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027627 .Orgtinic

Determination From Well Logs oF the Carbon Content in Potential Rocks Petroleum Inst. ; J.L. i-in, Dswirw
H. A. S.E.~&.-c.~,, U.. of New 9oyth .Wales;



COPYRIGHT~SO.CIETY .OF PETROLEUM .EKGINEERS for This manuscript was provided to the Society of Petroleum Engineers distribution and possible publication in an SPE Journal. The Contents of this paper (1) are sub ject to correction by the author(s) and (2) have not undergone Thus , SPE makes noclaim about the.. SPE peer review for technical accuracy. contents of the work. Permission to copy or use is restricted to an abstract of Write SPE Book Order Dept. , Library Technician, P.O. not more then 300:wor.ds. Box..833836; Richardson .TX 75083-3836 U.S. A. Telex 1632.45 SPEUT

PUG i 21993 >,,.


,;, := ..,, ._. .



J.L. Lin - Daqing Petroleum Institute, P.R. China H.A. Salisch - Centre for Petroleum Engineering University of New South Wales, Sydrrey-Australia ~ember APRIL, 1993


ABSTRACT This paper discusses, in some detail, the log responses to total orgsrric cwbon [TOC] in the Upper and Middle Velkerri Formation in sn area of the McArthur Basin, Northern Territow, A~tdia. The Fotiation Density log was found to be superior to other standard weU logs in assessing values of TOC in the area shylied. A theoretical model was used to estimate TOC.. fromthe Fomration Density log. The model was es@Mishedand ils .aqiicabdity was vcritied by comparison with other models. Based on geochemiwd properties the Upper and Middle Velkerri Forrmition are classified into three categories: non-source rocks, mature sorrrce rocks and immature source rock. They show significant diftleiences h the well Iog responses, thus di.t%rent models had to be established for the three categories to determine the TO.C.content ffom well logs. The compsrisim of the results of using a dfikrent model for each category instead of a single model to cover tire three categories shows that the former gives more meatigfid anawrzs....

JNTRODUCTION Total Organic Carbon [TOC] contenfpreient iit potential source rocks significantly affects the response of s&eral types of well logs. Wireline Iogs can be used to identify source rocks and serve as atr indicator for the source rock potentisl provided that the source rocks have a minimum thickness within the resohrtion of the mesaurements being made and that they are arrtllcicntly rich in orgsrric matter. Wireline methods for estimating organic matter content have the advantage of economy, readily avaiIable sources of data and the continuous samphng of a vertically heterogeneous shale section . A pilot arm was selected within the general area in which an integrated reaesrch effort to characterise the organic matter in the VeIkerri Formation had been initiated. The objective was to attempt to establish in the pilot area a quantitative correlation between standard well logs and total orga~c carbon [TOC] corrtcnt.


, .

Thk correlative work was performed for the Upper and Middle Velkerri Formation, in the McArthur Basin of the Northern Territory, AustrN1a. The formation is made up mainly of cIaystone and siltstone. The Upper Velkern Formation is commoidy shale and appears to contain no source rocks. The Middle Velkerri Formation does contain mature and/or immature source rocks. Four key wells. were included in this study: They will be called here wells A, B, C and D. The surface d~tances between wells is indicated on the location map at the end of the paper. The following well logs, run in the early 80s, were available:

-InductionResistivity logs -Sonic logs -Formation Density/Neutron logs MI logs had natural gamma-ray curves. Two-arm caliper curves were available. Formation waters are known to have a salinity in excess of 150,000 ppm of NaC1. The drilling fluids were basically simple fresh-water clay muds with an estimated 4% content of ! KCL A comparison was made of different log responses in relation to a large number of geochemical analysis data made available for this study. The Formation Density log responses gave the most dependable estimates of TOC in this area. Literature has been published on the use of density measurements for the determination of TOC.Q The models used in some of the literature are based on linear and non-linear eqnations which were derived by regressional methods. Irr this paper a theoretical model is being presented for an estimate of TOC content, based on a volumetric model and principles of log measurements. The results of correlation and error analysis indicate that the model is superior to others in this area in calculating TOC content by using single log responses , In this study the source rock evaluation from well logs was hased on grouping the Upper and Middle Vel.kern Formation into three distinct categories, based on measured geochemical characteristics. They are. - Source rocks with mature organic matter - Source rocks with immature organic matter, and - Non-source rocks. The three categories are different in their electric facies. The equations derived for each category have made it possible to calculate TOC content from Formation Density log responses only. Cross-plots and Bayes mrrhi-gronp discriminant analysis were used to determine the rock categories as listed above. The methodology was later apptied to a fifth well, outside of the original pilot stndy. The results were equally consistent with geochemical anatysis data.
--., .








According to a study at the Institute Francais du Petrole [unpublished], source rocks from 18 sedimentary basins showed an average of 1.82%of Total Organic Carbon [TOC]. If this average is reduced to the case of shrdes and silts only, the average rises to 2.16%. Hunt (1961). found- iiii average vakre of 1.659oTOC in 200 shale formations in 60 sedimentary basins. According to Jones (1970), a majority of the worlds oil accumulations originated in source rocks with a total carbon content in excess of 2.5 weight percent. The minimum concentration of organic carbon content required for a source rock to generate commercial hydrocarbon accumulations has frequently been stated as being 0.5% by weight. Based on core and log anafysis data, the content in TOC of source rock in the Velkerri Formation is about 2%. Source rocks are commonly shafes and lime-mudstone that contain significant amounts of organic matter. Non-source rocks also contain organic matter, but the amount is usually less than 1.0% by weight. ConceptrraJly, organic- rich rocks can be assumed to be composed of three component rock matrix - solid organic_matter,. and - fluid(s) filling the pore space. Non-source rocks are composed primarily of only two component the matrix and the fluid filling the pore spaice.-In immature source rocks, solid organic matter and rock matrix comprise the solid fraction, and formation water fills the pore space. As the source rock matures, a portion of the solid organic matter is transformed into liquid [or gaseous] hydrocarbons which move into the pore space, displacing formation water. These physical transformations willhave an effect on geophysical log responses.: In the following pages an outline is given of different log responses in source rocks


Organic-rich rocks can be relatively highly radioactive, i.e. they can have a higher gamma ray reading than non-sonrce shales and limestone, ~k natural radioactivity is usually due to uranium enrichment. It can be postulated that plankton absorb uranium ions that are generally present in sea water together with other trace elements and that uranium thus becomes concentrated in the source rock. It has been found that Iacustrine source rocks have no gamma ray anomrdies, owing to the scarcity or absence of uranium ions in fresh waterf Figures 1 and 2 show the gamma ray curves for two of the wetts included in this study. In each case it is indicated that the Gamma Ray log will identifi source rocks in the Velkern Formation in tlds area.

-3- ?

Resistivity Logs

Source beds are geirrmlly thin, discrele layers even in thick source rock formations. Thus richness can vary considerably in a vertical dkction and a high vertical logging tool resolution is, therefore, desirable. In principle any resistivity log may be used to evaluate impermeable formations such as source rocks.c Shallow and deep-penetration logs should give the same reading unless affected by borehole or anisotropy effects or by tool characteristics. Source rocks are generally laminated and thus are electrically anisotropic. This increases the resistivity measured by spherically focussed logs. When source rocks become mature, free oil is present in voids and fractures and with maturity the resistivity of a source rock increases significantly. This makes it possible to use resistivity as a snaturi~ indicator for a given source rock formation Figures .l.and 2 show the deep resistivity curves in the Velkern Formation for the two welts indicated. Higher resistivitics are displayed in mature source rocks [lower part of Figure 1] than in immature source rocks [upper part of F@tre 2] and in non-source rocks [upper part of Figure I and lower part of F@re 2]. Resistivity increases whh the degree of maturity. The source rock resistivities in the Velkern Formation of wells A, B and C, in all of which the organic material is mature, are much higher than those of non-source rocks in the same wells. There is little difference, however, between the re.sistivities of source rocks and non-source rocks in the Velkern Formation of well D, as the organic material is immature.




The Formation Density log measures the bulk density of the formation. This density consists of the combined effects of matrix density and fluid density. The more fluid a formation contains, the more porous it is. In shakes with a similar degree of compaction and similar matrix arid fluid density, water saturation should also be equaf. Sofid organic matter has a similar density to that of water [approx. 1.0 g/cc]$and thus less than that of the surrounding rock matrix. If the density read in source rocks is lower than the density read in normal shales, it must be a function of the amount of organic matter which is present. At a shale density of about 2.25 g/cc or greater, the minimum concentration of organic matter for the Formation Density log to respond is about 1.0 % by weight. Figures 1 and.2 display the density curves for the same two wells, in the Velkern Formation. It is apparent that in source rocks the density is lower than in non-source rocks. The figure also indicates that mature rocks have lower densities than immature rocks.

Sonic Logs Like Formation Density logs, Sonic logs afso show the difference between organic-lean sedments and source rocks. Sonic logs afone cannot be used to estimate the organic content of source rocks because interval transit time is affected by the water/organic matter ratio, mineral composition, carbonate/clay content and grain-to-grain pressure.

Figures 1 and 2 show the interval transit time curves for the two wells. Source rocks can be identified by their transit times longer than those of non-source rocks. Source rocks with immature organic material have longer transit times than source rocks with mature organic material.



Neutron log porosity responses are higher in source rocks than in non-source rocks as displayed in F@rres 1 and 2. They show the neutron porosity curves for two of the wells studied.






Thermal evolution of the source rocks during diagenesis, catagenesis and mutagenesis changed physical and chemical properties of the organic matter? These properties may be considered as indicators for maturation.. Well. log data contain much information about geophysical and geochemical properties of rocks. Therefore, the correlation of well logs with geochemical analysis data from cores can be the basis for a continuous evaluation of the level of maturation of source rocks.


In looking at the correlation between several log variables and TOC content the study found that the relationships between different log responses and the TOC content are dissimilar in the wells studied. This is due, mainly, to the fact that source rocks from these four wells are not at the same stage of maturation. It is thus necessary to classify source rocks and to establish separate mathematicrd modets for source rocks at different stages of maturation to obtain accurate values of TOC content. Figures 7 and 8 are density - TOC cross-plots for the four wells and for the three distinct categories plotted individually. Figure 7 shows that the relationships between TOC and the density log response is different for each of the four wells. By using the same equation to determine TOC for afl four wells, the error in the results is high [SE=l.3 183]. Figure 8 indicates the relationships between TOC content and the density log. responses for each d~tinct category in each of the four welfs attrdled. The accuracy by using this grouping method into categories is significantly h@her [SE=O.8841].



... ,.


Four cross-plots were established to study the maturity of the organic matter in source rock They are: -01 [Oxygen Index] - HI. [Hydrogen Index] cross-plot -TOC [Total Organic Carbon] - S,+S2 [Production Potential] cross-plot -TOC [Total Organic Carbon] - PI [Production Index] cross-plot, and -TOC [Total Organic Carbon]- 01 [Oxy~en Index] cross-plot. Figure 3 represents the 01-HI cross-plot for the four wells. It can be used to study the maturity of organic matter in source rocks in thk area. Temperature and pressure variations are responsible for the maturation of organic matter. This process tends to decrease the values of both HI and 01. The maturity of source rocks in well C is shown to be relatively higher than that of source rocks in wells A and B. Source rocks in well B appear to be more mature than those in well A. Source rocks in well D stand out as being much less mature. Figure 4 indicates that well D has higher values of TOC and 01 than the other wells. Figure 5 shows this same relative. maturity development and that well D has higher values of TOC and of [S1+S21. Figure ISindicates that the PI values in the Velkern Formation in well D are lower than in the other wells. PI is an indicator of maturity. Baaed on the above cross-plot analysis and core data it is apparent that the organic matter in well D is basically immature, while the organic matter in wells A, B and C is mature. It also aPPears that the maturity of the organic matter in the source rocks of wells C, B and A goes from higher to lower, in ttds order. ThK, was born out by geochemical anatyais. The results of the work described above confirmed that it was correct to divide the Upper and Middle VeIkerri into three categories non-source rocks, mature source rocks and immature source rocks. The relative well log responses for these three categories can be spelled out as follows

1] for non-source rocks lowest gamma ray values lowest resiativities highest bulk den@ies. lowest interval transit times lowest neutron porosities . .,


2] for sourcefocks with mature orgariic matter highest gamma-ray values highest resistivities highest neutron poroaities medium range intervat transit times

3] for source rocks with immature organic mattec lowest bulk densities highest interval transit times lower resistivities than in mature source rocks higher gamma- ray vahres than in non-source rocks


Bayes discriminant analysis was applied in order to attempt to dkcnminate among the three rock categories. For this purpose the responses read from the Gamma-Ray, Resistivity, Sonic, Formation Density, and Neutron logs were used. The Bayes discriminant function Fi(x) is derived from Bayes discriminant rules.

i(x) n(q) W+z CHX

i=l, 2, .... G;

where x=(x], x?,....x.} a sample for discriminant analysis v -~number of variables G -. number of categories (G=3) q=ni~ N - tobl riiirnber of samples ni- totaf number of ith category samples cOi, ~- discriminant factor


Dkcriminant factors were then determined. They are expressed in matrix form as follows

5.566 -7.035 1.511

118.842 116.943 108.438

2450,405 2481,073 2334.586

2784.091 2777.143 2824.507

-17,305 -17,052 -17.890

-9346.955 -9324.804 -9183.656

The discriminant method requires that a sample X = (x,, x,, .... x.) for discriminant analysis be entered into the above discriminant functions to calculate function values. If Fl(x) = MAX { Fj(x)} j =.1, 2, .... G

Sample X belongs to the ith category. The correct discriminant ratio is close to 95% for both source rocks with mature organic matter and source rocks with immature organic matter, It is 85% for non-source rocks.



Totaf organic cmbon is an important parameter in the evaluation of source rocks. Based on geochemical characteristics in the Upper and Middle Velkern Formation, a technique was developed to estimate the amountof TOCfrom well logs.Atotalof228 sampIeswithTOC anafysis results from wells A, B, C and D were used in thk study.


of the log variable

Correlation anafysis was used in the selection of log variable to estimate TOC, Correlation anafysis is a mathematical method to study correlation between variables. The correlation coefficient [R] is described as follows.


=d%-=iE_ . .. .




xi - ith sample value of the x variable x -ith sample v~ue of the y variable N - totat number of samples

Two variables are more- linearly correlatable the closer the value of R to 1 or -1. In this study correlation is used to look at the relationships between log variables and the geochemiczd parameters, and to evaluate the results of log analysis. Table 1 gives the vahres of R[correlation coefficient] for TOC and log variables or log transform variables. Theresults of the correlation may help in the proper selection of log variables to estimate TOC. It also shows that the correlation of TOC with formation density, sonic transit time and neutron porosity is good for each well; that values of gamma-ray, formation resistivity and interval transit time increase with increases irr TOC and that values of formation density decrease with increases in TOC. 1
Study of the Model

The correlation analysis between log responses and core datu armlysis rcsulls for TOC in the Velkerri Formation on wells A, B, C and D shows that the Formation Density log has the highest correlation coefficient [Table 1]. The Formation Density log was, therefore, selected to estimate the TOC content. Four forrtis of presentation were considered for the bulkdensity of the formation (ph), for correlation and error analysis p, - linear ! Iog( p~) - logarithmic exp( p~) - exponential, and 1/ p~ - reciprocal -9-








0.04160 0.02961 0.00235 0.09675

0.51435 -0.38581 0.44968 0.38653

0.64851 -0.63686 0.64270 0.68191

0.61560 -0.62890 0.62638 0.10024

0.04090 -0.01512 0.02511 0.06815


0.79916 -0.79983 0.85250 0.15808

0.77246 -0.60691 0.73304 0.3325.1

0.83713 -0.87572 0.87001 0.31046

0.70132 -0.74331 0.74434 0.36231

0.50237 -0.49805 0.53271 0.08800


-0.84590 0.84676 -0.84632 -0.84334

-0.72338 0.72679 -0.72518 -0.71795

-0.86197. 0.87167 -0.86692 -0.84835.

-0.83394 0.83523 -0.83465 -0.S3 172

-0.79915 0.80120 -0.80041 -0.79416


0.41247 -0.40481 0.40884 0.25143

0.61719 -0.60883 0.61337 0.25218

0.65409 -0.65562 0.65498 0.25573

0.74260 -0.74884 0.74656 0.34887

0.62933. -0.60593. 0.61860 0.30130


-0.13278 0.13026 -0.13246 0.06226

0.66114 -0.63235 0.64887 0.22816

-0.11195 -0.00185. -0.05509 -0.25144

0.72213 -0.51604 0.67427 0.37239

0.09069 0.00786 0.04484 0.24428

Error analysis is used to determine the form of log variable. Standard error [SE] was used in this study and it is given as follows:


S (T,-TI=,)

where N - total number of samples TCi -trot [cores] value of the ith sample Ti --Iog derived value of the ith sample

Table 2 shows the rrsrslts of the error analysis

Table 2- standard error for TOC content

Pb SE 1.3533 .

log (p,) 1.3495



llpb 1.3.471


The results of both correlation and error analysis indicate that the reciprocal mode of RHOB, [p,], gives the best answer in regards to correlation coefficient and standard error. It is assumed that he sortrce rock is composed of two parts pure shale and organic matter, and that the Formation Density log response follows the volumetric model so thsi~




or where:

VOX = ( pb -

p* )/(por-p,h)

P, - the density of the source rock P,, - the density of pure shale Pw - the density of the organic matter v,h - the fraction~ volume of pure shale, and v., - the fractional volume of the organic matter.

The weight percentage of organic matter, POW, is described w

po)pb Pow = 100 Vo,

TOC is assumed to be related directly to POW9so that TOC = k POW = k 100 VO#Ojp, = a +b lp~ where
! a =-k 100 pO,/(p,~ -pO,)

b = k 100 pi poj( p,, -Per) k= factor Based on the above analysis results the reciprocal form of p~is taken as the interpretative model to estimate the TOC content from the FormationDensity log.



for the model



the whole


into one category

Regression analysis is used to obtain a regression equation. The equation for calculating TOC from the Formation Density log is TOC = -42.97115+114.18641p, The correlation coefficient [R]= 0.801189. The standard error [SE] = 1.347122.

Equations categories

for the model



the interval

into three


Based on the analysis done a reciprocal model of density is used in the regression for each category. The results of the regression arfx


- for.. source rocks with mature organic rrmttex TOC=-26.6694+76.36593/pb - for source rocks with immature organic matter TOC = -77.6585+194.1856/pb - for non-source rocks: 1OC = -l Mii+31.5691pb _



A total of 228 samples with core data from wells A, B, C and D were studied by both methods mentioned above. The correlation coefficient [R] and standard error [SE] between the TOC content from ~e model of grouping the whole interval into one category and the TOC content from core data a& respectively 0.8841 and 1.3183.,The correlation coefficient and standard error TOC from the model of grouping the interval studied into three distinct categories are, respectively, 0.9167 and 0.8012. Table 3 gives the two resrdts determined from the Formation Density logs of five welL$in the area, includhg the four wells in the pilot area. One of themis for the model of grouping the whole interval into one category; the other is for the model of grouping the interval studied into three distinct categories. The regression equations were derived from core and log data from the four wells.


TabIe 3- comparison of results


The four welts of the pilot area 0.801 0.917 1.318 0.884

R[l] R [3] SE [1] SE [3]

0.847 0.885 1.184 0.909

0.727 0.862 1.418 0.942

0.872 0.910 1.076 0.756

0.835 0.874 2.216 1.485.

0.602 0.789 1.257 0.961

[1] = model which groups the whole interval into one category [3]= model which groups the interval studiecI into three distinct categories Table 3 shows that the results determined from model [3] have higher correlation coefficient -13-

vahres and lower standard error values than those from model [1] Flgtrres 9 and 10 compare the results for two wells in the pilot area. F&gure9 shows that in the upper shale interval, from 390 metres to 610 metres, the results obtained from both models are identical to the TOC content values measured on cor~. In the interv~ from 66o metres to 720 metres and in the interval from 910 metres to 940 mitres the TOC values obtained fromlogs are lower than those measured on corex however, the error in the results from model [3] is less than that from model [1]. Figure 10 indicates that in the inteival from 340 metres to 416 metres the TOC vahres obtained from model [1] are too low and have a higher error and that the TOC values obtained from model [3] tie very close to the TOC values measured on cores.



1.- Well logs can be used with reliable results to evaluate source rocks and to estimate their TOC content irr the area studied in the McArthur Basin. The area comprises wells A, B, C and D. The model was also veritled on a well outside of the pilot area [well E].

2.- A model of grouping the interval studied into three distinct categories: source rocks with mature organic matter, source rocks with immature organic matter and non-source rocks has shown to provide good results in the estimate of TOC content from conventional well logs. 3.- The Formation Density log is superior to other standard well logs in assessing values of TOC conteut in the givenenvironment. 4.- The reciprocal mode of the Formation Density log variable is used with preference over other modes linear, logarithmic and exponential, for an estimate of TOC content. 5.-The organic material in well C appears to be the most mature, followed by well B and well A in stage of maturity. The source rock in well D appears to be immature. These conclusions are in agreement with the results of the geochemical analysis of well samples.


The authors wish to express their appreciation for the assistance of CRA Limited and Pacific OX1 and Gas Pty LtdLimited which provided the well data as well as to personnel from the Centre for Petroleum Engineering of the University of New South Wales who assisted during the work carried out for the development of the project



1- A Practical Model for Organic Richness from Porosity and Resiativity Logs Passey Q.R., Creaney S., Kulla J.B., Moretti, F.J., Stroud J.D.- AAPG Bulletin, V.74, No.12, 1990 2- Oil Generation Inferred from Formation Resistivity- Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dikota Schrnoker J.W., Hester T.C -SPWLA 30ttr Ann. Logg. Symposium, 1989 3- Well Log Evaluation of Lacystrine Sour% Rocks of the Jjagoa .Feia Formation, Lower Cretaceous, Carnpos Basin, Offshore Brazik Abrahao,D.- SPWLA 30th Annual Logg, Symposium, 1989 4- Total Organic Carbon Content Determined from Well Logs Feral W.H., Chllingar C.V.SPE .15612, ~986 .= ..: 5- A Preliminary Assessment of the Application of various Geophysical Techniques to Oil Shale Resource Evaluation: Coshell L., McIver R., Fraser N.,[Unpublished] 6- Identification of Source Rocks on Wireline Logs by Density/Resistivity and Sonic Transit Time/Resistivity Cross-plots Meter B.L.,Nederlof M.H - AAPG Bulletin Vol 68, No 2, 1984 7- Determination of Organic-Matter Content of Appafachlan Devonian Shales from Gamma Ray Logs: Schmoker J.W.- AAPG Bulletin, Vol 65, 1981 8- Determination of Organic Content of Appalachian Devonian Shales from Formation Density Logs: J.W. Schriroker - AAPG Bulletin 63, 1979 9- Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Springer Verlag, 1978





y _







17 .. ___ ._.

- 17


20 0

7.(J 4(J60 ~~ Km 1 , I3X

I 13<





I [%11 300 . ~



- Well

Upperand Middle Velkerri

Resistivity [ohm.m]

Neutron Porosity ro~,

20 -m


100 Iwo I10


400 .






1 I





Log Curves

- Well

D Middle Velkerri


. .. ,:~. .. .. . .

i 700 600

01 and 3iX crossplot

__.., _.. _,:


e @ + p * ~ WELL D



+ WELL C e 300

g :

100 o 0

+ 20 40 01 [mg C02/g 60 80 100

org. C]


TOC ana 01 Crossplot ,...


1= I rll14




10 0 0.1



TOC [wt, %] ..-- ..-- ,, . ,..5., ., . . .. . . . . . . . .=.; .

,:2 ~,:,, ,:. ,- .

... ..-

sp~2762 7



., .,,...

. ..


, :,..


., . . .

EE3 . ..1-1TOC

and s1+S2
_. . ,.

_ Crossplot ._.., ]: .:.

~.==.. - ,,. . ......... ... . ...... @

e e e O@@







TOC [wt, %]

.,.. -.,.. .. TOC lEm .. .-=..=. _....l

0.6 0.5


anu PI Crossplot ,...



. . ..


0.1 0 0.1

1 TOC[wt,%]






- TOC Crossplot









DENSllY[g/cc] .-. ... ..FIGURE 8 .12


. .. ..-=. ..-<. ,.. =. . . . . .. _ Density and TOC crossplot











Density [g/cc] . . ..a. ..F. ,,. , . . .. . .. . .




TOC front Density

Log - Well


R=O.847, SE= I.IS4

300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

DEPTH [metres]
. ..

FIGURE 10 10 ,
8 g

TOC fxont Density

Log - Well


. . . . . . . u l-l


three categories. R= O.789,SE=0.9SI

. =0602sE=1267 LLLLl


g4 12 0








DEPTH [metres]