Journal of Dental Research

http://jdr.sagepub.com Blood Loss in Oral Surgery
Richard L. Johnson and Rachel M. Jenss J DENT RES 1956; 35; 175 DOI: 10.1177/00220345560350020301 The online version of this article can be found at: http://jdr.sagepub.com

Published by:
http://www.sagepublications.com

On behalf of:
International and American Associations for Dental Research

Additional services and information for Journal of Dental Research can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jdr.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/35/2/175

Downloaded from http://jdr.sagepub.com by on April 21, 2009

1953. between normotensive and hypertensive patients. and subsequent analysis of the entire series. Quantitative blood losses occurring in average dental patients during multiple or complete extractions and during alveolotomy were determined. this study was undertaken. The effect of hemorrhage on the host depends upon a number of factors. the latter 82 cases. The exclusion of exodontia and oral surgery leads one to believe that the extent of hemorrhage associated with the extraction of teeth is generally accepted as insignificant. 9 hypertensives. no essential differences could be demonstrated. CASE MATERIAL Ninety-seven consecutive patients admitted to the Millard Fillmore Hospital by 8 oral surgeons for oral surgical treatment under general anesthesia between Feb. and 4 in whom it was believed the operative technic employed would require special grouping. 1955. 1954. were studied. County of Erie (N. In order to measure the extent of actual blood loss in oral surgical procedures. Buffalo. *Office of Biostatistics. no scientific report has ever been published on this subject. and an additional 82 patients admitted between Sept. From the Department of Oral Surgery. that is. N.) Health Department.com by on April 21. So far as could be ascertained from rather exhaustive perusal of the literature. 175 patients are considered in the total hospital experience. D. 175 Downloaded from http://jdr. WITH STATISTICAL ANALYSIS BY RACHEL M. mainly upon the age and general health of the patient and the proportion of blood lost in relation to his normal blood volume. JOHNSON. either as to rate or extent of hemorrhage. Milla/rd Fillmore Hospital. Y. 12 and July 16. 1954. 1953. Four were later excluded: 2 because of the presence of systemic disease and 2 because the anesthetic administered differed from the one used generally in the series. D. 23.* THE problem of clinically evaluating reduced blood volume due to whole blood loss is one that has received little attention in oral surgical practice. During the course of the investigation and subsequent analysis of the findings it became apparent that there may be another facet to this problem: blood loss tended to be materially affected by the surgical technic used. For clinical evaluation the averages were compared with average blood losses in general surgical procedures. The quantity of blood that escapes the vascular bed during a surgical procedure depends upon the size and the number of vessels surgically interrupted and the length of time bleeding or oozing is allowed to continue. Y. an additional 25 had been excluded from the statistical analysis: 12 whose blood pressures had not been recorded.SC. 2009 . although the literature is replete with articles on blood loss in all other branches of surgery. However. These patients Received for publication Nov. JENSS. upon completion of the second survey.BLOOD LOSS IN ORAL SURGERY RICHARD L. and April 1.sagepub.S.D. 9. revised by author May 13. Exclusive of these cases. particularly exodontia with the aid of general anesthesia. In the report' on the first series of patients.

The total blood loss is the sum of the corrected quantity collected in the aspirator bottle and the converted blood weight from the used sponges. 1956 Res. This method does not take into account losses other than those of frank hemorrhage. per 100 c. All patients were admitted to the hospital on the evening of the day preceding surgery. Pain was never the chief presenting complaint. and gowns usually does not exceed 50 c. The weight of the blood contained in the used sponges is considered equivalent to volume.9 years. The weighing scale is employed for the immediate recording of "used" sponge weights. Ideally. except for certain refined hematologic studies. but all are included in the total hospital experience. of necessity. The aspirator is used for suctioning blood as the hemorrhage occurs. of sterile water are required in this method. Of the 175 patients 44. yet the majority of methods for calculating blood loss are far too time-consuming for practical clinical application. The hemoglobin content of the total group ranged from 12 to 16 Gm. the average age for males being 40.2 in a survey of blood loss during general surgical operations.17 6S JOHNSON J. Also. that figure was used. Preoperative blood volume determinations were also made on some patients. METHOD Since replacement by whole blood or other fluids should be instituted as soon as significant hemorrhage occurs or within as short a time thereafter as possible.c. however.6 per cent were male and 55.com by on April 21. It also records the collected volume of blood within the aspirator bottle. of blood. Such a history was elicited in 4 instances in this series.8 years and for females 40. This is then corrected by adding the lag volume of blood and subtracting the amount of water suctioned during the procedure. The majority of these patients sought oral surgical treatment because their physician or dentist had requested such treatment for the eradication of potential foci of infection. but periodontal disease was the most frequent. so that determining the quantity of blood contained in the used sponges is a simple mathematical calculation. except in cases of extreme loss. found that the amount of blood recovered from gloves. An aspirator.4 per cent were female. enlist the cooperation of the entire surgical team. a 500 ml. the specific gravity of the patient's blood should be engaged in this conversion. A complete history was obtained and preoperative urinalysis and complete blood count were made as a routine procedure of the hospital. Bonica and Lyter. include saliva as a part of the total measurable blood loss. are therefore included in the present study. drapes. coagulated blood contained in the suction tips and tubing. gowns. A gravimetric method was employed in this study. Theoretically. There were no polycythemic or anemic patients in the series.sagepub. A blood platelet count and bleeding. It would be ideal to have such data on all surgical patients but this is not always feasible. it is of paramount importance for the surgeon to have a guide for estimating the volume or portion thereof to replace. and prothrombin time tests were performed on a random sampling of patients in order to evaluate the clinical application of these tests in the present study. but a quantitative analysis of saliva present would not have been feasible because of the time Downloaded from http://jdr. a weighing scale recording in grams. D. cylinder graduate. The method as applied in the present study did. it does. April. Collection of blood on drapes. clotting. sterile sponges is remarkably constant.c. and gloves also was not considered. Their ages ranged from 15 to 75 years. 2009 . A history of postextraction hemorrhage or bleeding tendency is perhaps the most significant finding to guide the oral surgeon in the proper management of the case. The weight of dry. and normal values provide a practical guide. The cylinder graduate measures a known volume of water for flushing the aspirator system to determine the amount of residual. The simplest solution to this problem is blood loss determinations made at the operating table or chair. the salivary components should be subtracted. the specific gravity of blood may be taken as unity. in the second survey the cases were compared as to the operative technic employed. but since. The procedure devised is fairly simple. and from 200 to 300 ml. The indications for oral surgical intervention were variable.

in individualized doses. Pentothal sodium (2. whereas the term "complete extraction" refers to the removal of all remaining mandibular and maxillary teeth.com by on April 21. and osseous corrections whenever performed concomitantly with extraction of teeth. and all throat packs were discarded. based upon an average duration of surgery of 30 minutes. Downloaded from http://jdr. It is believed that these factors render insignificant the inclusion of resultant minimal saliva in the total calculated blood loss. in order to keep this factor to a minimum. The number of teeth extracted ranged from 1 to 30. The average dose of Pentothal sodium administered to these patients was 1. Curare and/or succinylocholine was administered to all patients in this latter group. if these procedures were performed concomitantly with extraction. hemorrhage imto the tissues was not accounted for. and the technical assistance required.Volume 3S Number 2 BLOOD LOSS IN ORAL SURGERY 177 involved. and they were evaluated at the ratio of one to one. the expense of the procedure. Endotracheal intubation was used in the remaining 17 per cent of the patients. blood-loss studies were made at the termination of the surgery according to the gravimetric method described. In 83 per cent of the patients nasopharyngeal tubes were inserted. biopsy.. A complete upper or lower extraction was included under the general heading of multiple extraction. Finally. 2009 . The time of starting and of completing the surgery was recorded. In Fig. excisions of hyperplastic and hypertrophic growths. SURGICAL PROCEDURES Alveolotomy was performed in 94. The term "multiple extraction" refers to a subtotal odontectomy. Removal of retained roots and foreign bodies was considered as extractions. The operative procedure included the removal of tori mandibularis and palatinus whenever necessary. The number of teeth removed is divided into groups of 8 in order to facilitate the analysis. and finally.sagepub. and. as stated previously. or biopsies. regardless of their position or location. includes under that general heading the removal of impactions. Preclinical medication with morphine or pantopon and atropine or hyoscine. each patient received premeditation to reduce salivary secretions.100 mg. Also. The quantity of Pentothal sodium used during the procedure was recorded in milligrams. were removed during the course of a complete or multiple extraction.5 per cent solution) supplemented with nitrous oxideoxygen was the anesthetic universally employed. the amount of hemorrhage occurring after the last suture was placed was not recorded. regardless of how much blood they contained. excision of hyperplastic growths. If impacted teeth. The surgery performed is based upon the number of extractions. they were included under one of those two general headings. No special categories were established to include gingivectomies. However.3 per cent of the 175 patients. Preoperatively and again postoperatively the blood pressure was ascertained. was administered to all patients one hour preoperatively. 1 the type of surgery performed is correlated with the number of patients in percentages. In these few patients salivary activity was slight to moderate. The average requirement of Pentothal sodium in this group was 800 mg. Control of salivation in all but a few cases was excellent. and the average number of extractions per patient was 18.

80> 1. Res.8% z 60-79 -z w 40-59 X ci: (n Uz 26. and column five includes all cases requiring more than 80 minutes for the procedure. the second.com by on April 21.sagepub.-Duration of surgical procedures correlated with the number of patients (in percentages). 1956 24-32 17 8% x w 16-24 42 8% 0 LL 8-15 35. 2. D. 2009 .5% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 PERCENT OF PATIENTS Fig.178 The duration of the surgical procedures is shown in Fig. The first column of the chart includes all of the procedures lasting less than 20 minutes. 1. and fourth columns represent 20-minute intervals.2% 0 20-39 52. Again the number of patients is shown as percentages of the total in each time group. 2. w a 8 w w I I- JOHNSON J. The duration of surgery ranged from 7 to 90 minutes and averaged 30 minutes.7% 6. Both the number and Downloaded from http://jdr. RESULTS In Table I the relationship of blood loss to operating time and number of extractions in the total series of 175 cases is shown.5% < 20 1 2.-Type of oral surgery performed correlated with the number of patients (in percentages). April.9% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 PERCENT OF PATIENTS Fig. third.5% al 3.

however.7 13.7 7.6 17 39. with alveolotomy.5 11. level. the average loss being 223 ml. 822.2 21 3 12. When the operating time remained below 30 minutes in this group. 57. level. The more prolonged the operating time the greater the blood loss.3 2..5 per cent did not hemorrhage in excess of the 300 ml. It was shown. 44. 2009 . clotting.1 - 5 23 28 20 9 7 4. 630.7 100. 681. In Fig.8 per cent sustained blood losses ranging from 300 to 500 ml.5 3 11 23 18 9 7 3.9 45.sagepub.0 80 100. 89 per cent operated upon in less than 30 minutes had a blood loss below 300 ml.7 28. 720. 53.7 11. It was found that bleeding.5 per cent had blood losses above 300 ml.9 22. If the duration of surgery surpassed 30 minutes. The duration of surgery is also represented in two groups: less than 30 minutes and 30 or more minutes. but when the surgery exceeded 30 minutes in duration.2 5 20.6 6.PER NUMI.8 per cent of the patients sustained blood losses ranging from 300 to 912 ml. 829.9 10(1 0 21 100. for even false-positive results will keep the surgeon alert to the possibility of severe hemorrhage.9 2 12 5 2 - 9. The surgery is divided into two categories: less than 16 teeth and 16 or more teeth extracted.2 28. Because false-positive results are frequent does not mean that the tests are without value. No sex differences as regards blood loss could be demonstrated in this series.PER NUM.8 27.8 22.8 9. nor was there any correlation between age and blood loss.2 per cent remained below the 300 ml. No appreciable differences were found in either the rate or extent of hemorrhage between hypertensive and normotensive patients. When the duration of the operation is compared with blood loss in the group with fewer fhan 16 extractions. both in the total hospital experience and when the data were analyzed according to groups of oral surgeons.8 8. 677.9 6. 90.3 9 9 8. 74 100.) Under 100 100-199 200-299 300-399 400-499 500-599 600 and over* Total 19 29 9 15 2 |CENT BER 25. Conversely.Number 2 Volume 35 BLOOD LOSS IN ORAL SURGERY 179 per cent of patients are given in each blood-loss group. and prothrombin times can be within normal limits in an individual who hemorrhages profusely during oral surgery.6 10.0 Blood loss in the total group ranged from 35 to 912 ml.5 35.9 - 2 8 6 10 2 7. and 912 nil. 725. that time is the most important consideration in the evaluation of blood loss.com by on April 21. In the group of patients who lost 16 or more teeth in the operative procedure.4 57.8 19.5 21. positive results of these tests do not necessarily point to abnormal bleeding tendencies.0 28 100. 3 blood loss is compared with per cent of the total patients.3 8.0 101 *Blood losses in this category were 620. whereas 42.3 23. RELATIONSHIP OF TABLE I BLOOD LOSS TO NUMBER OF EXTRACTIONS (TOTAL HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE) AND DURATION OF SURGERY BLOOD LOSS LESS THAN 16 TEETH EXTRACTED DURATION OF SURGERY TOTAL LESS THAN 30 MINUTES CASES 30 MINUTES OR MORE NUMBER PER NUM- (ML. The most val- Downloaded from http://jdr.PER BER CENT BER CENT BER CENT 36.0 46 PER NUMBER CENT PER CENT 16 OR MORE TEETH EXTRACTED DURATION OF SURGERY TOTAL LESS THAN 30 MINUTES CASES 30 MINUTES OR MORE NUM.

Res.6% _100 200 30'0 400 500 60'0 lnM.7% I---C<L~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 25 I0 5- 10 200 30-0 0 7080gO10 6. 3.com by on April 21. this influence Downloaded from http://jdr. It is sometimes not an easy matter to obtain a rather thorough medical history from dental patients who.1% 0. 2009 . uable guide in the prognosis of abnormal bleeding tendencies in the average dental patient was the history of previous episodes of excessive postextraction hemorrhage. 700 800 900 1000 BLOOD LOSS IN Fig. 1956 J.-Blood loss (in ml. Since the patient's preoperative general condition and a history of bleeding tendency are of paramount concern to the oral surgeon.) correlated with number of patients (in percentages). The extent of hemorrhage can be influenced slightly by mechanical factors such as suctioning and the use of dry. the time and effort required to educate these patients to the necessity and validity of obtaining such a history are more than worth while.% 1. Although the use of aspirators and sponges is essential to maintenance of a dry field. and prothrombin times on hematologic study might be explained by tissue tone. nearly 50 per cent of the patients will sustain blood losses in excess of 300 ml. with alveolotomy. In general. rarely can see any connection between the oral cavity and systemic diseases.) o U_ / \21.7% 15 -5 13. sterile sponges. The fact that patients were encountered in this series who bled profusely during oral surgery despite having normal blood platelet counts.-In oral surgery.sagepub.9% 1. it tends to show that when 16 or more teeth are extracted. it is important that the patient's medical history be obtained and a case "work-up" be made. if this study of 175 patients has any prognosticative value.4% 3.180 JOHNSON April. clotting. Hyperemia or the presence of granulation tissue increases the bleeding potential. COMMENT Prediction of Blood Loss. no less than in all types of surgery.1% 2029. 40- 35 3C. bleeding. even though hospitalized. D.

the number of patients in the higher blood loss brackets increased correspondingly as the duration of surgery increased in each category. which was considered too small a number for statistical analysis. Operative Technics.-In an attempt to ascertain whether blood loss would be materially affected by different operative technics.. individual blood losses could be predicted. there was little difference between the groups as regards operative technic.. and (2) surgical incision. Office cases and hospital cases. and by immediate suturing of opened wounds. quantitative blood loss apparently is influenced by operating technic. 2009 . The 115 patients represented by the small-field approach sustained an average blood loss of 200 ml. as would be expected. Six of the 7 surgeons in the first category employed a broad-field approach. When 16 or more teeth were extracted. curettage. With repeated studies on large series. with an average of 19 teeth extracted in an operation lasting 39 minutes. While definite conclusions cannot be drawn from the present series. curettage. followed by extraction. and with criteria for actual losses established. The one employing the second technic is represented by 9 cases. Seven of the 8 surgeons employed the first technic described. however. it was only when 16 or more teeth were extracted that the differences were striking. and closure. to a large extent. a proportionate difference that was sustained when the number of extractions was divided into 6 groups by increments of 5..com by on April 21. operating on an entire quadrant or more before final closure was made. should not be the quantitative loss of blood. the median blood loss of the first group was 715 ml. however. When the case material was studied separately on the basis of these 3 distinctly different operative technics.sagepub. the highest losses occurring. blood loss was compared with the technics employed by the 8 oral surgeons represented in this study. with an average of 19 teeth extracted and an average of 45 minutes operating time. alveolotomy. Their extraction technics fell into two major categories: (1) extraction followed by surgical incision and reflection of mueoperiosteal tissues. Downloaded from http://jdr. while in the second group it was 290 ml. with an average of 17 teeth extracted and an average of 27 minutes operating time. In this series. The remaining surgeon extracted a maximum of 3 or 4 teeth at one operation..Number 2 Volume 35 BLOOD LOSS IN ORAL SURGERY 181 on hemorrhage can be lessened by the use of sterile sponges wrung out of sterile saline solution or water. Our primary concern. when less than 16 teeth were extracted. in the road-field approach of the second category. reflection of mucoperiosteal tissues and alveolotomy. a table could be evolved from which. When 28 or more teeth were extracted. The 9 patients in the second category (too few for significance) sustained an average blood loss of 188 ml. the average blood loss in this group (51 patients) was 320 ml. the operative procedure elected by the individual oral surgeon is of secondary importance since the well-being of the patient will be safeguarded.. per se. With adequate and early replacement therapy available. but the ability to evaluate and to some extent prognosticate individual blood losses so that replacement therapy may be instituted whenever needed to maintain physiologic fluid balance. cannot validly be compared. and closure.

It is general knowledge that the red cell replacements lag from 6 to 8 weeks following blood loss. Precautions governing the administration of intravenous fluids should be observed. can sustain rather high blood losses and suffer no immediate apparent ill effects. Perhaps we are favored by the size of the vessels involved. Res. 1956 Recovery of Patient. the function of the reticuloendothelial system. When a systemic condition is present. the patient's physician should be consulted.sagepub. The amount of fluid entering the vascular system governs the resultant state of dehydration within the tissue compartment.com by on April 21.-It was consistently found in this study that postoperatively the tissues of the mouth of the patient who had sustained a large blood loss were in better condition than those of the patient who had had only minimal blood loss. and a slow steady reduction of blood volume is better tolerated than are fluctuant rates of hemorrhage. chiefly. On the contrary. pril. however. The rate of hemorrhage in extraction is rather uniform. The effect of reduced blood volume due to whole-blood loss can be just as disastrous to the patient undergoing surgery in the mouth as elsewhere in the body. with no sudden gushes from large arteries as in general surgery. Downloaded from http://jdr. Intravenous administration is indicated when the discomfort of surgery in the oral cavity makes these patients extremely reluctant to accept fluids by mouth. if only for purposes of maintaining fluid levels within the tissue fluid compartment. the postoperative therapeutic regimen should include a high-quality protein diet. Because the type of hemorrhage characteristic of oral surgery does not have as profound an effect upon the physiologic mechanism does not mean that replacement therapy of some form is not indicated. whereas plasma volume replacements occur within 24 hours. and iron in the form of ferrous sulfate. 2009 . and. which is further affected by insensible fluid losses.182 JONO 82JOHNSON D. Oral surgical patients. The possibility of postextraction hemorrhage of considerable magnitude also must always be borne in mind. When whole blood is lost the fluids of the tissue compartment enter the vascular compartment to maintain the blood volume. Therefore. to maintain the proper fluid level intravenous administration of a solution of 5 or 10 per cent dextrose in water is indicated in those patients in whom anticipated blood losses will exceed 300 ml. vitamin supplements of B complex and C. The administration of whole blood should be considered when hemorrhage is in excess of 500 ml. In those cases in which replacement therapy is deemed unnecessary. replacement therapy is definitely indicated. This might be explained as due to the flushing effect of the hemorrhage. AJ. The untoward sequelae resulting from promiscuous use and abuse of blood transfusions shouAd be common knowledge to anyone employing this therapy. the presence of a greater quantity of the essential tissue-building elements as afforded by the increased vascular bed in the gingival tissues of these patients. This does not mean that the systemic recovery of the patient who has hemorrhaged profusely occurs with speed.

nephrectomies. 2. Quantitative determination of blood losses sustained in oral surgery in a series of 175 patients representing 8 oral surgeons showed losses ranging from 35 to 912 ml. 2009 . Average losses exceeded those for simple mastectomies. We were unable to demonstrate any in this series.) 4 51 6 48 16 20 4 40 14 574 150 190 196 208 AVERAGE LOSS (C.150 1. The longer the operating time. 5. in a series of 175 patients admitted to the Millard Fillmore Hospital by 8 oral surgeons for extraction with alveolotomy under general anesthesia.) 10 171 58 146 249 55 296 358 153 237 43 34 19 99 1.C. and maximum losses were in excess of those for hysterectomies and other pelvic operations.254 629 579 Hysterectomies Others Brain operations Gastric resections Mastectomies Simple Radical Nephrectomies This study (total hospital experience) 2. It is recommended that blood loss determinations be made a routine procedure during exodontia. The blood loss associated with extraction of teeth and alveolotomy in the average patient compares with blood losses encountered in major surgery.) Appendectomies Cholecystectomies Herniorrhaphies Inguinal Ventral Thyroidectomies Hemorrhoidectomies Transurethral prostatic resection Pelvic surgery 110 26 40 4 43 20 62 357 263 306 888 150 MINIMUM LOSS (C. and thyroideetomies.C.C. the greater the blood loss.272 912 CONCLUSIONS 845 175 35 223 1. Blood loss was found to compare with that incurred in many major general surgical operations as culled from the literature (Table II).432 220 1.sagepub. inguinal herniorrhaphies. Some correlation between blood loss and age and sex of the patient might have been expected. Blood losses in oral surgery may be predicted to some extent. with an average loss of 223 ml. Downloaded from http://jdr.287 441 205 690 484 3 27 12 1. with extraction of 18 teeth and alveolotomy in an operative procedure lasting 30 minutes. The extent of hemorrhage in oral surgery has been vastly underestimated. A thorough medical history and preoperative complete blood count on all patients.Number 2 Volume 35 BLOOD LOSS IN ORAL SURGERY SUMMARY 183 Blood loss was determined by a gravimetric method. 4.com by on April 21. herniorrhaphies (all types). Time and blood loss are direct surgical antagonists. and hemorrhoidectomies.. TABLE II BLOOD Loss IN VARIOUS OPERATIONS (AMERICAN LITERATURE)2 TYPE OF OPERATION NUMBER OF CASES MAXIMUM LOSS (C. cholecystectomies. 3. as described.

184 JOHNSON J.: The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice. In average patients. blood losses may be anticipated in conformity with individual operating time and technic.sagepub. 1956 as well as the condition of the tissues of the mouth. 1953. ed. C. I. in cases of severe blood loss a method of calculating such loss as it occurs is invaluable. 2. and Lyter. D.. 57-66. Millard Fillmore Hosp. H. chairman of the Oral Surgery Department. Bull. Johnson. Swrg. 7. Williams & Wilkins Co. N. Res April. J. L. J. 81: 496-502. G. and Taylor. vol. pp. 6. B.: Measurement of Blood Loss During Surgical Operations. Bonica. Downloaded from http://jdr. 1951. any appreciable reduction of blood volume can be just as disastrous to the patient..: Blood Loss in Oral Surgery: Preliminary Report. to the Department of Anesthesiology. J. Best. I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. and to the Section of Hematology for their cooperation in making this study possible.. REFERENCES 1. 3. 5.com by on April 21. C. afford valuable information. S. Although the rate of hemorrhage in oral surgery seems to have a less profound immediate physiologic effect than in other types of surgery. While having some guide to prognosing blood loss is valuable. R. G. Am. 2009 . to the Oral Surgery Staff. Baltimore. 1950. Pritchard.