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# Exercise G Comparing Element Types

## Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 63

Exercise G
Comparing Element Types
Beam, 2-D, Plate and Brick Elements
Objective: Analyze a beam model using different element types and compare the results.

Geometry:

Loads: 100 psi downward along the top.

Constraints: Fixed at left end and simply supported at right end.

Elements: Beam: Convert the 100 psi load over the 0.25 in width to a 25 lb/in distributed load.
2-D: The pressure is applied as a 100 psi surface load along the top edge.
Plate: Model the 10" x 0.5" dimensions and enter a thickness of 0.25". The pressure must be
converted to forces on the top edge as follows:
(Length/# elements along edge) * Width * Pressure = Force
Force/2 at located at the ends
Plate: Model the 10" x 0.25" dimensions and enter a thickness of 0.5". The pressure is
applied as a 100 psi surface load.
Brick: The pressure is applied as a 100 psi surface load.

Material: Steel (AISI 4130)

Note: This exercise must be performed using two analyses. The 2-D element model must be analyzed separately
from the rest of the models because 2-D elements cannot be included in any model that has nodes outside of the
X=0 plane.

Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 64
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 65
Solution

Building the Model

"Start: Programs: ALGOR V17:
FEMPRO"
Press the Windows "Start" button. Select the
"Programs" pull-out menu and then select the
"ALGOR V17" pull-out menu. Select the
"FEMPRO" command.
"New" Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.
"New" Press the "New" button.

Exercise G Type "Exercise G" in the "File name:" field in the
"Save As" dialog. Note the default folder location
where the analysis files will be created. This location
can be changed by navigating to an alternate working
folder if desired.
"Save" Press the "Save" button.

"Geometry: Elements: Line" Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Elements" pull-out menu. Select the "Line"
command to bring up the "Define Geometry" dialog.
2 Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.

<Enter> Press <Enter> to define the origin as the first end point.

<Tab>10<Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10" and press <Enter> to define
the second end point as (0,10,0).

<Esc> Press <Esc> to end the current line.

<Esc> Press <Esc> to exit the line command.

"Selection: Select: Lines" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose
the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines"
command.
Mouse Click on the line.

"Geometry: Tools: Divide" Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Divide"
command.
34 Type "34" in the "Number of Lines:" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button to create the divisions.

"View: Orientation: YZ Right" Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "YZ Right"
command.

"Geometry: Mesh: 4 Point
Rectangular"
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Mesh" pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point
Rectangular" command.
2 Type "2" in the "Part:" field.
1 Type "1" in the "Surface:" field.
34 Type "34" in the "AB:" field.
4 Type "4" in the "BC:" field.

1 <Enter> Type "1" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define
the point (0,0,1) as the first point.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 66
<Tab>10<Tab>1<Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0,10,1) as the second
corner of the rectangle.
<Tab>10<Tab>1.5<Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1.5" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0,10,1.5) as the third
corner of the rectangle.
<Tab><Tab>1.5<Enter> Press <Tab> twice, type "1.5" and press <Enter> to
define the point (0,0,1.5) as the fourth corner of the
rectangle.
"Apply" Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

3 Type "3" in the "Part:" field.

2 Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.

2 Type "2" in the "BC:" field.
3 <Enter> Type "3" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define
the point (0,0,3) as the first point.
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 3 <Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "3" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0,10,3) as the second
corner of the rectangle.
0.25 <Tab> 10 <Tab> 3 <Enter> Type "0.25", press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>,
type "3" and press <Enter> to define the point
(0.25,10,3) as the third corner of the rectangle.
0.25 <Tab> 0 <Tab> 3 <Enter> Type "0.25", press <Tab>, type "0", press <Tab>,
type "3" and press <Enter> to define the point
(0.25,0,3) as the fourth corner of the rectangle.
"Apply" Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.

4 Type "4" in the "Part:" field.

1 Type "1" in the "Surface:" field.

4 Type "4" in the "BC:" field.
4 <Enter> Type "4" in the "Z:" field and press <Enter> to define
the point (0,0,4) as the first point.
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 4 <Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "4" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0,10,4) as the second
corner of the rectangle.
<Tab> 10 <Tab> 4.5 <Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "4.5" and
press <Enter> to define the point (0,10,4.5) as the third
corner of the rectangle.
<Tab> <Tab> 4.5 <Enter> Press <Tab>twice, type "4.5" and press <Enter> to
define the point (0,0,4.5) as the fourth corner of the
rectangle.
"Apply" Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.
<Esc> Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

"View: Enclose" Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Enclose" command.
Mouse Right click on the "4-Point Mesh 3" heading in the
tree view.
"Move or Copy" Select the "Move or Copy" command.
Mouse Activate the "Copy" checkbox.
2 Type "2" in the "Copy" field.
Mouse Activate the "Join" checkbox.
0.25 Type "0.25" in the "Total distance" field.
"DX" Select the "DX" radio button.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 67
"OK" Press the "OK" button to perform the operation.
Mouse Draw a box around the top edge of Part 4 (blue).
"Geometry: Tools: Modify
Attributes"
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select
the "Tools" pull-out menu. Select the "Modify
Attributes" command.
2 Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

"View: Orientation: Isometric" Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "Isometric"
command to verify that the model appears correctly.

"View: Orientation: YZ Right" Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the
"Orientation" pull-out menu. Select the "YZ Right"
command.

"Selection: Select: Vertices" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose
the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices"
command.
Mouse Draw a box around the left end of all 4 parts.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Boundary Conditions" command.
"Fixed" Press the "Fixed" button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.
Mouse Draw a box around the right end of Part 1.

<Ctrl> Mouse Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the
center node of the right end of Part 2.

<Ctrl> Mouse Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the
right end of Part 3.

<Ctrl> Mouse Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the
center node of the right end of Part 4.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Boundary Conditions" command.
Mouse Activate the "Tx" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Tz" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Ry" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Rz" checkbox.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Draw a box around the top edge of Part 2, excluding the
two end nodes.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Forces" command.
-250/34 Type "-250/34" in the "Magnitude" field.
"Z" Select the "Z" radio button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 68

Mouse Draw a box around the node at the top left corner of Part
2.

<Ctrl>Mouse Holding down the <Ctrl> key, draw a box around the
node at the top right corner of Part 2.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Forces" command.
-250/78 Type "-250/78" in the "Magnitude" field.
"Z" Select the "Z" radio button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Defining the Element and Material Data

Mouse Right click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1
in the tree view.
"Beam" Select the "Beam" command.

Mouse Right click on the "Element Definition" heading for
Part 1 in the tree view.
"Modify Element Definition" Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.

Mouse Click in one of the fields for Layer 1 in the "Sectional
Properties" table.
"Cross-Section Libraries" Press the "Cross-Section Libraries" button.

"Rectangular" Select the "Rectangular" option in the drop-down box
in the upper right corner.
0.25 Type "0.25" in the "b" field.
0.5 Type "0.5" in the "h" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the
tree view.
"Modify Material" Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)" Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item in the "Select
Material" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

"Selection: Select: Lines" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose
the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines"
command.
Mouse Draw a rectangle around the beam elements.
Mouse Right-click in the display area.

-25 Type "-25" in the "Magnitude" field.
"Z" Select the "Z" radio button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 2
in the tree view.
"Plate" Select the "Plate" command.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 69

Mouse Right click on the "Element Definition" heading for
Part 2 in the tree view.
"Modify Element Definition" Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.
0.25 Type "0.25" in the "Thickness" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Material" heading for Part 2 in the
tree view.
"Modify Material" Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)" Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item in the "Select
Material" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 3
in the tree view.
"Plate" Select the "Plate" command.

Mouse Right click on the "Element Definition" heading for
Part 3 in the tree view.
"Modify Element Definition" Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.
0.5 Type "0.5" in the "Thickness" field.
Mouse Click on the "Orientation" tab.

100 Type "100" in the "Z Coordinate" field in the
"Element Normal" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Material" heading for Part 3 in the
tree view.
"Modify Material" Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)" Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item in the "Select
Material" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part
3.
Mouse Right click on the "Surface 2" heading.

"Surface Pressure/Traction" command.
100 Type "100" in the "Magnitude" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Right click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 4
in the tree view.
"Brick" Select the "Brick" command.

Mouse Right click on the "Material" heading for Part 5 in the
tree view.
"Modify Material" Select the "Modify Material" command.

"Steel (AISI 4130)" Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item in the "Select
Material" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part
4.
Mouse Right click on the "Surface 2" heading.

"Surface Pressure/Traction" command.
100 Type "100" in the "Magnitude" field.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
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"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Running the Analysis
"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"
Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the
"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be analyzed
and will be loaded in the Results environment.

Viewing the Results
Mouse Click on the heading for Part 2 in the tree view.

<Shift>Mouse Holding down the <Shift> key, right click on the heading for
Part 4 in the tree view.

"Hide" Select the "Hide" command. The legend will be updated to
only show the range for the stress in Part 1. You can use this
command to view the results for each model individually.

Inquire on the result types listed in the table at the end of the exercise for each part in the model and compare them
to the listed value.

Building the 2-D Model

"Start: Programs: ALGOR
V17:
FEMPRO"
Press the Windows "Start" button. Select the "Programs" pull-
Select the "FEMPRO" command.
"New" Select the "New" icon at the left side of the dialog.
"New" Press the "New" button.

Exercise G 2-D Type "Exercise G 2-D" in the "File name:" field in the "Save
As" dialog. Note the default folder location where the analysis
files will be created. This location can be changed by navigating
to an alternate working folder if desired.

"Save" Press the "Save" button.

"Geometry: Mesh: 4 Point
Rectangular"
Access the GEOMETRY pull-down menu and select the "Mesh"
pull-out menu. Select the "4 Point Rectangular" command.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 71

34 Type "34" in the "AB:" field.
1<Enter> Type "1" in the "Z:" field and press enter to define the point
(0,0,1) as the first corner of the rectangle.
<Tab>10<Tab>1<Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1" and press enter
to define the point (0,10,1) as the second corner of the rectangle.
<Tab>10<Tab>1.5<Enter> Press <Tab>, type "10", press <Tab>, type "1.5" and press enter
to define the point (0,10,1.5) as the third corner of the rectangle.
<Tab><Tab>1.5<Enter> Press <Tab> twice, type "1.5" and press enter to define the point
(0,0,1.5) as the fourth corner of the rectangle.
"Apply" Press the "Apply" button to create the mesh.
<Esc> Press <Esc> to exit the mesh command.

"View: Orientation: YZ
Right"
Access the VIEW pull-down menu and select the "Orientation"
pull-out menu. Select the "YZ Right" command.

"Selection: Shape: Rectangle" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and select the
"Shape" pull-out menu. Select the "Rectangle" command.

"Selection: Select: Lines" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose the
"Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Lines" command.
Mouse Draw a box around the top edge of the model.
"Geometry: Tools: Modify
Attributes"
Access the GEOEMTRY pull-down menu and select the "Tools"
pull-out menu. Select the "Modify Attributes" command.

2 Type "2" in the "Surface:" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

"Selection: Select: Vertices" Access the SELECTION pull-down menu and choose
the "Select" pull-out menu. Select the "Vertices"
command.
Mouse Draw a box around the left end of the model.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Boundary Conditions" command.
"Fixed" Press the "Fixed" button.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Mouse Draw a box around the center node of the right end of
the model.
Mouse Right click in the display area.

Boundary Conditions" command.
Mouse Activate the "Tx" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Tz" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Ry" checkbox.
Mouse Activate the "Rz" checkbox.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Exercise G Comparing Element Types
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Defining the Element and Material Data
Mouse Right click on the "Element Type" heading for Part 1
in the tree view.
"2-D" Select the "2-D" command.
Mouse Right click on the "Element Definition" heading for
Part 1 in the tree view.
"Modify Element Definition" Select the "Modify Element Definition" command.
0.25 Type "0.25" in the "Thickness" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.
Mouse Right click on the "Material" heading for Part 1 in the
tree view.
"Modify Material" Select the "Modify Material" command.
"Steel (AISI 4130)" Highlight the "Steel (AISI 4130)" item in the "Select
Material" section.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.
Mouse Click on the + next to the "Surfaces" heading for Part
1.
Mouse Right click on the "Surface 2" heading.
Pressure/Traction" command.
100 Type "100" in the "Magnitude" field.
"OK" Press the "OK" button.

Running the Analysis

"Analysis: Perform
Analysis"
Access the ANALYSIS pull-down menu and select the
"Perform Analysis" command. The model will be analyzed
and will be loaded in the Results environment.

Viewing the Results
Inquire on the result types listed in the table at the end of the exercise for each part in the model and compare them
to the listed value.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
Finite Element Analysis in Practice Steps for Exercises 4.00 07/11/2005 73

Results
Element Type Deflection
(inch)
Moment
(in-lb)
Shear
(lb)

y
(psi)
y
(psi)
(near center)

yz
(psi)
Beam 0.01761 311.9 156.2 29,933 16,885 **
2-D 0.01751 ** ** 28,349 14, 975 1008.5
First Plate Model
(0.25" Thick)
0.01751 ** ** 28,349 14,975 1008.5
Second Plate
Model (0.5" Thick)
0.01722 ** ** 30,413 13,940 **
Brick 0.01741 ** ** 29,332 13,923 1015.9

**This result type is not calculated for this element type.

To review a completed archive of this exercise, refer to the files Exercise G.ach and Exercise G 2-
D.ach in the "exercise G\results archive" directory.
Exercise G Comparing Element Types
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