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Shivaji's portrait (1680–7), housed in the British Museum
1st Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
6 June 1674
Soyarabai (Mohite) Putalabai (Palkar) Sakvarbai (Gaikwad)
Sambhaji, son Rajaram, son Sakhubai Nimbalkar, daughter Ranubai Jadhav, daughter Ambikabai Mahadik, daughter Rajkumaribai Shirke, daughter
c. April 1627 / 19 February 1630 Shivneri Fort, near Pune, India
3 April 1680 Raigad Fort, Pune, India
Shivaji Bhosale ([ʃiʋaˑɟiˑ bʱoˑs(ə)leˑ]; c. 1627/1630 – 3 April 1680), was the founder and first Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire, which at its peak in the 18th century covered much of the Indian subcontinent. An aristocrat of the Bhosle Maratha clan, Shivaji led a resistance against the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur and the Mughal Empire and re-established a Hindavi Swarajya ("self-rule of Hindu people"). He created an independent Marathakingdom with Raigad as its capital, and was crowned Chhatrapati ("paramount sovereign") of the Marathas in 1674. Shivaji established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of a disciplined military and wellstructured administrative organisations. He innovated military tactics, pioneering the guerilla warfare methods (Shiva sutra or ganimi kava), which leveraged strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat his larger and more powerful enemies. From a small contingent of 2,000 soldiers inherited from his father, Shivaji created a force of 100,000 soldiers; he built and restored strategically located forts both inland and coastal to safeguard his territory. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions and
Contents [hide] 1 Early life o 1.1 Attack on Shaista Khan 3. in court and administration.2 Religious policy 9 Military o o 9.1 Development of the empire 8 Governance o o 8.1 Combat with Afzal Khan 2.3 Arrest in Agra and escape 4 Reconquest o o 4.4 Siege of Panhala and Battle of Pavan Khind 3 Clash with the Mughals o o o 3.3 Battle of Kolhapur 2. rather than Persian.2 Battle of Nesari 5 Coronation 6 Conquest in Southern India 7 Death and succession o 7. debates over his history and role have engendered great passion and sometimes even violence as disparate groups have sought to characterise him and his legacy.court conventions.2 Battle of Pratapgarh 2.2 Treaty of Purandar 3.2 Navy .1 Forts 9. Particularly in Maharashtra. as many elevated him as a proto-nationalist and hero of the Hindu people. but began to take on increased importance with the emergence of the Indian independence movement. Shivaji's legacy was to vary by observer and time.1 Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit 8.1 Dealings with the English 4. and promoted the usage of Marathi and Sanskrit.1 Upbringing 2 Conflict with Adilshahi sultanate o o o o 2.
 His mother was Jijabai.1 Political legacy 11. near the city of Junnar in Pune district around the year 1630. the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals. At the time of Shivaji's birth. . other suggested dates include 6 April 1627 or other dates near this day. to whom she had prayed for a healthy child. 10 Historiography 11 Legacy o o o 11. Main article: Early life of Shivaji Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri.3 Depiction in popular culture 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links Early life Shivaji's birthplace on Shivneri Fort. Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhosale was the leader of a band of mercenaries that serviced the Deccan Sultanates.2 Commemorations 11. but always kept hisjagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him. The Government of Maharashtra accepts 19 February 1630 as his birthdate. Per legend. Shahaji often changed his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar. his mother named himShivaji in honour of the goddess Shivai. andGolconda. the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic sultanates: Bijapur. Ahmednagar. the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed.
and regularly sought the company of Hindu and Sufi saints. Upbringing Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai. Tuka Bai Mohite. profitably administered the Pune jagir.:128 At the age of 12. Throughout his life he was deeply interested in religious teachings. Suryaji Kakade. Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from the Maval region. Shahaji. leaving Shivaji and his mother in Pune. He married Saibai. Conflict with Adilshahi sultanate . a member of the prominent Nimbalkar family in 1640. Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Tanaji Malusare. who provided them a mansion to live in. which was to later prove applicable to his military endeavours. Ramayana and Mahabharata. in a letter to Dadaji Naras Prabhu. hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land. who was deeply religious. and he carefully studied the two great Hindu epics. these were to influence his lifelong defence of Hindu values. Shivaji was taken to Bangalore where he. In the company of his Maval comrades.Shivaji with Jijabai. and was likely illiterate. and mentored the young Shivaji. the teenage Shivaji first expressed his concept for Hindavi swarajya. meanwhile had married a second wife.:60 Around 1645-6. but had little formal education. Shivaji wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range. his elder brother Sambhaji and his stepbrother Ekoji I were further formally trained.[when?] including Yesaji Kank. and moved to take an assignment in Karnataka. Shahaji entrusted the two to his friend Dadoji Kondadev Kulkarni. Baji Pasalkar. The boy was a keen outdoorsman. This religious environment had a great impact on Shivaji.
seizing the kingdom of Javali from a neighbouring Maratha chieftain in 1656. Mohammed Adil Shah.:22 Accounts vary on whether Shivaji or Afzal Khan struck the first blow: the Maratha chronicles accuse Afzal Khan of treachery. during this period Shivaji maintained a low profile. Adilshah sent Afzal Khan.:26:61:268 Firangoji Narsala. The arrangements had dictated that each come armed only with a sword. In the fight. Combat with Afzal Khan Death of Afzal Khan In 1659. either suspecting Afzal Khan would attack him:47–52 or secretly planning to attack. others saying he was imprisoned until 1653 or 1655. in a bid to contain Shivaji. hoping to draw Shivaji to the plains where the superior Bijapuri army could destroy him. Shivaji. Shivaji. :26 On 25 July 1648. Shivaji resumed raiding. Shahaji was imprisoned by Baji Ghorpade under the orders of the current Adilshah. After his release. while the Persian-language chronicles attribute the treachery to Shivaji. to hand over the possession of the fort to him. The two met in a hut at the foothills of Pratapgad fort on 10 November 1659. the 16 year old Shivaji bribed or persuaded the Bijapuri commander of the Torna Fort. with some saying Shahaji was conditionally released in 1649 after Shivaji and Sambhaji surrendered the forts of Kondhana. Inayat Khan. Bangalore and Kandarpi. Shahaji retired from public life. sent a letter to Afzal Khan requesting a meeting to negotiate. Following his father's death. however. and died around 1664–1665 during a hunting accident. and attended by a follower. who held the Chakan fort professed his loyalty to Shivaji and the fort of Kondana was acquired by bribing the Adilshahi governor. Afzal Khan's dagger was . and had a dagger in his right hand. Accounts vary. concealed a bagh nakh (metal "tiger claw") on his left arm. wore armour beneath his clothes. Afzal Khan desecrated Hindu temples at Tuljapur and Pandharpur.In 1645. an experienced and veteran general to destroy Shivaji in an effort to put down what he saw as a regional revolt.
horses. The agile Maratha infantry and cavalry inflicted rapid strikes on Bijapuri units. attacked the Bijapuri cavalry before it was prepared for battle.000 soldiers of the Bijapur army were killed and two sons of Afzal Khan were taken as prisoners. Battle of Kolhapur Main article: Battle of Kolhapur To counter the loss at Pratapgad and to defeat the newly emerging Maratha power. and prepared to address this rising Maratha threat. who now derisively referred to Shivaji as the "Mountain Rat". Shivaji attacked them near Kolhapur on 28 December 1659. this time numbering over 10. another army. Shahaji and Netaji Palkar (the chief of the Maratha cavalry) decided to attack and defeat the Adilshahi kingdom at Bijapur. Shivaji's forces decisively defeated the Bijapur Sultanate's forces. The large quantities of captured weapons. This victory alarmed Aurangazeb. Soon thereafter Shivaji. while Netaji Palkar undertook smaller scale harassing attacks on the Adilshahi kingdom. Adilshahi forces lost about 2. However. and Shivaji's weapons inflicted mortal wounds on the general. Battle of Pratapgarh Main article: Battle of Pratapgarh Pratapgad fort In the ensuing Battle of Pratapgarh fought on 10 November 1659. With a cavalry force of 5. commanded by Bijapur's Abyssinian general Rustamjaman.000 horses and 12 elephants to the Marathas. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb now identified Shivaji as a major threat to the mighty Mughal Empire. Shivaji then signalled his hidden troops to launch the assault on the Bijapuris. and pursued retreating troops toward Wai. Shivaji led a full frontal attack at the center of the enemy forces while two other portions of his cavalry attacked the flanks. was sent against Shivaji. In a swift movement. This battle lasted for several hours and at the end Bijapuri forces were soundly defeated and Rustamjaman fled the battlefield. Shahaji's health deteriorated and they were forced to postpone the planned attack.:53 This unexpected and unlikely victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. Siege of Panhala and Battle of Pavan Khind . armour and other materials helped to strengthen the nascent and emerging Maratha army.000 Marathas.stopped by Shivaji's armour.000. More than 3.
 There is some dispute over the circumstances of Shivaji's withdrawal (treaty or escape) and his destination (Ragna or Vishalgad). who in December would exact revenge by plundering the English factory at Rajapur and capturing four of the factors. Shivaji would later re-take Panhala in 1673. but the popular story details his night movement to Vishalgad and a sacrificial rear-guard action to allow him to escape. Ghod . capturing the fort after four months besiegement. in alliance with the Mughals who planned to attack from the north. During the bombardment of Panhala. with some accounts stating that Shivaji escaped from the encircled fort and withdrew to Ragna. At that time. so his Maratha sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande of Bandal Deshmukh. Accounts vary as to the end of the siege. Baji Prabhu Deshpande was wounded but continued to fight until he heard the sound of cannon fire from Vishalgad. Siddi Jauhar's army besieged Panhala in mid-1660. and also hired some English artillerymen to bombard the fort. Shivaji withdrew from Panhala by cover of night. following which Ali Adil Shah personally came to take charge of the siege. Other accounts state that after months of siege. on the evening of 13 July 1660. In the ensuing Battle of Pavan Khind. Adilshah sent the his general Siddi Jauhar to attack Shivaji's southern border. along with 300 soldiers. withdrawing to Vishalgad. Shivaji negotiated with Siddhi Jahuar and handed over the fort on 22 September 1600. imprisoning them until mid-1663. This perceived betrayal angered Shivaji. cutting off supply routes to the fort.Plaque to commemorate the entrance to Paavankhind Main article: Battle of Pavan Khind In 1660. Shivaji was encamped at Panhala fort near present-day Kolhapur with his forces. signalling Shivaji had safely reached the fort. the smaller Maratha force held back the larger enemy to buy time for Shivaji to escape. and as he was pursued by the enemy cavalry. Siddhi Jahuar had purchased grenades from the British at Rajapur to increase his efficacy. Per these accounts. volunteered to fight to the death to hold back the enemy at Ghod Khind ("horse ravine") to give Shivaji and the rest of the army a chance to reach the safety of the Vishalgad fort. conspicuously flying a flag used by the English.
Shivaji offered his assistance to Aurangzeb in conquering Bijapur and in return. besieging it for a month and a half until breaching the walls.000 Mughal troops left Pune. killing those they found there. was sent by Shaista Khan to attack and reduce the number of forts under Shivaji's control in the Konkan region on 3 February 1661.  Clash with the Mughals Up until 1657.:37 Shivaji's confrontations with the Mughals began in March 1657. but one of his sons and other members of his household were killed. Kartalab Khan. In April 1663. Shaista Khan. he was assured of the formal recognition of his right to the Bijapuri forts and villages under his possession.000 seized Pune and the nearby fort of Chakan. who allowed the Mughals to surrender all their supplies and arms. and depart . Aurangzeb sent his maternal uncle Shaista Khan. Shibosingh Jadhav. In the Battle of Umberkhind. with an army numbering over 150. a Maratha woman named Raibagan. using a wedding procession as cover. and Aurangzeb punished him for this embarrassment with a transfer to Bengal. accounts of the story differ in the popular imagination. Fuloji.:38 Aurangzeb responded to the raids by sending Nasiri Khan. The 30. Shivaji's forces ambushed and enveloped them with infantry and light cavalry in the dense forests of Umber Khind pass near present-day Pen. An Uzbek general.Khind (khind meaning "a narrow mountain pass") was later renamed Paavan Khind ("sacred pass") in honour of Bajiprabhu Deshpande. with his better equipped and provisioned army of 300. better provisioned and heavily armed Mughal army and made inroads into some of the Maratha territory.000 hun in cash and 200 horses. The Khan took refuge with the Moghul forces outside of Pune. marching through the back-country in an attempt to surprise the Marathas. who defeated the forces of Shivaji at Ahmednagar. Shivaji maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. They overcame the palace guards. However. seizing the city of Pune and establishing his residence at Shivaji's palace of Lal Mahal. but there is some agreement that Shivaji and band of some 200 followers infiltrated Pune. breached the wall. with Shivaji carrying off 300.000 along with a powerful artillery division in January 1660 to attack Shivaji in conjunction with Bijapur's army led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan escaped. losing his thumb in the melee. advised Kartalab to parley with Shivaji. With defeat inevitable. the Mughal commander. Shivaji launched a surprise attack on Shaista Khan in Pune. Attack on Shaista Khan Main article: Battle of Chakan Upon the request of Badi Begum of Bijapur. Shaista Khan pressed his advantage of having a larger. and entered Shaista Khan's quarters. This was followed by raids in Junnar. when two of Shivaji's officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar. and all other soldiers who fought in there. the countermeasures were interrupted by the rainy season and the battle of succession for the Mughal throne following the illness of Shah Jahan.
serve the Mughal court of Aurangzeb and fight alongside the Mughals against Bijapur. He[who?] actually fought alongside Jai Singh's against Bijapur's for a few months. was rewarded very well for his bravery. He also agreed to let his son Sambhaji become a Mughal sardar. His[who?]commander Netaji Palkar joined the Mughals. signed between Shivaji and Jai Singh on 11 June 1665. a wealthy Mughal trading centre.000 rupees to the Mughals. Shivaji agreed to give up 23 of his forts and pay compensation of 400. and to replenish his now-depleted treasury. forcing Shivaji to come to terms with Aurangzeb rather than lose more forts and men. Main article: Treaty of Purandar (1665) Aurangzeb was enraged and sent Mirza Raja Jai Singh I with an army numbering around 150. converted to Islam. Jai Singh's forces made significant gains and captured many Maratha forts. Arrest in Agra and escape . Treaty of Purandar Raja Jai Singh of Amber receiving Shivaji a day before concluding the Treaty of Purandar. In retaliation for Shaista Khan's attacks. in 1664 Shivaji sacked the city of Surat. and was accepted back as a Hindu on Shivaji's advice.000 to defeat Shivaji. changed his name to Quli Mohammed Khan in 1666 and was sent to the Afghan frontier to fight the restive tribes. In the Treaty of Purandar.with safe passage. He returned to Shivaji's service in 1676 after ten years with the Mughals.
[clarification needed] Shivaji and his son fled to the Deccan disguised as sadhus (holy men). disguised as labourer carrying sweet basket escaped on 17 August 1666. Kotwal of Agra. he was allowed to send daily shipments of sweets and gifts to saints. along with his nine-year-old son Sambhaji. now in Afghanistan. Aurangzeb's plan was to send Shivaji to Kandahar. Reconquest . to consolidate the Mughal empire's northwestern frontier. so Shivaji planned his escape. In 1666. After the escape. Shivaji feigned severe illness and requested to send most of his contingent back to the Deccan. according to the Mughal documents. on 12 May 1666. Aurangzeb made Shivaji stand behind mansabdārs (military commanders) of his court.A depiction of Shivaji in Aurangzeb's court in Agra in 1666. rumours of Sambhaji's death were intentionally spread by Shivaji himself in order to deceive the Mughals and to protect Sambhaji. in the court. and escaped by mingling within the departing priestly entourage of Pandit Kavindra Paramananda. fakirs.  After several days and weeks of sending out boxes containing sweets. Thereafter. and temples in Agra as offerings for his health. Shivaji's spies informed him that Aurangzeb planned to move Shivaji to Raja Vitthaldas' haveli and then to possibly kill him or send him to fight in the Afghan frontier. Recent research has proposed that Shivaji simply disguised himself as a Brahmin priest after performance of religious rites at the haveli grounds on 22 July 1666. being a child had no restrictions and was sent out of the prison camp and Shivaji. However. on his request. Sambhaji. Shivaji took offence and stormed out of court. Sambhaji was removed from Agra and taken to Mathura later by Shivaji's trusted men. thereby ensuring the safety of his army and deceiving Aurangzeb.:78 and was promptly placed under house arrest under the watch of Faulad Khan. Aurangzeb invited Shivaji to Agra.
Statue of Shivaji near Torna Fort After Shivaji's escape. but were defeated in the Battle of Vani-Dindori near present-day Nashik. Bahlol Khan. The British sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustick to treat with Shivaji. and the factory there dissolved at the end of 1682. In September 1671. his forces blocked Bombay's woodcutting parties.  Battle of Nesari In 1674. Tanaji Malusare won the fort of Sinhgad in the Battle of Sinhagadon 4 Feb 1670. as they had refused to sell him war material. Shivaji sent an ambassador to Bombay. was sent to push back the invading force led by the Adilshahi general. Mughals under Daud Khan tried to intercept him. who started preparing for a fresh invasion. but also did not want to lose any chance of receiving compensation for his looting their factories at Rajapur. the British had misgivings of the advantages Shivaji would gain from this conquest. while he was returning from Surat. with some agreement as to the arms issues in 1674. dying in the process. after cutting-off their water supply by encircling a strategic lake. when Shivaji launched a major offensive against Mughals. During this phase. which prompted Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. Shivaji sacked Surat for second time in 1670. Prataprao's forces defeated and captured the opposing general in the battle. Dealings with the English In October 1670. the then commander-in chief of the Maratha forces. Prataprao Gujar. Numerous exchanges of envoys followed over the coming years. and in a span of four months recovered a major portion of the territories surrendered to Mughals. this time for the fight against Danda-Rajpuri. but Shivaji was never to pay the Rajpur indemnity before his death. In spite of Shivaji's specific warnings against doing so Prataprao released Bahlol Khan. Shivaji sent his forces to harass the British at Bombay. but negotiations failed over the issue of the Rajapur indemnity. . hostilities ebbed and a treaty lasted until the end of 1670. again seeking material.
to Prataprao's daughter. Prataprao and six of his sardars attacked in a suicide mission. Shivaji sent a displeased letter to Prataprao. buying time for Anandrao Mohite to withdraw the remainder of the army to safety. Not wanting to risk losing his much smaller Maratha force entirely.000 force at Nesari near Kolhapur. Anandrao Mohite became Hambirrao Mohite. Shivaji was deeply grieved on hearing of Prataprao's death. Shivaji learnt of Bahlol Khan having camped with 15. Coronation The coronation of Shivaji . refusing him audience until Bahlol Khan was re-captured. the new sarnaubat (commander-in-chief of the Maratha forces). In the ensuing days. Rajaram.Towers of the Raigad Fort.[verification needed] The Marathas avenged the death of Prataprao by defeating Bahlol Khan and capturing his jagir (fiefdom) under the leadership of Anaji and Hambirao Mohite. he arranged for the marriage of his second son. Raigad Fort was newly built[when?] by Hiroji Indulkaras a capital of nascent Maratha kingdom.
 with Shivaji as its historical founder. this time according to the Bengali school ofTantricism and presided over by Nischal Puri. but over time it was to increase in size and heterogeneity. Krishna and Kaveri over Shivaji's head. within a few days of the coronation. Godavari. and also prevent any challenges by other Maratha leaders. Indus. Ganges. with no legal basis to rule his de facto domain. Shivaji was entitled Shakakarta ("founder of an era")and Kshatriya Kulavantas ("head of Kshatriyas"). but lacking a formal title was still technically a Mughal zamindar or the son of an Adilshahi jagirdar.:238 Shivaji was crowned king of the Marathas in a lavish ceremony at Raigad on 6 June 1674. . and chanted the coronation mantras. and by the time of the Peshwas in the early 18th century was a full-fledged empire. Considering this a bad omen. After the ablution. Shivaji bowed before Jijabai and touched her feet. A kingly title could address this. a second coronation was carried out 24 September 1674. Pandit Gaga Bhatt officiated. it would also would provide the Hindu Marathas with a fellow Hindu sovereign in a region otherwise ruled by Muslims. Nearly fifty thousand people gathered at Raigad for the ceremonies. holding a gold vessel filled with the seven sacred waters of the riversYamuna. and Chhatrapati ("paramount sovereign"). The state as Shivaji founded it was a Maratha kingdom. Shivaji was bestowed with the sacred thread jaanva. to whom he was technically equal.Image of Shivaji released by VS Bendreyin 1933 Shivaji had acquired extensive lands and wealth through his campaigns. with the Vedas and was bathed in an abhisheka. In theHindu calendar it was on the 13th day (trayodashi) of the first fortnight of the month of Jyeshtha in the year 1596. His mother Jijabai died on 18 June 1674.
 In November the Maratha navy skirmished with the Siddis of Janjira. His appeal was somewhat successful and he entered into a treaty with the Qutubshah of the Golconda sultanate that covered the eastern Deccan.  He captured the Adilshahi forts at Vellore and Gingee. that the "Deccan" or Southern India was a homeland that should be protected from outsiders.Conquest in Southern India Maratha Empire. en route to Surat. with Venkoji consenting to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and maintenance of Shivaji's future tomb. (Shown here in red) Beginning in 1674. Karwar (mid-year). the Marathas undertook an aggressive campaign. engaged the Raja of Ramnagar in battle. In the run-up to this expedition Shivaji appealed to a sense of Deccani patriotism.000 infantry. Venkoji's wife Dipa Bai. whom Shivaji deeply respected. with a massive force of 30.000 cavalry and 20. Tukabai of the Mohite clan which ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. 1680 at the time of Shivaji's death. Shivají's conquests in the south proved quite crucial during future wars. In the end Shivaji consented to turn over to her and her female descendants many of the properties he had seized. At the end of 1676. Gingee served as Maratha capital for nine years during the Maratha War of Independence. and by years-end besieged Belgaum andVayem Rayim in modern-day northern Karnataka. Shivaji raided Athani in March 1676. Shivaji launched a wave of conquests in southern India. The initially promising negotiations were unsuccessful. Death and succession . capturing Bijapuri Phonda (April 1675). raiding Khandesh (October). Shahji's son by his second wife. Shivaji intended to reconcile with his stepbrother Venkoji (Ekoji I). and also convinced her husband to distance himself from Muslim advisors. in modern-day Tamil Nadu. so whilst returning to Raigad Shivaji defeated his stepbrother's army on 26 November 1677 and seized most of his possessions in the Mysore plateau. and in early 1676 Peshwa Pingale. took up new negotiations with Shivaji. and Kolhapur (July).
:551 In late March 1680. and formally ascended the throne on 20 July. and was again confined to Panhala. Sambhaji then returned home. Soyarabai. Rajaram. and mother Soyrabai were imprisoned. and on 18 June acquired control of Raigad. thereafter Aurangzeb personally led his army to attack the Maratha forces. See also: Maratha War of Independence The question of Shivaji's heir-apparent was complicated by the misbehaviour of his eldest son Sambhaji. tortured and executed . who was irresponsible and "addicted to sensual pleasures. unrepentant. only to have the prince escape with his wife and defect to the Mughals for a year. the widowed Soyarabai made plans with various ministers of the administration to crown her son Rajaram rather than her prodigal stepson Sambhaji. ten-year old Rajaram was installed on the throne." Unable to curb this. Shivaji fell ill with fever and dysentery. his wife Janki Bai. Development of the empire Aurangzeb's son Muhammad Akbar had a falling-out with his father and joined forces with Sambhaji. Shivaji confined his son to Panhala in 1678. and some Marathas whispering that his second wife. Rumours followed his death. However.:278 on the eve of Hanuman Jayanti. with Muslims opining he had died of a curse from Jan Muhammad of Jalna.:383 After Shivaji's death.Sambhaji.:383 dying around 3–5 April 1680 at the age of 52. had poisoned him so that his crown might pass to her 10-year old son Rajaram. and Soyrabai executed on charges of conspiracy that October. Sambhaji took possession of the Raigad Fort after killing the commander. Sambhaji was captured. Shivaji's elder son who succeeded him. On 21 April 1680.
 Promotion of Marathi and Sanskrit Though Persian was a common courtly language in the region. checking the Maratha's northward expansion. Able generals such as Dhanaji Jadhav and Santaji Ghorpade took the initiative and effectively bogged down the powerful but slow-moving Mughal army in to the protracted Maratha War of Independence. Thereafter the Maratha forces stabilised and began to undertake raids on the Mughal columns. Ahmad Shah Durrani. his father Shahaji had supported scholars such as Jayram Pindye. which effectively ended the empire. withdrew from the Deccan for the last time. The house of Shivaji was well acquainted with Sanskrit and promoted the language. In 1752. who prepared Shivaji's seal. the Maratha Peshwa signed a treaty with Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur. or War of 27 Years. giving the Marathas significant control and revenues within the remaining Mughal territories. who served as regent during the minority of his stepbrother's son Shahu. The Durrani forces defeated the Maratha at the 1761 Battle of Panipat. In the last few years of this war both the Maratha generals delivered severe blows to the Mughals in Maharashtra. Shivaji replaced it with Marathi in his own court. The Maratha empire continued despite internal turmoil until their defeat in the 1818Third Anglo-Maratha War. and recalled his full army a few years later. In 1697 Aurangzeb. Leadership of the disarrayed Marathas then returned to Rajaram. .at Tulapur in 1689 by the Mughals. This treaty brought the Maratha into conflict with the Mughal's opponent. Shivaji continued this Sanskrit promotion. and emphasised Hindu political and courtly traditions. and was forced to move his capital from Raigad to Gingee. in exchange for their protecting the Mughals from their enemies. Governance Shivaji along with his ministers in the courtyard. Shivaji was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal composed of eight ministers). giving his forts names such as Sindhudurg. in poor health. ending the Mughal's significant threat to the Marathas. foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence. founder of an Afghan empire.
a French traveller. now a pilgrimage. in which he wrote: Verily. the poet Kavi Bhushan stated: Had not there been Shivaji. but respected all religions within the region. the bells are rung in yearning for Him alone. His rajpurohit. and his most trusted general in all his campaigns was Haider Ali Kohari. he treated Muslims under his rule with tolerance for their religion. Shivaji had great respect for other contemporary saints. to whom he gave the fort of Parali. was himself a Sanskrit scholar and poet. Shivaji had many Muslims in his military and ministries. prohibiting slavery in his kingdom. Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion. Shivaji had particular respect for the Sufi tradition of Islam. Samarth Ramdas had also written a letter to Sambhaji guiding him on what to do and what not to do after death of Shivaji. Among the various poems written on Shivaji. later renamed as 'Sajjangad'.  Islam Though many of Shivaji's enemy states were Muslim. the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of Him.Prachandgarh. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines.[page needed] Kafi Khan. especially Samarth Ramdas. Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. Kashi would have lost its culture. Ibrahim Khan and Daulat Khan were prominent in the navy. Darya Sarang was chief of armoury. Mathura would have been turned into a mosque and all would have been circumcised”. the Mughal historian and Francois Bernier. If it is a mosque. and Suvarndurg.[page needed] Shivaji also promulgated other enlightened values. Shivaji's son Sambhaji later built a samadhi for Ramdas Swami on Sajjangad upon the latter's death. Ramdas' Shivastuti ("Praise of King Shivaji") is the most famous. and senapat. Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb. Keshav Pandit. . and commissioned the political treatise Rajyavyavahar Kosh. spoke highly of his religious policy. He named the Ashta Pradhan (council of ministers) as per Sanskrit nomenclature with terms such as nyayadhish. and applying a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state. Shivaji was a devout Hindu. Shivaji's contemporary. He also brought converts like Netaji Palkar and Bajaji back into Hinduism. Religious policy Sajjangad where Swami Ramadasa was invited by Shivaji to reside. and Siddi Ibrahim was chief of artillery. If it is a temple.
the Capuchin missionary. Shivaji was responsible for many significant changes in military organisation: . then known as ganimi kava (Marathi: "enemy trickery") His Mavala army's war cry was Har Har Mahadev ( Har and Mahadev being common names of Hindu GodShiva). Christianity The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India: "I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate.Maynak Bhandari was one of the first chiefs of the Maratha Navy under Shivaji. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions. which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. he said 'and shall not be attacked. and helped in both building the Maratha Navy and safeguarding the coastline of the emerging Maratha Empire. "great elder brother". He also built a powerful navy. Shaikh Yacub of the Konkan.and used to pray at the mausoleum of the Sufi Muslim saintBaba Sharifuddin. He also visited the abode of another Sufi saint. the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose. The Maratha navy held its own against the British. 'The Frankish Padres are good men'. He called Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri as bahut thorwale bhau. and took his blessings. Seva-ji." Military Sivaji and Army Shivaji demonstrated great skill in creating his military organisation.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker. Portuguese and Dutch. He built new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast. because assured that he had been very charitable while alive. of the Dutch.
view of southern sub-plateaux. Militarisation of large swathes of society. Creation of part-time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in their fields and supported four months in war for which they were paid. His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom. Main article: Shivaji's forts Shivaji captured strategically important forts at Murambdev (Rajgad). FieldMarshal Montgomery. such as guerrilla warfare. He was also concerned about the growing dominance of British Indian naval forces in regional waters and actively sought to resist it. All war horses belonged to the state. across all classes.  Forts Suvela Machi. For this reason he is also referred to as the "Father of Indian Navy". makes an exception for Shivaji and Baji Rao I. and swift flanking attacks. Summarizing Shivaji's mastery of guerilla tactics. commando actions. Shivaji realised the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi's fleet. Torana. Shivaji himself constructed about 15–20 totally new forts (including key . as seen from Ballekilla. Kondana (Sinhagad) and Purandar and laid the foundation of swaraj or self-rule. with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence. responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Sovereign. called paga. Introduction of field craft. while generally dismissive of the quality of generalship in the military history of the Indian subcontinent. in his "History of Warfare". A potent and effective navy. Toward the end of his career. The introduction of a centralized intelligence department. A standing army belonging to the state. Rajgad. Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry excelling in commando tactics. innovative use of traditional weapons like the tiger claw ( vaghnakh) and vita. Bahirjee Naik was the foremost spy who provided Shivaji with enemy information in all of Shivaji's campaigns. he had a control of 360 forts to secure his growing kingdom. Montgomery describes him as a military genius. Innovation of weapons and firepower.
other Brahmins recognised the Maratha's .. Shivaji's memory was leveraged by the non-Brahmin intellectuals of Bombay. While some Brahmins rebutted this identity. British. which thrived by plunder and adventure. sarnobhat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks and balance. but he also rebuilt or repaired many strategically placed forts to create a chain of 300 or more. This is a very common feeling with the readers. Abyssinians and pirates.Bhivandi. Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan." At the end of the 19th century. who derive their knowledge of these events solely from the works of English historians. Ranade criticised earlier British portrayals of Shivaji's state as "a freebooting Power. The officers (sabnis. Ranade. ranging from early British and Moghul depiction of him as a bandit. and succeeded only because it was the most cunning and adventurous. and Goa for building fighting navy as well as trade. havladar.sea forts like Sindhudurg). He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair. who identified as his descendants and through him claimed the Kshatriya varna. Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed or tempted to deliver it to the enemy. defining them as of the lower Shudra varna. to modern near-deification as a hero of all Indians.. Shivaji's admiral Kanauji Angre is often said to be the "Father of Indian Navy". Portuguese. Historiography Shivaji's role in the research and the popular conception has developed over time and place. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant. to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids. plunder and destruction by Arabs. stretched over a thousand kilometres across the rugged crest of the Western Ghats. Shivaji built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade. storage and shelter. G.  Navy Sindudurg Fort provided anchorages for Shivaji's Navy. support and fighting vessels. Shivaji fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. One of the early commentators who challenged the negative British view was M. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of eight or nine ports in the Deccan. whose Rises of the Maratha Power (1900) declared Shivaji's achievements as the beginning of modern nation-building.
 especially in the state of Maharashtra. Nineteenth century Hindu revivalist Swami Vivekanada considered Shivaji a hero and paid glowing tributes to his wisdom. The book was banned in Maharashtra in January 2004. Shivaji is considered as a national hero in India. but the ban was lifted by the Bombay High Court in 2007. and in July 2010 the Supreme Court of India upheld the lifting of ban. Vivekananda agreed to preside over the festival in Bengal in 1901. " Following public outcry from Pune intellectuals. he is also recognised as a warrior legend. Jawaharlal Nehru had in 1934 noted "Some of the Shivaji's deeds. Today. and now endorsed Shivaji as great nationalist. lower him greatly in our estimation. the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in Pune where Laine had researched was attacked by a group of Maratha activists calling itself the Sambhaji Brigade. This lifting was followed by public demonstrations against the author and the decision of the Supreme Court. some Indian leaders came to re-work their earlier stances on Shivaji's role. Stories of his life form an integral part of the upbringing and identity of the Marathi people.  He wrote about Shivaji : . In 2003. who sowed the seeds of Indian independence. As political tensions rose in India in the early 20th century. When Indian Nationalist leader. Lokmanya Tilak organised a festival to mark the birthday celebrations of Shivaji. and endorsed this Kshatriya legacy and the significance of Shivaji. Legacy Statue of Shivaji at Raigad Fort. As a result of this publication. which was followed by heavy criticism including threats of arrest. American academic James W. like the treacherous killing of the Bijapur genearl.role in the Indian independence movement. where he remains arguably the greatest figure in the state's history. Laine published his book Shivaji: Hindu King in Islamic India. Congress leader Deogirikar noted that Nehru had admitted he was wrong regarding Shivaji. Further.
Surat. and the The Reserve Bank of India is considering issuing currency notes having his picture. Mumbai's international airport at Sahar was renamed the Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport in 1996. propaganda and icons of the Maratha-centric Shiv Sena ("Army of Shivaji") party. He was a peerless hero. a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. such as a statue in Bangalore. In deference to his pioneering contributions to naval warfare in India. a biography by Setu Madhavrao Pagdi Shriman yogi.“ Shivaji is one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Hindu dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future. His image adorns literature. Vadodara. ” Political legacy Shivaji remains a political icon in modern India. the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party and also of the Maratha caste dominated Congress parties (namely. and the Victoria Terminus railway station was similarly renamed as the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. the Indian Navy has named one of its bases after Shivaji. and an equestrian statue inside the Parliament House complex in Delhi. Depiction in popular culture Main article: Shivaji in popular culture Films Me Shivajiraje Bhosale Boltoy (Marathi) Literature Sadhan Chikitsa by Vasudeo Sitaram Bendrey Shivaji. a memorial in Delhi a statue inside the premises of the National Defence Academy (NDA). a historical novel by Ranjit Desai Raja Shivchhatrapati by Babasaheb Purandare Poetry and music . The Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute was renamed after Shivaji's mother. The Government of India has issued a postage stamp commemorating Shivaji. Pune. and particularly in the state of Maharashtra. to the Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute. Commemorations Statues and monuments of Shivaji are found in almost every town and city in Maharashtra. a monument in Agra. Past Congress party leaders in the state such as Yashwantrao Chavan were considered political descendants of Shivaji. christening it as INS Shivaji. NCP and Indira) in Maharashtra. and across different Indian cities outside Maharashtra.
by Marathi playwright Vasant Kanetkar Jaanta Raja (The Knowing King). by Babasaheb Purandare Television Veer Shivaji. ed. Katamble (2003). Shivaji the Great. 2. a Marathi television serial by Nitin Chandrakant Desai See also Hinduism Deccan Wars Maratha Confederacy Chhatrapati of the Succeeded by Maratha Empire Sambhaji 1674–1680 Preceded by new state References 1. ISBN 81-902000-0-3. Shivraj Bhushan by Kavi Bhushan (Hindi) Theatre Raigadala Jevha Jaag Yete (When Raigad Awakens). ^ Jump up to: a b Indu Ramchandani. Student’s Britannica: India (Se . Jump up^ Raṇajita Desāī. p. (2000). D. Ltd. a Hindi television series on Colors TV channel Raja ShivChhatrapati. Balwant Printers Pvt. V. 193.