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A PROJECT REPORT ON FASTEST FINGER FIRST INDICATOR

In partial fulfillment for the award of degree B Tech in Electronics And Communication Engineering

Session 2010-2011

Submitted To: Mrs. Vandana Shishoo (HOD of ECE)

Submitted By: Krity Vats Divya Uniyal Garima Sharma Year: 4th year Branch: ECE

Name of faculty Manish Sharma (Minor Project Incharge)

Department Of Electronics And Communication Engineering Rajasthan College Of Engineering For Women Bhankrota, Jaipur

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Ms. KRITY VATS, Ms. DIVYA UNIYAL and Ms. GARIMA SHARMA of 4th year (7th sem) branch ECE has submitted a minor project on FASTEST FINGER FIRST INDICATOR.

Mrs. Vandana Shishoo (HOD of ECE)

Examiner

Mr. Manish Sharma (Project Supervisor)

Date: Place: Jaipur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We fall short of words to thank everyone who has helped us in bringing this report to completion. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Mrs. Vandana Shishoo (HOD of ECE) for providing us the opportunity to do this project. We further would like to sincerely and whole heartedly thank the supervisor Mr. Manish Sharma (lecturer of electronics and communication), Rajasthan College Of Engineering For Women, Jaipur, for his valuable guidance and for giving us the chance to undertake this project. A special word of thank should go to all the faculties of electronics and communication for providing the resources and guidance to execute the project work successfully. Last but not the least we would like to thank all our friends and colleagues for helping us throughout the w ork directly or indirectly.

Signature of student Krity Vats Divya Uniyal Garima Sharma

CONTENTS

1. Introduction 2. Circuit Diagram 3. Components Used 4. Project Description 5. Basic Electronics Components 6. ICs Used In FFFI 7. Working 8. Advantages of FFFI 9. Applications of FFFI 10. Soldering instructions 11. Precautions 12. Conclusion 13. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION

Quiz-type game shows are increasingly becoming popular on television these days. In such games, fastest finger first indicators (FFFIs) are used to test the players reaction time. The players designated number is displayed with an audio alarm when the player presses his entry button.

In the buzzer round of quiz contests, the question is thrown open to all the teams. The person who knows the answer hits the buzzer first and then answers the question. Sometimes two or more players hit the buzzer almost simultaneously and it is very difficult to detect which of them has pressed the buzzer first. In television shows, where the whole event is recorded, the actions are replayed in slow motion to detect the first hit. Such slow motions are possible only where huge funds are available to conduct the show. For this reason buzzer rounds are avoided for quiz contests held in colleges.

This project is an electronic quiz buzzer that is affordable by the colleges and even individuals. This project is useful for a 4 -team quiz contest, although it can be modified for more number of teams. This system is sensitive. The circuit can detect and rec ord the first hit contestant among all the contestants that may appear to be simultaneous. JK master slave flip flop is the heart of this project. The complimented output of all JK flip flops is given to NAND gate input. The output of the NAND gate is fed to NOT gate. Here in this project, NOT gate is realized from NAND gate.

The output of this NOT gate is fed to CLK pins of all JK flip flops through four Push -to-ON switches. LEDs are connected to output pin of all JK flip flops through a transistor drive r. Whenever any switch is pressed first, the corresponding flip flops output goes high and makes the LEDs blink.

This project uses regulated 5V, 750mA power supply. Full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/18V step down t ransformer.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

COMPONENTS USED

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 7805 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 74LS75 4-BIT BISTABLE LATCH 74LS20 DUAL 4-INPUT NAND GATE 74LS147 9-LINES TO 4-LINES PRIORITY ENCODER IC5 IC6 IC7 74LS04 HEX INVERTOR 74LS47 BCD TO SEVEN SEGMENT DECODER NE555 TIMER

RESISTORS: R1- R5 R6 R7 R8 VR1 1K 330; 100K 10; 10K

CAPACITORS Ceramic Capacitors: C1 C2 C3 0.033Q 0.01Q 0.047Q

Electrolyte Capacitor: C4 47Q, 35V

MISCELLANEOUS COMMON ANODE 7-SEGMENT LED DISPLAY S1- S5 PUSH TO ON SWITCHES SPEAKER - 8;, 1W

PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Quiz-type game shows are increasingly becoming popular on television these days. In such games, fastest finger first indicators (FFFIs) are used to test the players reaction time. The players designated number is displayed with an audio alarm when the player presses his entry button. The circuit presented above determines as to which of the four contestants first pressed the button and locks out the remaining three entries. Simultaneously, an audio alarm and the correct decimal number display of the correspon ding contestant are activated.
When a contestant presses his switch, the corresponding output of latch IC2 (7475) changes its logic state from 1 to 0. The combinational circuitry comprising dual 4 -input NAND gates of IC3 (7420) locks out subsequent entrie s by producing the appropriate latch-disable signal. Priority encoder IC4 (74147) encodes the active -low input condition into the corresponding binary coded decimal (BCD) number output. The outputs of IC4 after inversion by inverter gates inside hex in-verter74LS04 (IC5) are coupled to BCD-to-7segment decoder/display driver IC6 (7447). The output of IC6 drives common -Anode 7segment LED display (DIS.1, FND507 or LT543), The audio alarm generator comprises clock oscillator IC7 (555), whose output drives a loudspeaker. The oscillator frequency can be varied with the help of preset VR1. Logic 0 state at one of the outputs of IC2 produces logic 1 input condition at pin 4 of IC7, thereby enabling the audio oscillator.

IC7 needs +12V DC supply for sufficient alarm level. The remaining circuit operates on regulated +5V DC supply, which is obtained using IC1 (7805). Once the organizer identifies the contestant who pressed the switch first, he disables the audio alarm and at the same time forces the digital dis play to 0 by pressing reset pushbutton S5. With a slight modification, this circuit can accommo dates more than four contestant

IDENTIFYING BASIC ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS:

When a beginner to electronics first looks at a c ircuit board full of components he/she is often overwhelmed by the diversity of components.

Electronic component are classed into:  Passive devices  Active devices A Passive Device is one that contributes no power gain (amplification) to a circuit or system. It has not control action and does not require any input other than a signal to perform its function. In other words, A components with no brains! Examples are Resistors, Capactitors and Inductors.

An Active Devices are components that are capable of controlling voltages or currents and can create a switching action in the circuit. In other words, Devices with smarts Examples are Diodes, Transistors and Integrated circuits. Most active components are semiconductors.

1. RESISTOR:

Circuit symbol:

Function:

Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is placed in series with a light-emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. Connecting and soldering:

Resistors may be connected either way round. They are not damaged by heat when soldering.

Resistor values - the resistor color code:

Resistance is measured in ohms, the symbol for ohm is an omega 1 1k is quite small so resistor values are often given in k = 1000 1M = 1000000 . and M .

Resistor values are normally shown using coloured bands. Each colour represents a number as shown in the table. Most resistors have 4 bands:
   

The first band gives the first digit. The second band gives the second digit. The third band indicates the number of zeros. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor, this may be ignored for almost all circuits

Tolerance of resistors (fourth band of color code): The tolerance of a resistor is shown by the fourth band of the color code. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage. For example a 390 resistor with a tolerance of 10% will have a value and 390 + 39 = 429 within 10% of 390 , between 390 - 39 = 351 (39 is 10% of 390). A special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance:
silver 10%, gold 5%, red 2%, brown 1%.

The Resistor Colour Code

Colour Number Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey White 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is 20%. Tolerance may be ignored for almost all circuits because precise resistor values are rarely required. This is the most common component in electronics. It is used mainly to control current and voltage within the circuit. One can identify a simple resistor by its simple cigar shape with a wire lead coming out of each

end. It uses a system of color coded bands to identify the value of the component (measured in Ohms) .A surface mount resistor is in fact mere millimetres in size but performs the same function as its bigger brother, the simple resistor. A Potentiometer is a variable resistor. It lets you vary the resistance with a dial or sliding control in order to alter current or voltage on the fly. This is opposed to the fixed simple resistors.

2. CAPACITORS:

Circuit symbol:

Function:

Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in timing circuits because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with charge. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as a reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter circuits because capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC (constant) signals.

Capacitance:

This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is measured in farads, symbol F. However 1F is very large, so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. Three prefixes (multipliers) are used,
  

(micro), n (nano) and p (pico):

means 10-6 (millionth), so 1000000F = 1F n means 10-9 (thousand-millionth), so 1000nF = 1F p means 10-12 (million-millionth), so 1000pF = 1nF

Capacitor values can be very difficult to find because there are many types of capacitor with different labelling systems. There are many types of capacitor but they can be split into two groups, polarised and unpolarised. Each group has its own circuit symbol.

The size of a capacitor generally determine how much charge it can store. A small surface mount or ceramic cap will only hold a minuscule charge. A cylindrical electrolytic cap will store a much larger charge. Some of the large electrolytic caps can store enough charge to kill a person. Another type, called Tantalum Capacitors, store a larger charge in a smaller package.

3. INDUCTORS:

Adding electrical current to a coil of wire produces a magnetic field around itself. This is how the inductor works. It is charged with a magnetic field and when that field collapses it produces current in the opposite direction. Inductors are used in Alternating Current circuits to oppose changes in the existing current. Most inductors can be identified by the "coil" appearance. Others actually look like a resistor but are usually green in colour.

4. Antenna Coil:

This consists of several turns of insulated copper wire wound on a plastic tube. It is used in this kit for transmitting radio waves. The coil has four tappings on it. The leads can be identified by the spacing in between.

5. DIODES:

Circuit symbol:

Function:

Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a valve and early diodes were actually called valves.

 Forward Voltage Drop Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode, rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode, it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.7V fo r all normal diodes which are made from silicon. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph).

 Reverse Voltage When a reverse voltage is applied a perfect diode does not conduct, but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few A or less. This can be ignored in most circuits because it will be very much smaller than the current flowing in the forward direction. However, all diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually 50V or more) and if this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction, this is called breakdown. Ordinary diodes can be split into two types: Signal diodes which pass small currents of 100mA or less and Rectifier diodes which can pass large currents. In addition there are LEDs (which have their own page) and Zener diodes (at the bottom of this page).

Connecting and soldering :

Diodes must be connected the correct way round, the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or - for cathode (yes, it really is k, not c, for cathode!). The cathode is marked by a line painted on the body. Diodes are labelled with their code in smal l print, you may need a magnifying glass to read this on small signal diodes! Small signal diodes can be damaged by heat when soldering, but the risk is small unless you are using a germanium diode (codes beginning OA...) in which case you should use a heat sink clipped to the lead between the joint and the diode body. A standard crocodile clip can be used as a heat sink. Rectifier diodes are quite robust and no special precautions are needed for soldering them.

Testing diodes:

One can use a multimeter or a simple tester (battery, resistor and LED) to check that a diode conducts in one direction but not the other. A la mp may be used to test a rectifier diode, but do NOT use a lamp to test a signal diode because the large current passed by the lamp will destroy the diode!

 Signal diodes (small current): Signal diodes are used to process information (electrical signals) in circuits, so they are only required to pass small currents of up to 100mA. General purpose signal diodes such as the 1N4148 are made from silicon and have a forward voltage drop of 0.7V.

 Rectifier diodes (large current): Rectifier diodes are used in power supplies to convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC), a process called rectification. They are also used elsewhere in circuits where a large current must pass through the diode. All rectifier diodes are made from silicon and therefore have a forward voltage drop of 0.7V. The table shows maximum current and maximum reverse voltage for some popular rectifier diodes. The 1N4001 is suitable for most low voltage circuits with a current of less than 1A.  Zener diodes Circuit symbol:

Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals. The diagram shows how they are connected, with a resistor in series to limit the current. Zener diodes can be distinguished from ordinary diodes by their code and breakdown voltage which are printed on them. Zener diode codes begin BZX... or BZY... Their breakdown volt age is printed with V in place of a decimal point, so 4V7 means 4.7V for example. Zener diodes are rated by their breakdown voltage and maximum power:
y y

The minimum voltage available is 2.4V. Power ratings of 400mW and 1.3W are common.

6. LEDs (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE):

Circuit symbol:

Function:

LEDs emit light when an electric current passes through them.

Connecting and soldering : LEDs must be connected the correct way round, the diagram may be labelled a or + for anode and k or - for cathode (yes, it really is k, not c, for cathode!). The cathode is the short lead and there may be a slight flat on the body of round LEDs. If you can see inside the LED the cathode is the larger electrode (but this is not an official identification m ethod). LEDs can be damaged by heat when soldering, but the risk is small unless you are very slow. No special precautions are needed for soldering most LEDs.

Testing an LED: Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply! It will be destroyed almost instantly because too much current will pass through and burn it out. LEDs must have a resistor in series to limit the current to a safe value, for quick testing purposes a 1k resistor is suitable for most LEDs if your supply

voltage is 12V or less. Remember to connect the LED the correct way round.

Colours of LEDs: LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue and white. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours. The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not by the colouring of the 'package' (the plastic body). LEDs of all colours are available in uncoloured packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as 'water clear'). The coloured packages are also ava ilable as diffused (the standard type) or transparent LEDs are simply diodes that emit light of one form or another. They are used as indicator devices. Example: LED lit equals machine on. The general purpose silicon diode emits excess energy in the form o f heat when conducting current. If a different semiconductor material such as gallium, arsenide phosphide is used, the excess energy can be released at a lower wavelength visible to human eye. This is the composition of LED. They come in several sizes and colors. Some even emit Infrared Light which cannot be seen by the human eye.

7. SWITCH :

Circuit symbol for a simple on-off switch

This is a mechanical part which when pressed makes the current to flow through it. If the switch is released the current stops flowing through it. This helps to control a circuit.

8. TRANSISTORS:

Function:

Transistors amplify current, for example they can be used to amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can operate a lamp, relay or other high current device. In many circuits a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing voltage, so the transist or is being used to amplify voltage. A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with maximum current, or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier (always partly on). The amount of current amplification is called the current gain, symbol hFE. . Types of transistor: There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. If you are new to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use NPN transistors. The leads are labelled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E). Transistor circuit symbols

The transistor performs two basic functions. 1) It acts as a switch turning current on and off. 2) It acts as a amplifier. This makes an output signal that is a magnified version of the input signal. Transistors come in several sizes depending on their application. It can be a big power transistor such as is used in power applifiers in your stereo, down to a surface mount (SMT) and even down to .5 microns wide (I.E.: Mucho Small!) such as in a microprocessor or Integrated Circuit.

 NPN Transistor: Bipolar junction perform the function of amplifications where a small varying voltage or current applied to the base (the lead on the left side of the symbol) is proportionately replicated by a much larger voltage or current between the collector and emitter leads. Bipolar junction refers to sandwich construction of the semiconductor, where a wedge of "P" material is placed between two wedges of "N" material. In this NPN construction a small base current controls the larger current flowing from collector to emitter (the lead with the arrow).  PNP Transistor: Similar to NPN transistors, PNP's have a wedge of "N" material between two wedges of "P" material. In this design, a base current regulates the larger current flowing from emitter to collector, as indicated by the direction of the arrow on the emitter lead. In CED players, PNP transistors are used less frequently that the NPN type for amplification functions.

9. PCBs:

PCB stands for printed circuit board which are used for wiring up of the components of a circuit. PCBs are made of paper phenolic FR2 grade (low cost, for low frequency and low power circuit assembly) and glass epoxy FR4 grade (for high frequency, high power circuits) copper clad laminates (available in 1.6mm, 2.4mm and 3.6mm thickness). Singlesided PCBs have copper foil only on one side while double-sided PCBs have copper foil on both side of the laminate. Thickness of copper foil is 35 micrometer minimum on cheaper PCBs and 70 micrometer on slightly costlier PCBs. Tracks (conductive paths) are made by masking (covering) the track part of copper with etchresist enamel paint (you can even use nail polish) and later dippi ng the laminate in ferric chloride solutions to dissolve all copper except under the masked part. Holes in PCBs are drilled after etching is over. The tracks on two sides of a PCB are joined using printed through hole (PTH) technique, which is equivalent to using slotted copper rivets for joining tracks on both sides. On cheaper PCBs, PTH are not provided, only Pads (i.e. circular copper land with centre hole) are provided and you have to join the tracks on both sides by soldering a copper wire to the pads with a copper wire. In singlesided PCB components are mounted on the side which has no track (called component side). In a double-sided PCB the component side is defined (marked before hand) or it will show component outline (also called silk screen) Green masking is the process of applying a layer of green colour insulation varnish on all parts of tracks except near the holes, to protect the tracks from exposure to atmosphere and thus prolong its life and reliability.

10. BATTERIES:

Symbol of batteries shows +ve terminal by a longer line than the ve terminal. For low power circuit dry batteries are used.

11. SPEAKERS:

These convert electrical signals to acoustic vibrations. It comprises a permanent magnet and a moving coil (through which electrical signal is passed). This moving coil is fixed to the diaphragm which vibrates to produce sound.

12. ICs (INTEGRATED CIRCUITS):

Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips. They are complex circuits which have been etched onto tiny chips of semiconductor (silicon). The chip is packaged in a plastic holder with pins spaced on a 0.1" (2.54mm) grid which will fit the holes on strip board and breadboards. Very fine wires inside the package link the chip to the pins. Pin numbers: The pins are numbered anti-clockwise around the IC (chip) starting near the notch or dot. The diagram shows the numbering for 8-pin and 14-pin ICs, but the principle is the same for all sizes.

IC holders (DIL sockets):

ICs (chips) are easily damaged by heat when soldering and their short pins cannot be protected with a heat sink. Instead we use an IC holder, strictly called a DIL socket (DIL = Dual In -Line), which can be safely soldered onto the circuit board. The IC is pushed into the holder when all soldering is complete. IC holders are only needed when soldering so they are not used on breadboards. Commercially produced circuit boards often have ICs soldered directly to the board without an IC holder, usually this is done by a machine which is able to work very quickly. Please don't attempt to do this yourself because you are likely to destroy the IC and it will be difficult to remove without damage by de -soldering.

Integrated Circuits, or ICs, are complex circuits inside one simple package. Silicon and metals are used to simulate resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc. It is a space saving miracle. These components come in a wide variety of packages and sizes. You can tell them by their "monolithic shape" that has a ton of "pins" coming out of them. Their applications are as varied as their packages. It can be a simple timer, to a complex logic circuit, or even a microcontroller (microprocessor with a few added functions) with erasable memory built inside.

ICs USED IN FFFI


BCD TO 7-SEGMENT DECODER/DRIVER(SN54/74LS47)

The SN54/74LS47 are Low Power Schottky BCD to 7 -Segment Decoder/Drivers consisting of NAND gates, input buffers and seven AND -OR-INVERT gates. They offer active LOW, high sink current outputs for driving indicators directly. Seven NAND gates and one driver are connected in pairs to make BCD data and its complement available to the seven decoding AND-OR-INVERT gates. The remaining NAND gate and three input buffers provide lamp test, blanking input / ripple -blanking output and ripple -blanking input. The circuits accept 4-bit binary-coded-decimal (BCD) and, depending on the state of the auxiliary inputs, decodes this data to drive a 7 -segment display indicator. The relative positive-logic output levels, as well as conditions required at the auxiliary inputs, are shown in the truth tables. Output configurations of the SN54/ 74LS47 are designed to withstand the relatively high voltages required for 7 -segment indicators. These outputs will withstand 15 V with a maximum reverse current of 250 mA. Indicator segments requiring up to 24 mA of current may be driven directly from the SN74LS47 high performance output transistors. Display patterns for BCD input counts above nine are unique symbols to authenticate input conditions. The SN54/74LS47 incorporates automatic leading and/or trailing -edge zero-blanking control (RBI and RBO). Lamp test (LT) may be performed at any time which the BI /RBO node is a HIGH level. This device also contains an overriding blanking input (BI) which can be used to control the lamp intensity by varying the frequency and duty cycle of the BI input signal or to inhibit the outputs. Lamp Intensity Modulation Capability (BI/RBO) Open Collector Outputs Lamp Test Provision Leading/Trailing Zero Suppression Input Clamp Diodes Limit High -Speed Termination Effects

HEX INVERTER (SN54/74LS04)

WORKING OF FFFI

 When a contestant presses his switch, the corresponding output of latch IC2 (7475) changes its logic state from 1 to 0.  The combinational circuitry comprising dual 4 -input NAND gates of IC3 (7420) locks out subsequent entries by producing the appropriate latch -disable signal.  Priority encoder IC4 (74147) encodes the active-low input condition into the corresponding binary coded decimal (BCD) number output.  The outputs of IC4 after inversion by inverter gates inside hex inverter 74LS04 (IC5) are coupled to BCDto -7-segment decoder/display driver IC6 (7447).  The output of IC6 drives common anode the active-low input condition into the corresponding binary coded decimal (BCD) number output.  The outputs of IC4 after inversion by inverter gates inside hex inverter 74LS04 (IC5) are coupled to BCD to- 7-segment decoder/display driver IC6 (7447).  The output of IC6 drives common anode 7-segment LED display (DIS.1, FND507 or LT543).  The audio alarm generator comprises clock oscillator IC7 (555), whose output drives a loudspeaker.  The oscillator frequenc y can be varied with the help of preset VR1. Logic 0 state at one of the outputs of IC2 produces logic 1 input condition at pin 4 of IC7, thereby enabling the audio oscillator.  IC7 needs +12V DC supply for sufficient alarm level. The remaining circuit operates on regulated +5V DC supply, which is obtained using IC1 (7805).  Once the organiser identifies the con contestant who pressed the switch first, he disables the audio alarm and at the same time forces the digital display to 0 by pressing reset pushbutton S5.  With a slight modification, this circuit can accommodate more than four contestants.

 ADVANTAGES OF FFFI
 Fastest Response  Highly Sensitive  Wide supply range (3V to 15V)  High noise immunity  Low cost and reliable circuit

APPLICATIONS FFFI

 Colleges / Schools for Quiz competitions  Joel Events / Games

SOLDERING INSTRUCTIONS

Cleaning for soldering: y

Ensure that parts to be soldered and the PCB are clean and fre e from dirt or grease.

y y

Use isopropyl alcohol with the help of non -static bristol brush for cleaning. Use lint-free muslin cloth for wiping or alternatively use mild soap solution followed by thorough rinsing with water and drying.

Tips for good Soldering : y

Use 15 to 25 watt soldering iron for general work involving small joints and for CMOS ICs, FETS and ASICS use temprature controlled soldering station ensuring that the tip temperature is maintained within 330 -350 deg. centigrade .

y y

For bigger joints use elevated temperature as per job. Before using a new tip, ensure that it is tinned and before applying the tip to the job, wipe it using a wet sponge.

y y

Use 60 : 40 (tin : lead) resin core (18 -20 SWG) solder. Ensure that while applying the tip to the job, the tip of the soldering iron is held at an angle such that the tip grazes the surface to be heated and ensure that it does not transfer heat to other joints/ components in its vicinity at the same time heating all parts of joint equally.

Heat the joint for just the.right amount of t ime, during which a very short length of solder flows over the joint and then smoothly withdraw the tip.

y y

Do not carry molten solder to the joint. Do not heat the electronic parts for more than 2-4 seconds since most of them are sensitive to heat.

Apply one to three mm solder which is neither too less nor too much and adequate for a normal joint.

Do not move the components until the molten solder, at the joint has cooled.

Tips for de-soldering: y y

Remove and re-make if a solder joint is bad or dry. Use a de-soldering pump which is first cocked and then the joint is heated in the same way as during soldering, and when the solder melts, push the release button to disengage the pump.

Repeat the above operation 2 -3 times until the soldered component can be comfortably removed using tweezers or long nose pliers.

Deposit additional solder before using the de -soldering pump for sucking it in case of difficulty in sucking the solder if it is too sparse as this will hasten the desoldering operation.

Alternatively, use the wet de-soldering wick using soldering flux which is nothing but a fine copper braid used as a shield in coaxial cables etc. and then press a short length of the wick using the tip of the hot iron against the joint to be de soldered so that the iron melts the solder which is drawn into the braid.

y y

Do not allow the solder to cool while the braid is still adhering to the joint. Allow it to cool and check for continuity.

PRECAUTIONS

 Mount the components at the appropriate places before soldering. Follow the circuit description and components details, leads identification etc. Do not start soldering before making it confirm that all the components are mounted at the right place.  Do not use a spread solder on the board, it may cause short circuit.  Do not sit under the fan while soldering  Position the board so that gravity tends to keep the solder where you want it.  Do not over heat the components at the board. Excess heat may damage the components or board.  The board should not vibrate whi le soldering otherwise you have a dry or a cold joint.  Do not put the kit under or over voltage source. Be sure about the voltage either dc or ac while operating the gadget.  Do spare the bare ends of the components leads otherwise it may short circuit with the other components. To prevent this use sleeves at the component leads or use sleeved wire for connections.  Do not use old dark colors solder. It may give dry joint. Be sure that all the joints are clean and well shiny.

CONCLUSION

This project is an electronic quiz buzzer. Fastest finger first indicators (FFFIs) are used to test the players reaction time. The players designated number is displayed with an audio alarm when the player presses his entry button. In the buzzer round of quiz contests, the question is thrown open to all the teams. The person who knows the answer hits the buzzer first and then answers the question. Some times two or more players hit the buzzer almost simultaneously and it is very difficult to detect which of them has pressed the buzzer first. In television shows, where the whole event is recorded, the actions are replayed in slow motion to detect the first hit. Such slow motions are possible only where huge funds are available to conduct the s how. For this reason buzzer rounds are avoided for quiz contests held in colleges. But this indicator reduces the probability of any error in detecting who pressed the buzzer first. Thus, in this report we have concluded all the components for the set up of this indicator.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 http://www.electronicsforu.com/efylinux/circuit/feb2003/Fastest%20Finger%20
First%20Indicator.pdf

 http://www.scribd.com/doc/36947944/Fastest -Finger-First-Indicator  http://www.projectguidance.com/  http://www.electro-tech-online.com/