimum national standard of different environmental parameters. . nitrogen’s oxide removal system comes under this system category. If this minimum standard is not achieved by the plant then government has to shut that industry as per environmental law. It can be also categorized in two parts: Primary environmental system: It is directly related to the health precaution and keeps on check on severe affect on environment like the surrounding temperature. suspended particles and carbon concentration etc. The basic utilities which are very necessary in our case are: Effluent treatment Instrument air Air dryer Flare system Blow down system Soft water system Fuel gas Inert gas system 3. They provide support to process plant for the smooth running and continuous production as in our case.2. H2S gas concentration in the atmosphere.
It was established in the year 1974 and expanded in stages. storage and transportation of oil. It has been also awarded as the best processing plant in India. and has an excellent location with mountains on one side and the sea on the . It is situated at the outskirts of Mumbai city. This system consist of Firewater unit Gas detection unit Static charge removal unit Introduction to Uran plant: Uran onshore facilities of ONGC is located at longitudinal 720 55’35” and latitude 180 51’40” (N) approximately 15 M above mean sea level. Both the oil and gas received from offshore is processed at various units for producing value added products like LPG. The site is not on a level land and processing areas are located at different elevations. LAN. Safety system: This system maintains the safe working condition in this plant is very much prone to fire as the air in the surrounding contains lots of hydrocarbon and oil vapours. It receives the entire oil and part of natural gas produced in Mumbai offshore oil fields. Western Side of the site faces sea and the east side is surrounded by hills. Site is approachable by allweather motor able roads. So any small spark can produce large scale destruction. apart from processing. C2-C3. but also of the entire nation. The site is about 12 km east of Mumbai.4. The Uran Plant is one of the most important installations not only of the entire ONGC.
The Uran plant has an area of 5. La yo ut di ag ra m of U ra n plant: . The huge pipelines from the offshore come directly in the Uran plant.km.5sq.other side.
.In case of failures even at (2) Safety valves release the content in the closed system. Gas detectors :Possible gas leakage point has been identified and provided with gas detectors (250 Nos. 2. Pre-alarms 2. To ensure safety of the locations. 3.To alert : . Smoke detectors/UV detectors :These have been provided with turbines. cable vaults etc. ONGC Uran are designed and constructed with three level of Inbuilt Safety.) along with facilities of audio-visual alarm in the control room. computer room. Safety Valves are tested & calibrated once in a year while realarm are tested once in four months and two months respectively. 1. A. risk analysis and safety audits are carried out. Uran plant has safety committee with participation from senior officers and workers and meetings are conducted regularly. 3. Safety Valves: .In case no action is taken on (1) above the system is tripped B. URAN Uran plant accepts safe accident-free and pollution-free environment in & around all our location at all times and instilling of safety awareness in our employees. control rooms. 1. Fire Alarm :Elaborate fire communicating system spread all over the plant with 147 fire alarms which give indication of fire & its location to control room & fire station for quickest response. SAFETY SYSTEM The plant has dedicated safety system with the following salient features.SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN URAN PLANT. : . for detecting fire in these places. INBUILT SAFETY Facilities at LPG/CSU plant. Trip-alarms automatically.
Storage and handling of NGL. pig receiver & launcher. Water Sprinklers :Elaborate water sprinklers and drancher systems have been provided for all critical storage and vulnerable area. This shall facilitate prompt & remote closure of valves in case of emergency. GAS PROCESSING I. VI. Evacuation. 5. Pig receivers & launchers. Condensate Fractionation Unit (CFU). Flare and blow-down system. valve pits. The job involved hazard and operability study (HAZOP). Slug catchers & condensate handling units. Ethane-Propane (C2-C3) recovery units (EPRU). C. III. VII.4. III. Surge tank and internal pumping system. OIL PROCESSING I. II. All the Crude tanks have been provided with dedicated foam pourer system. VIII. Crude Stabilization unit (CSU). Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA). valve pits. IV. V. . II. The following facilities at Uran Complex were included in the scope of work. HAZAN. Crude Oil inlet lines. Gas sweetening units (GSU). LPG recovery plants. Bulk crude storage and pumping system. Escape and Rescue Analysis (EER). MOVs & ROVs :Motor operated vales & Remote operated valves have been provided at critical locations with facility for remote operation from control rooms. IV. LPG & C2-C3. RISK ANALYSIS A comprehensive Risk Analysis study of Uran On-shore facilities was done by M/s EIL in 1997.
. CSU off-gas compressors. Effluent handling system. VI.V.
000 tons of stock tank crude oil per annum. It is designed to produce 20. the unit includes provision for dehydration and desalting crude oil whenever required.000. CRUDE OIL FROM OFF SHORE CRUDE CRUDE HEATER HEATE R HIGH PRESSURE SEPERATOR CRUDE EXCHANGER CRUDE HEATER TO ETP OFF GAS 3RD STAGE OF COMPRESSOR OFF GAS TO GSU DE-HYDRATOR 2ND STAGE OF COMPRESSOR 1ST STAGE OF COMPRESSOR DE-GASER TO ETP STABILIZED OIL TO TROMBAY MAIN STORAGE TANK SURGE TANK CRUDE COOLER LP SEPARATOR TO ETP . Mumbai is designed to stabilize pressurized crude oil from the Mumbai off-shore oil fields.CRUDE STABILISATION UNIT INTRODUCTION: The Crude Stabilization Unit at Uran. Besides stabilization.
In addition. The Pressurized crude oil received from BUT and HUT oil trunk lines into five streams and preheated by steam upto 45C before entering into High Pressure Separator V201/A/B/C/D/V-601/613 operating at pressure of 3. Provision is also kept to process the low aromatic naphtha (LAN) in the LPG recovery units. This crude oil reaches the Uran Plant through 3 oil trunk lines. Each train has a processing capacity of 5 MMTPA. The dehydration is accomplished by the injection of demulsified.PRODUCED WATER CRUDE OIL SOURCE: TO ETP OFF GAS The crude oil received from offshore platform is in the unstabilized form. The dehydrated oil flows under .5 kg/cm^2g. The 30" MUT oil pipeline from Mumbai High and 24" HUT oil pipeline from satellite offshore platform are the principal feed stock to plant. pre-heater and low pressure separator. Condensate Fractionate Units and liquid condensate from associated gas compressors. High pressure gas leaves the HP separators under pressure control and is sent for compression. The Dehydrators remove water and salt from oil. provision is kept to process the slug catcher liquid and reprocessing oil from tank area and recovered oil from the existing facilities at Uran. PROCESS DESCRIPTION: There are five identical trains each consisting of high pressure separator (HP). Before entering the Dehydrators oil is preheated first by heat exchange with dehydrated oil and then in the crude heaters upto 65C. Dehydrator. heating or by the application of high voltage electro-static field in the oil-water emulsion.The oil flows out under level control and can either be directly sent to low pressure separator or can be pumped to the Dehydrator system.
Two strainers in MUT as well as in HUT oil line have been upstream of flow meters. COMPONENTS: FEED SUPPLY : The offshore crude oil is received at Uran through 3 oil trunk lines . These are done by 3 stages reciprocating Compressors. At CSU end the MUT oil feed line is provided with two out of three turbine type flow meters in parallel and the HUT oil feed line is provided one out of two turbines types flow meters which measures and integrates flow to the CSU unit. operating at suction pressures of 0. .30" MUT oil pipeline.0 kg/cm^2g.05 kg/cm^2g and 14. Degassers and LP separators are compressed in the Multi Service Gas Compressors and sent to LPG unit combining with associated gas from the trunk line.24" HUT oil pipeline. The water produced by dehydration is sent to EPTP (Effluent Pre-Treatment Plant) for predisposal treatment. HP SEPARATORS: The feed to each High Pressures Separator (HP Separator) is taken from the existing 24" header through a 16" line with isolation motor operated valve MOV-201/202/203/101/1101. exchange heat with feed to dehydrator and is then sent to low Pressure Separators. The gases from the HP separators. MUT oil pipelines are provided with three turbine flow meters and one bypass with strainers up streams of interconnection. . The stabilized oil is pumped to five Main Storage Tanks T-202A/B/C/D/E.level control. one .30" BUT oil pipeline (presently isolated). T-601/A/B/C/D. The Degassers are connected to compressors 1 and HP separator gases are connected to 2 stage suction.
The flow of oil from HP Separator is indicated by flow indicators FI1101/1021/1031/102 /1102. The separated gas is continuously vented to safe location through flame arrestor. The gas from the separator flows on pressure control.5 kg/cm^2g and a temperature of 55C. These are come roof atmospheric storage tanks of 24m diameter and 12.201/202/203/101/1101 and one hand control valve HCV 201/202/203/101/1101. having a hold up time of 3 minutes with 50% filling. LP SEPARATORS: The stabilized crude oil from the LP Separator flows by gravity into the Intermediate Surge tanks. INTERMEDIATE TRANSFER PUMPS : These intermediate Transfer Pumps two operating and one standby. They are 12. MAIN STORAGE: . The tanks are provided with one low level alarm and one high level alarm. free water and gas. of capacity 750 m^3/hr and 54m differential head are provided to transfer stabilized crude oil from intermediate surge tanks to storage tanks. one operating and other on standby. with MP steam as the heating medium. The feed is heated to 40C before entering the HP separator.2m long and has an outer diameter of 2.shut down valve SDV . through PCV-1010/1020/1030/101/1101 to the compressors.74m designed for pressure of 5. Each HP Separator is provided with two relief valves. The HP Separator are three phase horizontal separation vessels. These pumps are provided with emergency power in order to continue crude stabilizing plant operations even on main power failure. in crude Pre-heater using MP steam. Pumps are provided with motor operated isolation valves at the suction and discharge. capable of separation oil. Heating coils are provided in these tanks. The produced water flows on interface level control through ILCV1101/1020/1030/101/1101.6m height having a nominal capacity of 5000m^3 each.
Each tank except T-601A is provided with mixers in order to prevent settling of sludge. The pumps are provided with motor operated isolation valves at the suction and discharge. Three crude oil transfer pumps P . The pumps are of capacity 500m^3/ hr and 87m differential head each. The pumps are provided with motor operated isolation valves at the suction and discharge. In order to take care of increased pumping requirement a new parallel pumping train. These are floating roof tanks of 79m diameter and 15. take suction from the main storage tanks and deliver into the 26" crude oil main transfer line. Old booster pump house pumping train consisting of P-203 A/B/C/D/E/F. facilities are also created for loading and oil through tankers at JNPT. The tanks are provided with motor operating isolation valves in the inlet and main outlet lines.603 A/B/C/D and four transfer pumps P . series arrangement. HPCL refineries at Trombay through pipeline. CRUDE OIL DISPATCH: Stabilized crude oil is dispatched from the plant to various refineries in India through tankers from jawahar deep (Butcher island) and BPCL. NBPH) are providing for pumping requirement of oil. The tanks are provided with one each level indicators and temperature indicators in control room. In addition to above. These pumps are of capacity 750m^3/hr and 54m differential head each.604 A/B/C/D has been added. BOOSTER PUMPS AND TRANSFER PUMPS: Two parallel pumping trains (OBPH. They are also provided with one low level alarm and high level alarms.6m height.204 A/B/C are connected to above 26" crude oil main transfer line. . The crude oil booster pumps take suction outlet from line branching from existing 36" main storage tank outlet header and deliver into the new 26" crude oil main transfer line.Eight main storage tanks each of nominal capacity of 60000m^3 are provided for crude oil buffer storage. consisting of four Booster Pumps P .
LAY OUT DIAGRAM: . Usually only 50% of the designed capacity is used. Each of the trains are designed for a mixed sour gas feed of 5 MMNCM/ day and hence a total capacity of 10 MMNCM/ day.U ) Sweetening of a gas refers to the removal of hydrogen sulphide from the gas.GAS SWEETENING UNIT ( G. The feed gas consists of slug catcher Gas. For the sweetening of the sour gas.S. The two trains are operating with a third train used as a standby. The process employed for the separation of the gases is Sulfinol R-D process. The Gas Sweetening Plant focuses on the removal of Acid gases. there are two identical trains. CFU offgas and SU offgas. hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon di oxide (C02) from the feed gas.
Initially the sour gas is sent to the sour gas knock out drum V-1202 where the contained liquids are separated and sent to condensate Fractionation Units. The rich solution from the absorber bottom is flashed into the flash scrubber where it is scrubbed with the lean solution. The rich solution is regenerated by reboiled vapours generated the attached boiler. The acid gas which is separated is released into sulphur recovery plant or directly into the atmosphere. The rich solution from this is sent to regenerator column. Then the gas is fed into the absorber column where CO2 and H2S are removed by counter current with lean sulfinol solution to meet the product specification.The main two stages in the process are: 1: Inside the absorber column C-1201 the acidic components and the sulphur compounds present are absorbed from the feed gas at the feed gas pressure level. . 2: The Sulfinol solution is regenerated by stripping to remove the absorbed gases from the solvent in the Regenerated column C-2102 at low pressure and elevated temperature. . The sweet gas from the absorber is sent to sweet gas header via sweet gas knockout drum.
ETHANE PROPANE RECOVERY UNIT (EPRU):
Ethane and Propane recovery are among the phase-III process in the ONGC Uran Plant, Uran, and Bombay. C2-C3 Recovery Unit (EPRU) is supplied with two feed streams from the LPG-I & II Units. These are the high pressure Second Stage Vapour (SSV) and low pressure feed from the Light Ends Fractionators (LEF). These streams are partially cooled to condense them. The refrigeration is provided by passing the high pressure feed streams through an expander and by a propane refrigeration system. The partially condensed feed streams are fed to the demethaniser to separate the methane vapours from C2-C3 liquid. The overhead gas from the Demethaniser is fed to a second expander to provide cooling to the reflux condenser. The lean gas is then warmed to ambient temperature by the lean gas Compressors. Refrigeration gas is provided to LPG I & II as an inter-stage product. The C2-C3 is pumped to Area 16 for storage as pressurized liquid. The Ethane Propane Recovery unit can be divided into several subsections: - SSV Pre-Compression. - SSV Chill-down. - SSV Expansion.
- De-methanization. - Lean Gas Compression. - Propane Refrigeration. SSV COMPRESSION:
The feed gas is taken to feed gas compressor suction knock-out drum. The gas from knockout drum is taken to the compressor of the demethanizer overhead expander compressor. The compressed gas is directly taken to the suction of the compressor of the feed gas expander compressor. The compressed gas at 52.5 kg/cm^2g is cooled to 40C & taken to chill down suction for further chilling. SSV CHILLDOWN:
The compressed feed gas is then cooled through the heat exchangers from 40C to shunt 25C. Further feed gas is taken to Demethanizer bottom reboiler where it cooled down to 2.5C. Then feed gas is taken to Chiller-I & Chiller-II for further chilling when it receives cold by propane refrigeration & chilled down from 2.5C to- 17C to- 27C to -55C. Then it is fed to separator-I to separate out condensate. The vapour from separator-I is taken to Chiller-III where it is chilled further to -67C by exchanger of heat with outgoing cold lean gas. The partially condensed feed gas at -670C is taken to separator-II to separate out the condensate. The condensate from separator-I & separator-II is directly fed to Demethanizer column at tray No.16. The vapour from separator-II at -67C is taken to feed gas expander for expansion. The LEF vapour received as feed to EPRU is available at 35C is taken to LEF Vapour/ lean gas exchanger where it is cooled down to 5C. Then it is further chilled down to -7C & -20C at Chiller-I and Chiller-II respectively by use of propane refrigeration. Then it is taken to Demethanizer side reboiler & chilled down to about -33C. Further it is taken to Chiller-III & chilled down to -37C & directly taken to Demethanizer column as feed at tray No.27. SSV EXPANSION:
Feed gas, after 2nd stage separation at -67C from separator -II is taken to feed gas expander
compressor for expansion. The majority of the refrigeration need is made available from this entropic expansion of gas from about 49.6 kg/cm^2g, the gas is further chilled down to about -100C and is taken directly to Demethanizer column at tray No.10 for fractionation.
DEMETHANIZER: The function of the Demethanizer column is to recover C2-C3 product from the condensed liquids at various stages in chill down and expansion sections and remove all undesirable methane from it. Feed to the column is taken as follows:- Feed gas expander outlet (vapour liquid) at tray No.10 at about -100C. - Mixture of separator-I & separator-II liquid at tray No.16 at about -67C. - Partially condensate LEF vapour at tray No.25 or tray No.27 at about -37C. - Of-spec C2-C3 product, if any, storage at tray No.40. The vapour from Demethanizer reflux drum is taken to Demethanizer overhead expander compressor, where it is expanded to about 14 kg/cm^2g. Due to this expansion, gas is further chilled down to about -111C. This cold methane rich vapour is utilized for refrigeration then it is taken to lean gas compressor.
PRE COMPRESSION OF FEED THROUGH EXPANDER DRIVEN COMPRESSORS
1ST STAGE CHILL DOWN
1ST STAGE VAPOUR LIQUID SEPARATION
BASIC PRINCIPLES: There are two basic principles for LPG recovery from natural gas.1ST STAGE VAPOURS TO 2ND STAGE CHILL DOWN 1ST STAGE VAPOURS LIQUID SEPARATI ON LEAN GAS 2ND STAGE VAPOURS LIQUID SEPARATI ON DEMETHAISER COLUMN LEF O/H VAPOURS C2C3 PRODUCT LEF ON VAPOURS CHILL DOWN BY PROPANE REFRIDGERATION LEAN GAS COMPRESSION: After the recovery of Ethane and Propane. Then lean gas is compressed to about 40 kg/cm^2g by lean gas compressor. The compressor gas after cooling to about 40C is supplied at battery limit for gas consumers. PROPANE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM: To supplement the refrigeration requirement. EPRU is provided with Propane Refrigeration System. the lean gas is received in the lean gas compressor knock-out drum at about 20C & 12. They are .7 kg/cm^2g. The feed gas is chilled down upto -67C with the help of propane refrigeration system followed by further heat exchange.
1. A refrigerant is a fluid which picks up heat from process system. Relatively more vaporization takes place for lighter component and more condensation takes place for heavier component. A continuous heat input is given through reboiler at the bottom to accomplish stripping of the feed. 2. REFRIGERATION 2. FRACTIONATION: Fractionation is a unit operation in which a multi-component liquid mixture is separated into individual components with condensate purity. By using the relation between temperature and pressure a refrigeration system is designed. An external reflux is given form the top of the column through the reflux drum to cool and wash the top vapours so that the pure components with maximum recovery can be achieved. In LPG plant propane is used as refrigeration and it picks up heat from feed gas. by boiling at low temperature and pressure which is done by compressor. It is a continuous process of vaporization and condensation and there by separation of pure individual components is achieved. FRACTIONATION REFRIGERATION: 1. .
These machines operate under extreme conditions of high speed. problems encountered in these machines are very unique in nature. But at the same time. Gas in Gas out Expander Shaft Expander Wheel Gas Out Compressor Compressor Wheel Gas In PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FEED GAS EXPANDER DRIVEN COMPRESSOR CONSUMER LEAN GAS FEED GAS COOLER E-1501 CHILLING SECTION . Turbo-expanders are widely used in cryogenic and energy recovery applications. due to the above reasons.Turbo-Expander of Uran Turbo-expander is a centrifugal turbine through which a high pressure gas is expanded to produce work that is often used to drive a compressor. high pressures and very low temperatures.
LPG and GSU act as the feed to the Condensation Fractionation Unit.Feed condensate treatment section.O.Condensate stripping section. CSU.DEMETHANIZER COLUMN EXPANDER LIQUID ETHANEPROPANE TO STORAGE PIPES CONDENSATE FRACTIONATING UNIT (CFU-1): The CFU has been designed and constructed for the stripping pf acid components.Flare section. drum installed in Gas Sweetening Unit (GSU). PROCESS: The condensate from the slug catcher. . . in addition. .Off gas compressor section. CFU is composed of the following sections: .H2S and CO2. from the condensate mainly supplied from slug catcher (Phase II and Phase III) and IHI & HP compressors. the condensate is intermittently supplied from K. The feed enters the feed coalescer (X-1101) operating at 4852 kg/cm^2g where water is removed and the condensate is fed to the stripper column (C- .
30.O. . The vapour generated in the re boiler is returned to the stripped for stripping and the stripping liquid in the re boiler is sent to the stripper bottom re boiler surge drum.16. The stripper bottom liquid is supplied to the re boiler via stripper bottom pump and filter (X1102). In case the condensate is received at a pressure greater than 50 kg/ cm^2g an no flashing is reported. The stripped vapour containing H2S and CO2 is sent to the reciprocating type gas compressor where the gas pressure is built up to available sour gas U/S pressure. provision has kept to bypass the .FEED SUPPLY: The feed to the condensate Fractionating Unit (CFU-II) is the condensate at 63 t/h which is obtained as follows: . The Stripper column operates at 23-25 kg/cm^2g and here the H2S and CO2 gases are removed.5 t/h slug catcher condensate corresponding to 8-9 MMNM3/ day pipeline gas. The compressed gas goes to the cooler and then to the off-gas compressor discharge K.) The slug catcher condensate is pumped from the surge drum located near the slug catcher by transfer pumps through filter and a flow control valve.D V-1101). The condensate under level cascaded with flow control will be pumped to CFU-II by CSU second stage condensate transfer pumps. The pump is provided to give sufficient head to avoid any hydrocarbon flashing in the feed coalesce.1101). Any free water present in the condensate will separate out in the drum and collect in the water boot. The heat requirement to the stripper column is given by the stripper bottom re boiler (E-1101). The stripped liquid can be sent as a reflux to stripper Column or sent to CFU-II or LPG column. This stripped vapour goes to the knock out drum (K.O. DESCRIPTION: .0 t/h compressor 3rd stage condensate for 20 MMTPA crude processing (with HSVR modification.D and from the gas is sent to GSU.
transfer pumps and take the condensate directly to feed coalescer. provision is also there to put the feed on the 16th tray. provision has been kept to divert the bottom product from the re boiler to the LPG columns of LPG-I and LPG-II in case LPG column of CFU-II is shut down. A dry tray and a demister has been provided at column top to remove any liquid entrained along with the vapour. The column has 60 valve trays. The compressed gas is cooled to 45C in discharge cooler which uses cooling water on shell side. LPG is taken as overhead liquid product through LPG reflux and transfer pumps. The Stripper bottom liquid is pumped through bottom filter pumps to re boiler through filters.O. -H2S STRIPPER: Feed to the H2S stripper is a mixture of liquid and vapour. The surge drum flashed vapour if any is also combined with this stream before it enters the suction K. -LPG COLUMN: The bottom liquid from both the CFU-I and CFU-II stripper is taken to LPG column on the 21st tray. drum. This column has 50 valve trays and is designed to separate LPG (propane and butane) from heavier components. The heat supply to the re boiler is from the MP Steam. The top section has single pass trays (5 trays) and the bottom has double pass trays (55 trays). -CONDENSATE OFF-GAS COMPRESSION: The stripper overhead vapour is taken to off gas compressor suction K. INCIDENT AT THE ONGC PLANT: . Two reciprocating compressors are provided to compress this sour gas to enable it to flow to the gas sweetening units. Drum. The cooled gas flows to gas sweetening unit via compressor discharge K. The condensate formed flows under level control to stripper column. The column operates at a pressure of 10 kg/cm^2. The pressure is maintained by a hot vapour bypass type control scheme.O.5C and the column top is maintained at 70C using medium pressure steam. The column bottom temperature is maintained at 153. drum.O.
neoprene insulated rubber. fibre glass or a plastic paymen (poly chloro trifluoro ethylene). The gasket of the NRV remained unchanged due to precaution measures and the fireman kept on working to stop the fire. Gaskets are commonly made by arcing from sheet material like gasket paper. felt. TYPES OF GASKETS: . Gasket saves money by allowing “less than perfect" rating surface on machine parts which can use gasket to fill irregularities. silicon. Snow ice was used as well in the fire stopping operation. A round two fire bridge vans arrived after 5 to 7 minutes until then the motor fire was stopped by the workers working in the nearby site replacing gasket of an NRV of the delivery pipe. performing welding operation in a flange without prior permission from the control room and without a necessary knock-out.Envelope gasket .Boiler gasket . Gaskets to specific application may contain asbestos. GASKET: A gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between two objects. rubber. cork. metal.Ring gasket .Full face gasket . generally to prevent leakage between two objects while under compression.FDA Sanitary gaskets . Fire broke out around 12:05 pm and the fire operation ended at 12:25 pm out of many workers present at and nearby site one of them was injured.Flange gasket .A fire broke out in the pit section due to carelessness of a contractor.Handhole gasket .
Cork rubber .Bura rubber .Ceramic rubber .Cloth inserted rubber .Heat exchanger gasket .Steam gasket .Flexible graphite .Metal gasket .Non-asbestos gasket ..Fiber glass .OEM Replacement gasket .Sterilizer gasket .Butyl rubber .Cork Rubber blend .Shim gasket GASKET MATERIAL TYPES: .Diaphragm .Motor box gasket .Manway gasket .Flare rubber .EPUM / EPR Rubber .
Vegetable fibre .Neoprene rubber .Pure gum .Hpalon . REQIUREMENTS FOR A GASKET: .Nitrite rubber .Viton rubber .Rid (SBR) .Urethane # Head gasket is used between a engine block and cylinder head in an IC engine to ensure maximum compression and to avoid leakage of coolant and oil.Sponge rubber .Gylon .Polyurethane .Skirt board rubber .PTPE Joint sealant .Silicon .Feblon .Kalreg Rubber ..Plastics .Fish paper .
Rubber gasket. . .Good compressibility and face adaptability. . ..Comprofile grooved gasket. .Strength. . . . .Others.METALLIC GASKETS: .Chemical resistance.Metal jacketed gasket.PTFE gasket. METALLIC & SEMI. . # Low to medium pressure application.Good recovery. .Spiral wound gasket. . NON.Ring joint gasket.Fibre reinforced gasket.Limited relaxation. .Graphite gasket.Others gasket. # Medium and high pressure application. .Corrugated metal gasket.Temperature resistance. .METALLIC GASKETS: .
CO-GENERATION (COGEN) INTRODUCTION: Cogeneration means simultaneous generation both electrical and thermal energy by raising a single primary heat source. LPG/CSU plant at Uran needs power and steam. Cogeneration is of two types namely Copping up cycle . fertilizer. Hence this plant fulfills the requirement of both electrical power and steam at a very low cost and high efficiency and reliability. sugar etc. Cogeneration is one of the most powerful and effective energy conservation techniques. petrochemical. there is a requirement of both power and steam. To meet this requirement a cogeneration plant was setup. In industries like refineries. thereby increasing the overall efficiency of the plant.
A major part of this energy is available for the generator. During combustion its temperature increases at constant pressure (process B to C) then it expands mechanical energy by rotating the turbine. Cogeneration plant at ONGC Uran is based on copping up cycle. Layout Diagram of the C0-Generation Plant Fuel . The compressor air enters into combustion chamber where it is mixed with fuel (lean gas). The principle of this plant is mentioned below: PRINCIPLE: Air from atmosphere is taken through an air filter and compressed in axial flow compressor driven by the turbine. Diesel engine is used for initial cranking of the system. Bottom up cycle Copping cycle is one of in which heat requirement is attained by externally firing the fuel. Whereas in bottom up cycle the heat requirement is fulfilled by internal chemical reactions this cycle is used in medicine production. Once the turbine attains the speed the contact is broken. The efficiency of the turbine can be increased if the metallurgical part of the nozzle and blades are improved so that the size of the compressor can be reduced for the same turbine. However only 30% of the compressed air is used for combustion and energy conversion and the rest of the air is used for cooling and sealing of the net bas path (Turbine blades nozzles etc). Hence the thermal efficiency of the generator is very low.
These boilers are known as HRSG (Heat recovery steam generator).Combustion Chamber Hot Gas Gear box Power 19. is passed through a vertical water tube boiler duct converting heat energy into useful steam.6 MW Turbine Fuel Alternator 3000 RPM Starting Diesel Engine Compressor [17 STAGES] [AXIAL FLOW] Air Filter Air filter unit Steam Duct Burner By pass Supplementary Firing Fuel [9 MW] Heat recovery steam generator HRSG Air [40 ˚ C] Exhaust flue gases from the turbine has got sufficient heat energy (512˚C at full load). The amount of steam which is generated in this condition requires Zero or very small fuel input (if supplementary firing is dine to increase the steam production). so the overall efficiency of the plant is increased. Power capacity of the gas turbine (GT): . This steam is used for LPG/CUS process plant.
fuel gas line may leak.2*75+1*90 TON/HR Waste heat recovery boilers Plant demand for power and steam: Power average Power (peak) Steam Export (with 3 GTS) Import (with 3 GTS) 41. The Cogeneration plant is always connected to the power grid MSEB in the case of failure of one of the turbines.6 MW GE frame. Thus undisturbed power supply continues.Power.6 MW= 58.5 gas turbines Steam capacity of the waste heat recovery boilers (HRSG): Steam.0 MW/HR NIL This power and steam demand is easily met by the Co-generation plant as the power turbines produce 3*19.3*19. The steam produced by the HRSG is 2*75+1*90 TON/HR = 240 TON/HR But sometimes one of the gas turbine may not be operational as mechanical failure may occur.8 MW. seizure of the compressor of the turbine etc.0 MW/HR 50.0 MW/HR 150 TON/HR 5. .
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT: (MINAS) EFFLUENT FROM TANK FARM EFFLUENT FROM OTHER SOURCES POLYELECTROLYTE DOSING UNIT EFFLUENT FROM CSU EFFLUENT PRETREATMENT (EPTP) SURGE POND CPI SEPERATOR SAND FILTER BIO-TOWER I CLARIFIER BIO-TOWER II CLARIFIER II GUARD POND DISPOSAL PUMP Discharge to sea through closed conduit disposal system RECYCLE PUMPS LAYOUT OF MINAS PLANT .
Di-ammonium phosphate addition in upstream of Biotowers. Pre-weather treatment by gravity separation using corrugated plate interceptors (CPI) to reduce gross separable oil contamination. This effluent is sent to ETP (MINAS) Plant for further treatment before final discharge into sea through close conduit disposal system. and EPRU. Primary treatment by sand filtration with in line polyelectrolyte addition to remove suspended solids and flocculated oil. GSU.Effluent received from CSU is routed back to EPTP. Oil is sent back to CSU & water is further routed to surge pond where it gets mixed with effluents of other plants like LPG. The process description of ETP (MINAS) having a capacity of 350 M3 /Hrs (dry weather) and 700 M3 /Hrs (wet weather) is as given below. Tertiary treatment is provided in the form of conventional gravity clarifications to remove any humus sludge from Bio-tower effluent. Secondary treatment using biological filtration with random packed plastic media as the substrate for the biomass. where oil & water are separated using gravity separation. Secondary treatment is meant for removing soluble pollutants (BOD). Polishing of treated effluent by means of sub surface aerators in the guard pond. . Disposal by pumping through closed conduit disposal system to low tide level into the sea.
3 MMSCM/D gas processing capacities has been created at GSU. There are two Slug Catchers provided in two phases (Phase-II and Phase-III). to handle sweet gas coming from BH field and sour gas from Satellite fields to knock out the condensate from the incoming gas before gas processing and diverting the gas consumers. Slug catcher facilities are to serve the following objectives: To separate the continuously coming condensate from the saturated gas by reducing of the fluid velocity and subsequent gravity separation. . To hold the slug fluid coming at Uran at the time of pigging of gas pipe lines. GAIL for extracting value added products at their LPG recovery plant USAR and to the fertilizer unit of RCF and power sectors. A total combined (BUT & HUT) 16. LPG and ethane-propane recovery units to extract value added products like LPG/LAN/C2-C3 and the remaining rich gas will be sent through plant bypass loop to consumer.SLUG CATCHER Bombay high gas is transported from offshore platforms to Uran Terminal via 26” subsea lines about 210 km length BUT lines and the length of 26” gas pipelines from Satellite field to offshore is about 91 km (HUT line).5 MMSCM/D of gas handling facilities has been created at Uran Terminal in the Slug-Catcher Unit of which 11. The operational flexibility of diverting Bombay High gas to Heera is provided through ICP-Heera Trunk Line and also through SHS-Heera Trunk line. To continuously send the hydrocarbon liquid to CFU-1 /2 units for further processing.
In case of balanced gas supply from offshore to consumer. Either it can be pumped via filters to CFU – I/II or LPG II liquid driers for further processing in CFU I/II or it can be partially stabilized in slug liquid stabilizer after heating in Slug Heater. Capacity of slug catcher Phase 2: o Design capacity: o Volume: o Sea bed temp: Phase-3: o Design capacity: o Volume: Process Description: Gas from offshore coming to Uran terminal by 26” submarine gas pipeline shall enter the expanded slug catcher. The flashed gases go to flare while partially stabilized condensate is routed to 5mm nm³/day 450 m³(this holds up for 2 days) 8 mm nm³/day 3100 m³(this hold up is for 2 days) 20ºC minimum . To partially stabilize the liquid from phase 2 sweet liquid condensate and inject into crude inlet to CSU in case of CFU-1/2 are down. The formation of condensate is due to pressure reduction from 90 kg/cm² to 50 kg/cm². The liquid slug catcher sump flows into a slug liquid drum where gas & liquid can take two routes. In such cases excess gas. The retrograde condensation taking place and accumulation of liquid at the low points of sea-bed. the offshore gas enters the slug catcher through a pressure control valve to maintain normal operating pressure at GSU Inlet. the offshore gas straightaway enters the slug catcher but if there is an excess of gas from offshore compared to consumption. can be routed to Hazira from the offshore itself. if desired =. From slug catcher the separated gas takes its normal route to GSU. To supply gas (after condensate separation) to GSU-12/13 plants.
CSU – I/II. This route becomes necessary when either CFU I or II or both units are down and are not in position to accept condensate and during pigging operation of gas trunk lines. .
65 MMSCMD capacities each receives the sweet gas from GSU.500 MTPA LAN: 93.000 MTPA LPG-1 Capacity: Design: Feed-sweet gas: 5. of carbon atoms 1 2 Lean gas to consumers C2-c3 to IPCL for further processing Propane 3 LPG at 8kg/cm2 to BPCL & HPCL Butane Pentane 4 5 Naphtha to IOTL for .3 MMSCMD LPG production: 3.LPG-1 LPG recovery unit: Two units of 5.65 MMSCMD Product LPG: 1. 17. 87. Product components of natural gas: Methane Ethane No. 58.000 MTPA LAN production: 1.500 MTPA In case of GSU and EPRU Shutdown LPG plant can directly run on sour gas(the gas from slug catcher). The combined capacities of LPG units are as follows:Sweet gas throughput: 11.
A continuous heat input is given through re-boiler at the bottom to accomplish stripping of the feed. An external reflux is given from the top of the column through the reflux drum to cool and. by boiling at low temp and pressure and gives up heat by condensing at a high temperature and pressure which is done by compressor.further dispatch Hexane+6 To petrochemical plants Basic principles: LPG recover from natural Gas is made on the two principles: Refrigeration Fractionation Refrigeration: By using the relation between temperature and a pressure a refrigeration system designed. A refrigerant is a fluid which picks up heat from process system. Relatively more vaporization takes place for lighter component and more condensation takes place for heavier component. It is a continuous process of vaporization and condensation and there by separation of a pure individual component is achieved. LEF & LPG columns: . In LPG plant propane is used as Refrigerant and it picks up the heat from feed gas. Fractionation: Fractionation is a unit operation in which a multi-component liquid mixture is separated into individual components with considerable purity. so that a pure component with maximum recovery can be achieved. There are 3 columns used in LPG-1 plant. wash the top vapors.
liquid propane. supplied by Ruston. The liquid from LEF column enters either 9th or 12th or 15th tray of LPG column. The purpose of cooling of feed gas accomplished by heat exchange with refrigerant. LPG-2 Process Description: Sweetened gas from GSU flows to knock out drum where any liquid present is separated out. and then the gas is pre cooled to 250oC. Therefore a propane column is designed in LPG plant to recover propane taking the LPG as a feed to the column. E-101. The gas then flows to the molecular sieve . The top product of column is propane and butane (called LPG or Liquefied petroleum Gas) and the bottom product is called Naphtha (LAN-Light Aromatic Naphtha). The pre cooled gas is sent to knockout drum where Liquefied hydrocarbon and water are separated out. Propane column: The propane is used as a refrigerant in the refrigeration system. A centrifugal compressor compresses this propane vapour for liquefaction to complete the refrigeration cycle. and E-118 and sent to LEF column at around 20oC to remove the lighter fractions which mainly contain C2C3. Liquid is knocked out from V-105 and remaining gas called LEF Top is sent to C2-C3 recovery unit. the turbine is coupled to the compressor by a compressor by a gear box at its power turbine end. RUSTON GAS TURBINE (RGT) Gas based LPG Extraction Plant is based on cryogenic process. The drive to propane compressor Ebara is a Gas Turbine. The gas coming out from the top of the column goes to reflex drum V-105 after getting cooled in E-105. The propane losses which occur during refrigeration of feed gas require make-up.Separated liquid from V-103 & V-104 passed through E-103. It consists of 37 trays and LPG as feed enters 25th tray. The bottom liquid goes to LPG column. in turn. The liquid propane. Propane product is withdrawn from 5th tray as side out product to remove the lighter impurities. vaporizes after gaining heat in the exchange process. U. If C2-C3 recovery unit is under shut down LEF top can be sent to consumer line after compressing through residue gas compressor K-102A/B.K.
A propane column is provided in LPG-I to recover liquid propane from LPG streams. The dried gas is cooled to -220 degree C in the first stage chiller. Remaining non-condensate gas called SSV is sent to C2-C3 plant. C2 C3 plant to maintain desired operating temperatures. External refrigeration is supplied in three stages at -70˚ C. Propane is used as refrigerant for LPG-I & II. For external refrigeration propane compressor K-501 is driven by electric motor with constant speed. The SSV (second stage vapor) after separation of liquid condensate are delivered as feed stock to C22-C3 recovery unit. Cooling of gas is achieved by exchanging heat against external refrigeration. condensed liquid is separated out. -270˚ C & -400˚ C. Propane column will be in service intermittently as per requirement to make up refrigerant losses. alternatively the SSV can be delivered to consumer trunk line if C2-C3 unit is under shut down. the entire plant may be divided into following subsection: o Feed gas supply/ pre-cooling o Feed gas drying o Feed gas chill down o Light ends fractionate column(LEF) o LPG column o Refrigeration system o Fuel gas system o Flare and blow down system o Methanol system Start – up procedure: The various steps leading to a safe and smooth start-up of LPG unit are as follows: o Purging the unit . For the operation point of view.drier where the moisture is reduced to less than 4 ppm level. Vapor is further cooled to -370 degree C and condensed liquid is again separated out.
o Refrigeration of molecular sieve o Drying of the unit o Commissioning of Methanol system o Charging and establishing refrigeration cycle o Establishing flow through chill down section o Commissioning of light ends fractionators o Commissioning of LPG column o Stabilizing the unit DRYERS FILTERS REFRIGERATION UNIT SSV TO EPRU LEF O/HTO EPRU FRACTIONATING COLUMN LPG PRODUCT NGL/NAPTHA CONDENSATE FROM CFU-I SEPERATORS Propane Recovery Unit: .
is collected in flare knockout drum and pumped back to process unit. low temperature liquids are diverted to blow down drums. . where it is converted into gas with help of low-pressure steam and then diverted to the flare header. This is a small column and intended to meet the internal requirement of propane. Its top product is propane and bottom which is butane goes to LPG spheres. if any.FUEL GAS Propane column LPG PROPANE TO STORAGE To LPG Storage Propane is produced from LPG in LPG-1 plant. Propane column (10C-103) takes LPG feed from the discharge of LPG reflux pump of LPG-1 plant/ LPG-2 plant. The column operates at about 15 kg/cm2 top-pressure and about 85 degree Celsius bottom and 40˚C top temperature. which is used as refrigerant in LPG and C2-C3 plants. Flare System: In case of process upset gas is flared through two numbers of elevated flares for lighter hydrocarbon and one box flare for heavier hydrocarbon. If needed. which are kept alive with the help of purge gas for safety. Condensate formed.
As gases are compressible. the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. o Types of compressor . while some can be compressed. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible.Study of Compressor: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
the impeller forces the flow to spin faster and faster. uniform and has no swirl. Imagine a simple case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter centrifugal compressor.Fig: Different types of compressors Centrifugal compressor Centrifugal compressors." the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity . This kinetic energy is then converted to an increase in potential energy/static pressure by slowing the flow through a diffuser. The simple flow is straight. are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery. As the flow continues to pass into and through the centrifugal impeller. sometimes termed radial compressors. known as "pump and turbine equation. Fig: Inner look of centrifugal compressor The idealized compressive dynamic turbo-machine achieves a pressure rise by adding kinetic energy/velocity to a continuous flow of fluid through the rotor or impeller. According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation.
"covered or shrouded". It is at this point. In many modern high-efficiency centrifugal compressors the gas exiting the impeller is traveling near the speed of sound. stationary vanes/airfoils (used to help swirl the flow) and both pressure and temperature instrumentation.multiplied by the local impeller tangential velocity. . Components of centrifugal compressor A simple centrifugal compressor has four components: Inlet Impeller/rotor Diffuser Collector Inlet: The inlet to a centrifugal compressor is typically a simple pipe. Impellers are designed in many configurations including "open" (visible blades). "with splitters" (every other inducer removed) and "w/o splitters" (all full blades). it is the impeller's rotating set of vanes (or blades) that gradually raises the energy of the working gas./s or approximately 300 m/s. Centrifugal impeller: The key component that makes a compressor centrifugal is the centrifugal impeller. It may include features such as a valve. in the simple case according to Bernoulli's principle. All of these additional devices have important uses in the control of the centrifugal compressor. In many cases the flow leaving centrifugal impeller is near or above 1000 ft. This is identical to an axial compressor with the exception that the gases can reach higher velocities and energy levels through the impeller's increasing radius. where the flow passes into the stationary diffuser for the purpose of converting this velocity energy into pressure energy.
channel. Downstream of the impeller in the flow path. Diffusers can be vaneless. and .Fig: centrifugal Impeller Diffuser: The next key component to the simple centrifugal compressor is the diffuser. Fig: Diffuser High efficiency vaned diffusers are also designed over a wide range of solidities from less than 1 to over 4. Hybrid versions of vaned diffusers include: wedge. vaned or an alternating combination. it is the diffuser's responsibility to convert the kinetic energy (high velocity) of the gas into pressure by gradually slowing (diffusing) the gas velocity. .
a turbocharger blow-off valve. Collector: The collector of a centrifugal compressor can take many shapes and forms. For example. The Refrigerant is pressurized as it is forced against the sides of the volute. the collector may be termed a Plenum. As the name implies. Either the collector or the pipe may also contain valves and instrumentation to control the compressor. Working:Centrifugal compressors use the rotating action of an impeller wheel to exert centrifugal force on refrigerant inside a round chamber (volute). There are turbocharger applications that benefit by incorporating no diffuser. The impellers force the refrigerant outward. . exerting centrifugal force on the refrigerant. Bernoulli's fluid dynamic principal plays an important role in understanding diffuser performance. When the diffuser discharges into a device that looks somewhat like a snail shell. a collector’s purpose is to gather the flow from the diffuser discharge annulus and deliver this flow to a downstream pipe. bull's horn or a French horn. the collector is likely to be termed a volute or scroll. Refrigerant is sucked into the impeller wheel through a large circular intake and flows between the impeller. When the diffuser discharges into a large empty chamber.pipe diffusers.
and micro-turbines. ASME) result in large thick casings to maximize safety.Centrifugal compressors are well suited to compressing large volumes of refrigerant to relatively low pressures. In their simple form. This type of compressor is also often termed an API-style. In pipeline compressors of natural gas to move the gas from the production site to the consumer. The impellers are often if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers. arranged in series. so chillers that use centrifugal compressors usually employ more than one impeller wheel. Centrifugal compressors used in conjunction with reciprocating internal combustion engines are known as turbochargers if driven by the engine’s exhaust gas and turbo-superchargers if mechanically driven by the engine. Applications: In gas turbines and auxiliary power units. modern gas turbines operate on the Brayton cycle. Standards set by the industry (ANSI/API. Standards set by the industry for turbochargers may have been established by SAE. Use of real gas properties is needed to properly . Ideal gas properties often work well for the design. Centrifugal compressors are desirable for their simple design and few moving parts. The industry standards applied to all of the centrifugal compressors used in aircraft applications are set by the FAA and the military to maximize both safety and durability under severe conditions. The types of gas turbines that most often include centrifugal compressors include turbo shaft. auxiliary power units. Either or both axial and centrifugal compressors are used to provide compression. In automotive engine and diesel engine turbochargers and superchargers.or multi-stage and driven by large gas turbines. The compressive force generated by an impeller wheel is small. test and analysis of turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance. Centrifugal compressors for such uses may be one. turboprop. The power needed to drive these compressors is most often in the thousands of horsepower (HP).
Use of real gas properties is needed to properly design. Centrifugal compressors for such uses are often one-shaft multi-stage and driven by large steam or gas turbines. In oil refineries. Reciprocating compressor A reciprocating compressor or piston compressor is a positive-displacement compressor that uses pistons driven by a crankshaft to deliver gases at high pressure.design. This type of compressor is also often termed API-style. Standards set by the industry (ANSI/API. . centrifugal compressors are used in a wide range of sizes and configurations. test and analyze their performance. Use of real gas properties is needed to properly design. petrochemical and chemical plants. ASME & API. Because of the wide variety of vapor compression cycles (thermodynamic cycle. The power needed to drive these compressors is most often in the thousands of HP. Standards set by the industry for these compressors include ASHRAE. test and analyze the performance of these machines. Air-conditioning and refrigeration and HVAC: Centrifugal compressors quite often supply the compression in water chillers cycles. test and analyze the performance of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors. The impellers are often if not always of the covered style which makes them look much like pump impellers. natural gas processing. ASME) for these compressors result in large thick casings to maximize safety. Their casings are often termed horizontally split or barrel. thermodynamics) and the wide variety of workings gases (refrigerants).
natural gas processing plants and refrigeration plants. gas pipelines. an offset crankshaft causes rotary motion of a piston rod which is converted to linear motion via a crosshead. Fig: Reciprocating compressor function Fig: A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two. Applications include oil refineries. chemical plants. then flows into the compression cylinder where it gets compressed by a piston driven in a reciprocating motion via a crankshaft. four or six cylinders. Applications: Reciprocating compressors utilize crankshaft driven pistons to compress gases for use in various processes.The intake gas enters the suction manifold. Much like internal combustion engines. One specialty application is the blowing of plastic bottles made of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET). The crosshead can only move in a linear motion so that the rotary motion . and is then discharged.
a reciprocating compressor’s health must be monitored. you must do more than follow the usual vibration monitoring rules. refrigeration plants. require several rows of airfoils to achieve large pressure rises making them complex and expensive relative to other designs (e. They are also used in industrial applications such as large volume air separation plants. Therefore. high speed ship engines. it takes in low pressure gas and increases its pressure. It is allowed to leave the compressor cylinder at a higher level of pressure than when it went in. The majority of applications for reciprocating compressors are in the oil and gas industries. axis-centrifugal and mixed-flow compressors where the air may enter axially but will have a significant radial component on exit. centrifugal compressor). particularly in relation to their cross-section. Unlike an internal combustion engine.g. Reciprocating compressors are unique pieces of equipment as they contain active components that are moving in rotary as well as linear directions. They do. These compressors can also be found in chemical plants. however. but in order to do so. Oil refineries use these compressors for processes that require high pressure delivery of essential gases. airfoil-based compressors in which the working fluid principally flows parallel to the axis of rotation. The natural gas industry also utilizes reciprocating compressors to transport gas via cross country pipelines. Axial flow compressors produce a continuous flow of compressed gas. This is in contrast with other rotating compressors such as centrifugal. and small scale power stations. etc. blast furnace air.of the crankshaft is transformed into linear motion of the piston. and have the benefits of high efficiencies and large mass flow capacity. As the piston moves to and fro. fluid . They also play a vital role in any process that they are employed in. air compressors for tooling. such as jet engines. the gas is not ignited. Axial Compressor: Axial compressors are rotating. Axial compressors are widely used in gas turbines.
This produces greater pressure rise per stage which constitutes a stator and a rotor together. Designing the rotor passage with a diffusing capability can produce a pressure rise in addition to its normal functioning.catalytic cracking air. So. Axial compressors. The main parts include a stationary (stator) part and a moving (rotor) part. have also been used to boost the power of automotive reciprocating engines by compressing the intake air. If 50% of . The rotor reduces the relative kinetic head of the fluid and adds it to the absolute kinetic head of the fluid i. and propane dehydrogenation.. This is the reaction principle in turbo-machines.e. The diffusing action in stator converts absolute kinetic head of the fluid into rise in pressure. known as superchargers. Fig: Axial flow compressor Working: A compressor in which the fluid enters and leaves in the axial direction is called axial flow compressor. the impact of the rotor on the fluid particles increases its velocity (absolute) and thereby reduces the relative velocity between the fluid and the rotor. In short. The relative kinetic head in the energy equation is a term that exists only because of the rotation of the rotor. the rotor increases the absolute velocity of the fluid and the stator converts this into pressure rise. though these are very rare. Here the compression is fully based on diffusing action of the passages. the centrifugal component in the energy equation does not come into play.
the pressure rise in a stage is obtained at the rotor section. Rotary screw compressor: A rotary screw compressor is a type of gas compressor which uses a rotary type positive displacement mechanism. In a dry running rotary screw compressor. to compress the gas. timing gears ensure that the male and female rotors maintain precise alignment. as occurs with piston compressors. both providing a hydraulic seal and transferring mechanical energy between the driving and driven . it is said to have a 50% reaction. In an oil-flooded rotary screw compressor. either for large industrial applications or to operate high-power air tools such as jackhammers. known as rotors. lubricating oil bridges the space between the rotors. so there is very little pulsation or surging of flow. They are commonly used to replace piston compressors where large volumes of high pressure air are needed. The gas compression process of a rotary screw is a continuous sweeping motion. Fig: Rotary screw compressor Operation: Rotary screw compressors use two meshing helical screws.
compressed air or thrust or any combination of these and used to power aircraft. where fuel is mixed with air and ignited. or . spinning the turbine which powers the compressor and. It has an upstream rotating compressor coupled to a downstream turbine. There. The meshing rotors force the gas through the compressor. The energy given up to the turbine comes from the reduction in the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gas.rotor. the high velocity and volume of the gas flow is directed through a nozzle over the turbine's blades. trains. Energy is added to the gas stream in the combustor. Gas turbine A gas turbine. for some turbines. combustion of the fuel increases the temperature. Energy can be extracted in the form of shaft power. also called a combustion turbine. In the high pressure environment of the combustor. Gas enters at the suction side and moves through the threads as the screws rotate. ships. and the gas exits at the end of the screws. The products of the combustion are forced into the turbine section. drives their mechanical output. The effectiveness of this mechanism is dependent on precisely fitting clearances between the helical rotors. is a type of internal combustion engine. and between the rotors and the chamber for sealing of the compression cavities. and a combustion chamber in-between. generators.
in practice energy is lost to heat. These gases are then slowed using a diverging nozzle known as a diffuser. In an ideal system this is isentropic. due to friction and turbulence. Together these make up the Brayton cycle. these processes increase the pressure and temperature of the flow. . gases are first accelerated in either a centrifugal or axial compressor. These are isentropic compression. In a practical gas turbine. However. isobaric (constant pressure) combustion and isentropic expansion. Fig: A typical axial-flow gas turbine turbojet Operation: Gases passing through an ideal gas turbine undergo three thermodynamic processes.even tanks.
Fig: Brayton Cycle Gases then pass from the diffuser to a combustion chamber. or similar device. where heat is added. . In an ideal system this occurs at constant pressure (isobaric heat addition). In practice this process is not isentropic as energy is once again lost to friction and turbulence. due to friction. In an ideal system these are gases expanded isentropically and leave the turbine at their original pressure. Finally. In practical situations this process is usually accompanied by a slight loss in pressure. this larger volume of gases is expanded and accelerated by nozzle guide vanes before energy is extracted by a turbine. As there is no change in pressure the specific of the gases increases.
Condenser: • Condenses process vapour stream. i. . Plate Heat Exchangers Types of Exchangers Based on Service Heater: • It is a unit that exchanges heat between two process streams without phase change.e. which effects the transfer of heat from one fluid to another. Types of heat exchanger: • • • • Based on heat transfer process Based on service Based on construction Based on Flow Arrangements Types based on Heat Transfer Process • – – Direct Contact Type Fluids are not separated. liquids are neither evaporated nor condensed. INTRODUCTION TO HEAT EXCHANGER: Heat exchanger is equipment. Cooler: • Cools the process fluids without phase change. Example is Cooling Tower • – – – Indirect Contact Type Fluid Streams separated by an impervious wall Examples are Tubular Exchangers.
• Examples: Some of the Fin fan Cooler Re-boiler: • Provides latent heat of vaporization to bottom of distillation / fractionation column. of two streams Least effective Counter-current flow Fluids flow in opposite directions True counter current flow not easily achievable Cross Flow Fluids flow normal to each other Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers . Types of Exchangers Based on Construction: Tubular heat exchanger: – – – – – U tube type heat exchanger Fixed tube sheet heat exchanger Floating head type heat exchanger Pipe in pipe heat exchanger Fin fan type exchanger Plate type heat exchanger Spiral plate type heat exchanger Types of Exchangers Based on Flow Arrangements • – – – • – – • – • Co-current flow Both Fluid Streams flow in same direction High Thermal Stresses at inlet as large variation in inlet temp. Pre-heater: • Uses steam or hot process stream to heat & or vaporize the feed to processing unit.
Fig: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Functions of S&T exchangers • • • • Heating ( gas or liquid) Cooling without condensing ( gas or liquid) Condensing of vapors ( partial condensing OR full condensing) Evaporating liquid (partial or full) Basic Components of S&T Exchangers – – – Tubes Provides the heat transfer area Bare Tubes or Finned Tubes Seamless or welded – – Tube sheets Holds the tubes in place Tubes expanded or welded on the tube-sheets .
Shell is made by rolling of plates or of pipes (upto 24 inch dia) – Impingement plate Provided at shell inlet nozzle to avoid impact of fluid on the top row of the tubes Basic Components of S&T Exchangers – Pass Partition Plate Provided in channel or bonnet for increasing the no. pipes and tubes. condenser. – – – Tube Side Nozzles & Channel Controls the flow of the tube side fluid Normally of same material as that of tube & tube-sheet or are cladded. Guide the shell side fluid flow resulting in increased turbulence and heat transfer . compressor. expansion valve (flow control device). – coefficient – – For liquid flows baffle cut is approx 20 to 25% of shell dia For gaseous flow baffle cut is 40 to 45% of shell dia Refrigerant. Channel Covers Round plates bolted to the Channels and can be removed for tube side inspection – – – – Shell & Shell Side Nozzles Shell is a container for shell side fluid Shell side nozzles are inlet and outlet for shell side fluid. evaporator. of tube passes – Baffles Provide support to the tubes during assembly and operation and prevent vibration of the tubes. Shell is normally circular in cross section.
The refrigerant draws heat from the evaporator which causes the refrigerant to vaporize. the refrigerant goes to the evaporator. it compresses the refrigerant on the upstroke. the most popular among domestic or smaller power commercial refrigeration is the reciprocating. giving off heat in the process. A piston is driven by a motor to "suck in" and compress the refrigerant in a cylinder. which raises the pressure of the refrigerant. The heat given off is what makes the condenser "hot to the touch. As the piston moves down into the cylinder (increasing the volume of the cylinder). where it experiences a pressure drop. The vaporized refrigerant goes back to the compressor to restart the cycle. and centrifugal compressors. The reciprocating compressor is similar to an automobile engine. When the piston hits the point of maximum downard displacement. The evaporator draws heat from the region that is to be cooled. the refrigerant goes through the expansion valve. COMPONENT: Compressor: Of the reciprocating. Next the refrigerant flows through the condenser. rotary." After the condenser.COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM Schematic of Compression Refrigeration System EXPLANATION OF HOW IT WORKS/ IS USED: Refrigerant flows through the compressor. Finally. The intake valve closes when the refrigerant pressure inside the cylinder reaches that of the pressure in the evaporator. The refrigerant is pushed through . it "sucks" the refrigerant from the evaporator. where it condenses from vapor form to liquid form.
Diagram of Compressor (Belt Driven In This Instance) Detail of Compressor Valve Function .the exhaust valve into the condenser. Both the intake and exhaust valves are designed so that the flow of the refrigerant only travels in one direction through the system.
Then. and eventually released to the compressor. Heat is given off as the temperature drops to condensation temperature. The more popular is the air-cooled condenser. which absorbs heat from the air blown through a coil by a fan. Fans are often used to increase air flow by forcing air over the surfaces. thus increasing the condenser capability to give off heat. DOMINANT PHYSICS: . Because its function is to absorb heat into the refrigeration system (from where you don't want it). In order to remove as much heat as possible. named for their condensing medium. The refrigerant is let into and measured by a flow control device. the evaporator is placed in the area to be cooled. The refrigerant is forced through the condenser. meaning that they are responsive to the temperature of the refrigerant. Flow control device (expansion valve): This controls the flow of the liquid refrigerant into the evaporator. Fins and tubes are made of metals with high thermal conductivity to maximize heat transfer. Control devices usually are thermostatic. the Components of Compression Refrigeration In A Dorm Refrigerator tubes are arranged to maximize surface area. Evaporator: This is the part of the refrigeration system that is doing the actual cooling. The refrigerant vaporizes from the heat it absorbs heat in the evaporator. more heat (specifically the latent heat of condensation) is released as the refrigerant liquefies. The evaporator consists of finned tubes. Condenser: The condenser removes heat given off during the liquefaction of vaporized refrigerant. The condensers consist of tubes with external fins. There are air-cooled and water-cooled condensers.
but wear or fatigue can limit their life. Mechanical contact means that stiffness normal to the direction of motion can be very high. There are two types of bearings. Contact-type bearings have mechanical contact between elements. everything would grind to a halt. contact and noncontact. and flexural bearings. Bearings are used to support large skyscrapers to allow them to move during earthquakes. mixed phase) and magnetic bearings. Without bearings. including people. whose joints are comprised of sliding contact bearings. and they include sliding. air. The lack of mechanical contact means that static . Non-contact bearings include externally pressurized and hydrodynamic fluid-film (liquid. and bearings enable the finest of watches to tick away happily. rolling.Bearings Bearings are machine elements that allow components to move with respect to each other.
friction can be eliminated. Contact Bearings: Sliding Contact Designers have sought ever longer lasting slippery (lower friction) surfaces: • The product of the normal load and the coefficient of friction generates a friction force that resists motion. Lubrication can range from none on perfectly clean surfaces. Lower the coefficient of friction. one of the elements should be harder than the other. In addition. as a function of speed and viscosity. which can then be replaced instead of two. For all types of lubrication. hydrodynamic fluid film lubrication dominates. • The pressure caused by the load acting on the contact area stresses the materials and causes them to slowly wear. any abrasive particles tend to get forced into the softer material where they stay and instead of continually abrading the parts. such as often the case in construction equipment where a steel pin runs inside a steel bore. Eventually. although viscous drag occurs when fluids are present. The lower the contact pressure and the lower the sliding velocity. and there is no longer any sliding mechanical contact. which can result in a very high coefficient of friction. the lower the frictional force and the greater the efficiency of the system. . a bronze bushing).g. sliding contact bearings do best when the materials in contact are dissimilar: A steel shaft should not run in a steel bore. The former does indeed happen sometimes. In general. If similar materials must be used. to forced lubrication. but it can run in a bronze lined bore (e. the coefficient of friction drops rapidly with increasing speed as a transition is made from mechanical contact to a mixture of sliding mechanical contact and fluid film shearing known as boundary layer (or mixed) lubrication. however. The latter is used on critical systems such as those operating at higher speed or with higher precision. wear can be concentrated in only one element.. but more typically from negligence. or when it is intended to create a brake. life can be virtually infinite if the external power units required to operate them do not fail. If one of the elements is harder than the other. they just wear a groove in one of the parts. the longer the bearing will last.
which I will use in my coming future.E. The training enlightened me an practical application of my knowledge. Student of electrical and electronics.Conclusion The vocational training at ONGC Uran plant was really a good Industrial experience for me as B.com www. So at last it was just great and knowledge experience for me. Know I have deep knowledge of some electrical equipment that I wasn’t aware off.co.wikipedia . www. Bibliography Various ONGC manuals.in .ongcindia.
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