Zhou Zhi, OU Jinping. A new kind of smart bridge cable based on FBG sensors SPIE v.

5502 2004: 196-199

A new kind of smart bridge cable based on FBG sensors
ZHOU Zhi*, ZHAO Xuefeng, WANG Chuan, ZHANG Zhichun, HU Qingli, OU Jinping School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Tech., Harbin, Haihe Road 202, China,150090
ABSTRACT
The feasibility and advantages of smart bridge cable based on FBGs are discussed. And the sensing properties of FBGs installed in the cables under dead load are tested. The experimental results and practical applications show that the smart bridge cable is proper to be used in bridge cables transfer, construction control and long-term health monitoring. Keywords: FBG sensor, smart bridge cable, structural health monitoring, strain

1. INTRODUCTION
Cables are the key components of cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, hanging bridges and so on. The bridge cables in service are easily damaged due to the factors of environment corrosion, fatigue, materials aging, stress redistribution, etc, which result in that the cables can not stand as long as designed. Nowadays, engineers depend on manometers and accelerometers, even electro-magnetic sensors to measure the cable stress. However, it is still difficult for engineers to evaluate the cables’ state of stress or damage and give decision-making of maintaining or rejection. Optical Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is now developing very fast since 1989 [1~4], which show great advantages such as small, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on. FBGs are now can be available to measure structural strain and temperature [5~9]. In this paper, we have developed a new kind of cables installed with FBGs during manufacture of the cables for Luoguo Bridge in Panzhihua, and Binzhou Yellow River Bridge in China, and their strain sensing properties are also studied.

2. FABRICATION OF SMART CABLES BASED ON FBGS
The main idea of smart cables based on FBGs is that FBGs sensors are installed in the cables during their fabrication course. The FBGs in the cable can be used to measure the stain state of steel wire, which can show the stress state of the cable. According the fact that whatever damage occurring on the cable will be revealled by the inner stress state, we can easily evaluate the safety of cable and take right action on it. Due to that FBGs ’ diameter is very small, only 125 micrometer or so, it doesn ’t affect the cable ’s mechanical properties at all. Theoretically speaking, the feasibility of smart cables based on FBGs are assured by the facts that the strain resolution of FBG can reach 1~2 µε, and the stress error of each steel wire of the cable is blow 2%. The transaction of smart cables based on FBGs is depicted as Figure 1.
FBG sensors

Steel wire PE layer

Figure 1: Transection sketch of smart cable based on FBG sensors

*

zhouzhi@hit.edu.cn; phone 86-451-86282664; fax 86-451-86282209

which doesn ’t change the basic fabrication procedure of common cables. The key procedure of smart cables fabrication is the installation technique of FBGs on the steel wire. the manufacture procedure of smart cable based on FBGs sensors is depicted as figure 2.Taken casting anchor cable as example. Steel wire tension PE protection Mould shape Adhesive tape wrap Anchor cast Adhesive tape unfold Anchor anneal FBG Installation Jumper protection Transmission line protection Figure 2 Manufacture techniques of Smart cable with FBGs sensors Adhesive tape open Silica gel Cushion Sand paper polish Transmission line Acetone Clean Adhesive recover Glue sticking PE protection J39 cover Jumper protection FBG FBG FBG Figure 3 Techniques of FBGs installation on steel wire of cables Figure 4 Smart hanger cable based on FBGs for Luoguo Bridge Figure 5 Smart cables based on FBGs for Binzhou Yellow River Bridge . which is depicted as figure 3~5.

4.95×105MPa and 219. and elastic module and original length are 1. So it is a good way for FBGs installed in cables to monitor the inner strain state. Not considering the coupling effect of FBG under strain and temperature simultaneously. it consists of 287 φ 7. which are given as (1) and (2) ∆λb1 / λb1 = K ε ε + K T 1 ∆T1 (1) . N26-3 embedded with 3 FBGs for Binzhou Yellow River Bridge as example. The basic sensing principle can be interpreted as follows. When the load reaches the extra extension value of 8502kN.9%.4. and the cost is very low. The final extension length of the cable is 86cm. which are now in service. SENSING PROPERTIES OF SMART CABLES In order to test the strain sensing properties of smart cables. which agrees well with that from calculation. even to 60~80 ℃ during the 4 seasons in one year. 3.591m respectively. Considering the operational convenience. The measurement results from the 3 FBGs’ are given as figure 6~9.The FBGs in the smart cable are well protected. which show good linearity and repetition. The fabrication technology depicted above can be easily realized. and the smart cables based on FBGs can work well. we can give the expression of FBG affected by strain and temperature at the same time and that of FBG affected only by temperature. 10000 5000 8000 loading course of FBG1 Unloading course of FBG1 loading course of FBG2 unloading course of FBG2 4000 Load (kN) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 6000 Load (kN ) 3000 4000 2000 2000 1000 0 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 strain (με ) strain ( με ) Figure 6 Strain sensing of FBG1 in N26-3 5000 Figure 7 2000 1800 1600 1400 Strain sensing of FBG2 in N26-3 FBG1 under loading FBG2 under loading FBG3 under loading FBG1 under unloading FBG2 under unloading FBG3 under unloading Loading course of FBG3 unLoading course of FBG3 4000 3000 strain ( με ) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 load (kN) 1200 1000 800 600 2000 1000 400 200 0 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 strain ( με ) load (kN) Figure 8 Strain sensing of FBG3 in N26-3 Figure 9 Comparison of results from 3 FBGs We can find that the strain sensing properties of the 3 FBGs are very inspiring. excess extension of the cables. Here due to that the time for experiment is very short. TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION OF SMART CABLES BASED ON FBGS As the temperature for a bridge in service changes a lot. we make full use of the last procedure of the cables fabrication. which can not be affected by load. to assure the superiority of the FBGs sensors. and the theoretical and experimental results shows that it is essential to consider the temperature compensation when FBGs in service for strain sensing. temperature effect is not considered.8 µε. The error is only 2. and the smart cable can show FBGs’ sensing properties. Taken the cable. we install another suspension FBG in a steel capillary along the FBG strain sensor to sense the temperature. The authors have made 24 smart cables for Binzhou Yellow River Bridge and 4 for Luoguo Bridge. the strain gotten from FBG1 is 3800. and the value is 3916.

L. 1999 P..M. et al.∆λb 2 / λb 2 = K T 2 ∆T2 (2) where λ. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Project Supported by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation. Eng. we can get the strain with the consideration of temperature compensation: ε = (∆λb1 / λb1 − K T 1 ∆λb 2 /( K T 2 λb 2 )) / K ε (3) 5. G. SPIE. J. The sensing properties and practical application in civil infrastructures of optical FBGs. 2003 6.J.3860. Fiber optic sensors in civil engineering structures. From the results of cables under loading and unloading. Far East Technical University of Russian. Optics and lasers in Eng. 1999: 44-54 P. Rao. 4. 24 smart cables for Binzhou Yellow River Bridge and 4 for Luoguo Bridge have been developed. National Science Foundation of China (50308008)and 863 High Tech. Meltz. ∆T1 equals ∆T2 . the stress state can be obtained during transfer and construction. 2000 Y. T. and its fabrication techniques and temperature compensation in service are also brought forward. WU Zhanjun. 2000 ZHOU Zhi. Because the 2 FBGs are close enough. Bronnimann. 3671. SPIE. a new kind of smart cable based on FBGs is developed. Structurally Embedded fiber Bragg gratings: Civil engineering applications. 2838.4. Vol. 8.31. Nellen. ZHOU Zhi. quasi-distribution sensing. C. Civ. 5129. SPIE.WU Zhanjun. Tennyson. especially for the cables ’ long term monitoring in service. 5. which are now in service. Coroy and G. Vol. SPIE. Duck et al. 3489:124-129 J.Vol. SPIE. Program. CONCLUSIONS Aiming at structural health monitoring of bridge cables. Udd. 2002 OU Jin-ping.. temperature and coefficient respectively. R. 9. The cables with installed FBGs show the advantages of FBG sensors such as high accuracy. Doctor Dissertation. ε.. 2003 . 2. Harbin Institute of Tech. Schulz. T and K mean central wavelength of FBGs. 1998. Thus. Fuhr. Optical Fiber Smart BRAGG Grating Sensors and Intelligent Monitoring System in Civil Infrastructures . W. S. Sein. Overview of Fiber Grating Based Sensors. Fiber optic sensors in the Waterbury Bridge. ZHOU Zhi. Ou Jinping. Pacific Science Review. absolute measurement and so on. Spammer.1999: 128-134 R. E. Technique and Application of In-situ Monitoring for Concrete Structures with FBG Sensors. the FBGs installed in the cables show inspiring strain sensing properties. Recent progress in applications of in fiber Bragg grating sensors. strain. 3. electro-magnetic resistance. REFERENCES 1. Health monitoring of an Oregon historical bridge with fiber grating strain sensors. 7.Vlasivostok. With the FBGs in the cable.

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