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UNIT-II: Perception and Motivation - Perception - Factors – Motivation –

Nature; Theories of Motivation – Hierarchy Needs Theory – Two-Factor


Theory – Expectancy Theory; Applications of Motivation.

Perception and Motivation

Perception

Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their


sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

Why is this important to the study of OB?

• Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality


is, not on reality itself.

Factors Influencing Perception


1. Factors that shape (and can distort perception):

• Perceiver
• Target
• Situation

2. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or


she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal
characteristics of the individual perceiver.

3. The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the


perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and
expectations.

4. Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived. This
would include attractiveness, gregariousness, and our tendency to group
similar things together. For example, members of a group with clearly
distinguishable features or color are often perceived as alike in other,
unrelated characteristics as well as novelty, motion, sounds, size,
background, proximity, similarity.

5. The context in which we see objects or events also influences our


attention. This could include time, heat, light, or other situational factors
or work setting, social settings.
Motivation

Motivation is a general term applying to entire class of derives, desires,


needs, wishes & similar forces.

Definition: Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s


intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.”

1. We will narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect our


singular interest in work-related behavior.

2. The three key elements of our definition are intensity, direction, and
persistence:
• Intensity is concerned with how hard a person tries. This is the
element most of us focus on when we talk about motivation.
• Direction is the orientation that benefits the organization.
• Persistence is a measure of how long a person can maintain his/her
effort. Motivated individuals stay with a task long enough to achieve
their goal.

Theories of Motivation

Hierarchy Needs Theory

• This is theory was put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow.


• Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the
lowest to the highest; and he concluded that, when one set of needs is
satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be motivator.

The basic human needs placed by Maslow in an ascending order of


importance and shown in figure below.
1. Physiological needs: These are the basic needs for sustaining
human life itself, such as food, water, warmth, shelter and sleep.
Maslow took the position that, until these needs are satisfied to the
degree necessary to maintain life, other needs will not motivate
people.
2. Security or Safety Needs: People want to be free of physical danger
and of the fear of losing a job, property, food, or shelter.
3. Social or Affiliation or Acceptance Needs: Includes affection,
belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
4. Esteem Needs: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect,
autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as
status, recognition, and attention
5. Need for Self-actualizations: The drive to become what one is
capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and
self-fulfillment.

Theory X and Theory Y

1. Douglas McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of


human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or
she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to
these assumptions.

2. Theory X assumptions are basically negative.

• Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt


to avoid it.
• Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or
threatened with punishment.
• Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction
whenever possible.
• Most workers place security above all other factors and will display
little ambition.
3. Theory Y assumptions are basically positive.

• Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.


• People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are
committed to the objectives.
• The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility.
• The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout
the population.

4. What are the implications for managers? This is best explained by using
Maslow’s framework:

• Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals.


• Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals.
• McGregor himself held to the belief that Theory Y assumptions were
more valid than Theory X.
• There is no evidence to confirm that either set of assumptions is valid.
• Either Theory X or Theory Y assumptions may be appropriate in a
particular situation.

Two-Factor Theory

1. The Two-Factor Theory is sometimes also called motivation-hygiene


theory.
2. Proposed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg when he investigated the
question, “What do people want from their jobs?” He asked people to
describe, in detail, situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad
about their jobs. These responses were then tabulated and categorized.
3. From the categorized responses, Herzberg concluded:
• Intrinsic factors, such as advancement, recognition, responsibility, and
achievement seem to be related to job satisfaction.
• Dissatisfied respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors, such as
supervision, pay, company policies, and working conditions.
• The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction.
• Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily
make the job satisfying.
4. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction
factors. Managers who eliminate job dissatisfaction factors may not
necessarily bring about motivation.
5. When hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied;
neither will they be satisfied. To motivate people, emphasize factors
intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to
outcomes directly derived from it.
6. Criticisms of the theory:
• The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology.
• The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned.
• No overall measure of satisfaction was utilized.
• Herzberg assumed a relationship between satisfaction and productivity,
but the research methodology he used looked only at satisfaction, not
at productivity.
6. Regardless of criticisms, Herzberg’s theory has been widely read, and few
managers are unfamiliar with his recommendations.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Vroom’s expectancy theory is that people will be motivated to


do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal
and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving
it.

It states that

Force = Valence x Expectancy

Where force is the strength of a person’s motivation, valance is


the strength of an individual’s preferences for an outcome and
expectancy is the probability that a particular action lead to a
desired outcome.

When the person is indifferent about achieving a certain goal, a


valence of zero occurs; there is negative valence when the person
would rather not achieve the goal.
A person would have no motivation to achieve a goal if the
expectancy were zero or negative. The force exerted to do
something will depend on both Variance and Expectancy.

(Optional)

1. Expectancy theory is one of the most widely accepted explanations of


motivation. Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory has its critics but most of
the research is supportive.
2. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a
certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be
followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to
the individual.

3. It says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort


when he/she believes that:

• Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal.


• That a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards.
• That the rewards will satisfy his/her personal goals.
4. Three key relationships (See Exhibit 6-7).
• Effort-performance relationship: the probability perceived by the
individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to
performance
• Performance-reward relationship: the degree to which the individual
believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the
attainment of a desired outcome
• Rewards-personal goals relationship: the degree to which
organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs
and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual

5. Expectancy theory helps explain why a lot of workers merely do the


minimum necessary to get by. For example:
• If I give a maximum effort, will it be recognized in my performance
appraisal?
No, if the organization’s performance appraisal assesses nonperformance
factors. The employee, rightly or wrongly, perceives that his/her boss
does not like him/her.
• If I get a good performance appraisal, will it lead to organizational
rewards?
Typically many employees see the performance-reward relationship in

their job as weak.

• If I am rewarded, are the rewards ones that I find personally


attractive?
It is important the rewards being tailored to individual employee needs
6. The key to expectancy theory is the understanding of an individual’s
goals and the linkage between effort and performance, between
performance and rewards, and finally, between the rewards and individual
goal satisfaction.
7. As a contingency model, expectancy theory recognizes that there is no
universal principle for explaining everyone’s motivations.

Application of Motivation

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